Apple variety Moscow necklace: characteristics and features of cultivation
Colon-shaped apple trees differ from ordinary trees in an unusual straight crown and the absence of long side shoots, but at the same time they give a good harvest of sweet fruits. One of the best varieties of this type of culture is the Moscow necklace apple tree, which has high yields and a decorative appearance. A detailed description of the variety, its strengths and weaknesses, as well as the rules for planting and growing trees - further in the article.
Description and characteristics of the variety
The author of this variety of colon-shaped apple trees is the Russian breeder M.V. Kachalkin. Another name for this variety of fruit trees is X-2. It was invented by the author himself, but later it was replaced by a more beautiful and harmonious name - the Moscow necklace. The apple tree has a decorative appearance and gives a generous harvest of delicious fruits. A more detailed description of the variety is described later in the article.
The variety is considered quite frost-resistant, with good immunity to various diseases.
The Moscow necklace variety is winter and can be grown in various regions with a temperate climate, as well as in Siberia. It has several characteristic unique features that distinguish it from apple trees of other varieties.
Did you know? The total area of apple orchards on the planet is about 5 million hectares.
The main features of this culture are:
- strong trunk withstands the weight of numerous fruits, despite the small thickness;
- the columnar shape of the tree allows you to compactly place the fruit crop on the site;
- about 5% pectin and up to 10% sugar are present in the fruit, which makes apples not only tasty, but also very beneficial for the body;
- the first fruits ripen the very next year after planting a seedling;
- the possibility of transplanting the tree to another place thanks to the hardy root system.
Apple-tree Moscow necklace belongs to semi-dwarf fruit crops, therefore it does not require a lot of free space. But despite the small height, the tree is a real decoration of the site and looks quite unusual.
The main characteristics of the tree and a description of its size are presented below:
- a seedling that has reached the age of one year has a height of 80 cm;
- the height of an adult apple tree is about 2-3 m;
- the culture has the appearance of a column strewn with numerous fruits;
- the trunk is small and covered with brown bark;
- the underground part of the apple tree consists of many elastic roots - they adapt well to various types of soil.
Colon-shaped apple-tree Moscow necklace has a compact crown, which looks very neat. The location of branches and leaves on a tree trunk provides direct access of light to all fruits, and also greatly facilitates crop care and harvesting.
Description of the crown of the apple tree is presented below:
- skeletal branches are short and covered with brown bark, and young shoots are painted green;
- all side shoots grow vertically upwards and are densely covered with dark green leaves;
- the shape of the leaf plate resembles an ellipse, and its tip is pointed;
- the crown is very dense and located along the trunk, but in width it takes up a minimum of space and does not impede access to apples.
The flowering period of representatives of this variety falls at the beginning of May.Young seedlings bloom in the first year after planting and are covered with large flat flowers with pink-white petals.
To obtain a generous harvest of fruits, other varieties of apple trees that bloom in the same period are always planted next to the Moscow necklace variety. This is necessary for the implementation of cross-pollination and the formation of ovaries, since trees of this species do not belong to self-fruiting. The best pollinators for the variety are considered to be the columnar apple trees President and Vasyugan.
Important! In order to additionally attract pollinating insects to the apple orchard, it is recommended to spray the buds of the apple tree with sweet sugar syrup before flowering.
Many gardeners choose the Moscow necklace variety because of the high yield of trees. By the time the fruits ripen, the trunk and branches of the apple tree are covered with large and sweet fruits, which have excellent commodity characteristics.
A description of the fruiting and yield of the variety is presented below:
- the first apples ripen the next year after planting a seedling;
- the tree bears fruit regularly;
- from an adult apple tree, you can get up to 10 kg of ripe fruit;
- peak yield falls on 4-6 year of cultivation;
- the average weight of one fetus is 170–250 g;
- outside, ripe fruits are covered with a thin but dense dark red peel with a slight glossy sheen;
- apples are large and spherical in shape;
- abundant fruiting continues until the tree reaches the age of 10-12 years, and 15 years after planting, it almost completely stops.
In addition to their attractive appearance, Moscow Necklace apples have an excellent dessert flavor. In ripe fruits, there are many substances useful to the human body. In total, 100 g of apple pulp contains about 3.6 mg of vitamin C, which has a beneficial effect on the immune system and overall body tone.Description of the taste of the fruits of this variety is presented below:
- apple pulp has a fine-grained and dense structure;
- the inside of the fetus is painted white or cream and saturated with juice;
- ripe fruits are sweet in taste, have a sour finish and exude a light aroma.
Winter hardiness and disease resistance
Apple-tree Moscow necklace is characterized by increased resistance to frost and disease. Due to these qualities, trees do not require specific conditions for growing, and they can be planted even in northern regions with very cold winters.
Did you know? Kazakhstan is considered the birthplace of apples, and the name of the city of Almaty is translated from the Kazakh language as “Father of apples”.
The main characteristics of the resistance of the variety to frost, disease and pests are listed below:
- adult apple trees can successfully overwinter even at a temperature of -42 ° C;
- in the absence of abundant snow cover during severe frosts, the top of the tree may freeze and then die off;
- the variety is almost never affected by scab and pests, which eliminates the use of chemicals for treatment and makes apples environmentally friendly;
- the trunk of young seedlings that have not reached the age of 3-4 years is recommended for winter to be wrapped with ruberoid or lapnik to protect against icing and rodents.
Video: Apple tree Moscow necklace
The total life span of a columnar apple tree Moscow necklace is about 25 years. But after reaching the age of 15 years, the tree ceases to bear fruit. It can be left on the site as a decorative decoration, but many gardeners advise simply to uproot the old apple tree and plant a new seedling in its place.
Advantages and disadvantages of this variety of apple trees
After analyzing the above characteristics of the variety, one can identify a number of advantages, thanks to which many gardeners grow the Moscow necklace in their areas.
- The main advantages of the variety include:
- attractive decorative appearance and compact size of trees;
- high productivity;
- excellent marketability and taste of apples;
- unpretentiousness to climate conditions;
- abundant and constant bearing, starting at an early age;
- simplicity of tree care;
- high winter hardiness;
- universal use of fruits - fresh, for making jam, desserts and juices;
- good keeping and transportability of ripe apples;
- resistant immunity to diseases and pests.
This variety has several disadvantages, but they are insignificant compared to the number of advantages of the culture.
- The main disadvantages of apple Moscow necklace are:
- the high cost of seedlings;
- a relatively short fruiting period;
- the tendency of ripe fruits to crack when falling from a tree.
Features of the planting of young seedlings and further care
You can grow a Moscow-shaped column-shaped apple tree from seedlings bought in a specialty store.
Important! When buying planting material, you need to choose strong and healthy-looking annual trees with elastic roots and a smooth trunk.
The landing procedure includes standard actions, but should be carried out at a certain time. After successfully rooting the apple tree in the soil, caring for it mainly comes down to proper watering, fertilizing and timely pruning. It is equally important to protect the crop from diseases and insects that can damage the crop. In more detail about planting and cultivating varieties - later in the article.
Saplings of apple trees of this variety can be planted on the site in spring or autumnbut when planted in late March or early April, they can bloom in the same spring, which will significantly deplete the young tree. Therefore, experienced gardeners are advised to plant seedlings of the Moscow necklace in the fall, in the interval from late September to early October. In this case, the tree will have time to take root in the soil before the onset of cold weather, and by spring it will grow strong enough for the first flowering and fruiting.
Video: Apple tree planting instructions
In order for the columnar apple tree to successfully root in the soil and subsequently regularly please with an abundant fruit crop, it is necessary to grow it in a correctly selected area.
Did you know? On the territory of Kievan Rus, the first apple orchard was founded in 1051 near the Kiev Pechersk Lavra.
- good sun exposure - the size of the fruits, their sugar content and the rate of ripening of the crop depend on this factor;
- breathable and nutritious soil - the apple tree needs fertile soil for high productivity, and its roots need air access;
- neutral soil acidity - for the cultivation of this variety suitable loamy and sandy loam soils, as well as black earth;
- protection against drafts and cold wind - this will allow the fruit tree to tolerate wintering well and prevent the emergence of diseases;
- groundwater location at a distance of at least 2 m from the soil surface - with an excess of moisture in the soil, the underground part of the apple tree will rot.
Planting seedlings is carried out in planting pits, which begin to cook in a few months. At the same time, the width and length of the recess should be about 90 cm, and the depth should be at least 50 cm. To prepare a nutritious soil mixture, part of the land obtained by digging a planting pit is mixed with fertilizers such as:
- humus - 10 l;
- compost - 3 kg;
- superphosphate - 70 g;
- potassium salts - 60 g.
Step-by-step instructions for planting the variety are presented below:
- A few hours before planting in the soil, lower the roots of the seedling in a container with water so that they are saturated with moisture.
- Put splinters of broken brick, gravel or crushed stone at the bottom of the landing pit - these materials will serve as a drainage layer for the roots of the tree.
- To form a small hill on the drainage from a pre-prepared nutritious soil mixture. Next to it drive a vertical wooden support with a height of about 1 m to garter a seedling.
- Place the roots of the tree in the planting pit and gently spread them on the surface of the mound. The root neck, in this case, should be above ground level.
- Fill the landing pit with the remaining earth to the very top. Tamp the soil around the trunk, and then tie the sapling to the support for greater stability.
- Sprinkle 10–20 L of warm water on the apple tree. After all the moisture is absorbed, the earth around the tree is mulched with peat, needles or straw.
Fig. 1 - planting process, Fig. 2 - correctly planted seedling
The distance between the apple trees
Due to their attractive appearance and compact crown, columnar apple trees are often planted in rows. At the same time, they form a real hedge consisting of straight trees densely covered with dense green mass and ripe fruits.
In order for the apple trees to have enough space for growth, the distance between the rows should be about 1.2–1.3 m. In each row, trees are planted no less than 50–60 cm from each other.
Placement of columnar apple trees on the site
A sufficient amount of moisture in the soil is one of the most important conditions for the rapid growth of a young seedling and the abundant fruiting of an adult apple tree. The Moscow necklace variety requires regular soil moisture.
Important! It is not recommended to loosen the soil around the apple tree. Moscow necklace - this procedure can damage the roots located close to the soil surface.
The basic rules for watering this fruit crop are listed below:
- a young seedling is watered within two months after planting as the soil dries around the trunk;
- the apple tree can only be irrigated with warm water - cold liquid negatively affects the root system and can cause diseases;
- the frequency of watering the tree depends on weather conditions - during the absence of rain, the tree trunk is irrigated with water every 3-4 days;
- strong drying of the soil around the trunk should not be allowed, but it should not become too sour - this variety does not respond well to a prolonged lack or excess of moisture;
- once every 14-16 days it is recommended to arrange a wet shower for the crown of the apple tree.
The system of drip irrigation of colon-shaped apple trees
Productivity varieties Moscow necklace increases with regular fertilizer application. Saturation of the soil with essential nutrients for the tree positively affects the size and taste of the fruit, and also strengthens the immunity of the apple tree and prevents the appearance of diseases.
Feeding trees of this type is necessary according to the following rules:
- the first time the fruit crop is fertilized in the second year after planting;
- in early spring, urea must be introduced into the soil around the apple tree (about 20 g per 1 m²) - this procedure is carried out during the spring digging of the trunk circle and saturates the soil with nitrogen;
- in May, after flowering is completed, the tree is watered with an aqueous solution of rotted manure;
- in the first half of June, wood ash is scattered around the tree trunk (200 g per 1 m²);
- in the autumn, after harvesting, dolomite flour (200 g per tree) and humus (5 kg per each specimen) are added to the earth around the apple tree, introducing them during the autumn digging of the tree trunk.
Thanks to the compact size of the crown, the Moscow-shaped necklace apple tree requires virtually no pruning. But during the autumn planting of a seedling in a region with a harsh winter, its top may freeze, so it is recommended to cut it to the level of the first strong shoot immediately after planting. In the future, it is necessary to carry out minimal trimming of the crown in order to preserve the decorative appearance of the tree.The rules for this procedure are listed below:
- healthy branches can be cut only in the early spring, before the sap flow;
- when the main conductor freezes, it dies, so in this case of all the upper branches 15–20 cm long, you need to leave only one most powerful one - it will be the new conductor;
- annually it is necessary to shorten the growth of side branches, leaving 2 buds on them;
- in the autumn they carry out sanitary pruning - for this, weak, dried and damaged branches are removed;
- pruning is carried out using a sharp secateurs, and the sections are carefully treated with linseed oil.
When implementing the above recommendations for planting and care, the variety is very rarely exposed to diseases and pests, but under certain conditions the trees can still get sick. In order to detect the problem in time and immediately begin treatment, the gardener needs to know its main signs and methods of dealing with difficulties.
Important! It is necessary to process the apple tree with special chemicals no later than 20 days before the planned harvest.
A columnar apple tree Moscow necklace can suffer from such diseases and pests:
- Brown spotting. The source of infection is a fungus that hibernates in the upper layers of the soil. When this disease is affected, the leaves of the tree are covered with small brown or yellow spots with a dark border. Over time, they become gray and fill the entire sheet, causing it to dry and die. For treatment from an apple tree, you need to remove all infected leaves, and then spray it with fungicides (for example, "Skor").
- Fruit rot (moniliosis). The main signs of this fungal disease are small brown spots on the surface of apples. After a few days, the flesh of the fetus softens, and its outer part acquires a brown color. With further reproduction of the fungal spores, the apple is deformed, decays and turns black. To fight the infection, all the fruits affected by the fungus are removed, and the crown is sprayed with fungicides (for example, Horus).
- Moth. Butterflies appear during the flowering of the apple tree and lay eggs on the leaves, from which the larvae will hatch soon. They eat the ovaries, and in the formed fruits they gnaw through through holes. As a result of this, the fruits begin to rot and are not suitable for use or storage. To get rid of the moth, you need to remove all the affected apples and spray the tree crown with insecticides (for example, “Chlorophos”).
- Aphid. Insects can be seen on the crown of the tree - they form entire colonies on the leaves and feed on their juicy flesh. In this case, a sticky coating appears on the surface of the sheet plate, which later turns black. To treat affected trees, they can be sprayed with an aqueous solution of tobacco and ash or with a solution of insecticides.
- Schlechtendal tick. The pest has small dimensions and a long yellow-brown body, so it is very difficult to notice it. Females lay numerous egg colonies on the leaves, from which, in the future, larvae appear. They destroy the green crown of the apple tree, causing leaf falling and loss of crop. You can fight an insect by spraying the crown with an aqueous solution of garlic and laundry soap, and in case of severe damage - use insecticides (for example, “Karbofos”).
Common preventive measures for these problems include:
- periodic inspection of trees in order to detect signs of damage at an early stage;
- sowing aromatic herbs (calendula, wormwood) between the rows of apple trees - the smell repels pests;
- removal of fallen leaves and last year's plant debris - spores of the fungus and pest larvae can winter on them;
- adhering to the feeding schedule and observing the indicated dosage of fertilizers - this will strengthen the immunity of the tree;
- treatment of the crown with a 5% solution of copper sulfate every 2 weeks - prevents the spread of fungal infections.
Did you know? Apple is officially recognized as the state fruit of New York and Washington.
Harvesting, storage and use
The fruits of a columnar apple tree fully ripen only in the first half of October. So that ripe fruits do not crack during a fall to the ground, they must be removed from the tree by hand and carefully placed in prepared wooden or plastic containers.
Only fruits with a whole peel are suitable for laying for storage, without signs of rot or other damage. The duration of storage of fresh fruits in a dark and cool store with good ventilation is more than 2 months.
Tasty fruits of this variety are used not only in fresh form, but also for the preparation of a variety of goodies:
- jams and preserves;
- baking and desserts;
- dried fruits;
- canned blanks;
- juices and compotes.
The columnar apple tree The Moscow necklace not only brings a rich harvest of delicious fruits to the gardener, but also serves as a decoration for the site, due to its unusual appearance. Using the rules and recommendations listed in this article, you can easily grow this fruit crop yourself.
Network user reviews
ADVANTAGES: Takes up little space on the site, yields fruit the next year.
DISADVANTAGES: Not found.
Rating: Recommend to friends: Yes
Use experience: Several months
One day, on the way to the cottage, we stopped at a small agricultural market last year and saw this apple tree for sale. She liked us very much in appearance, moreover, the seller praised her in every possible way. As a result, we bought this apple tree. The seller was completely right. This year, this apple tree yielded its first fruits. What we liked about this garden tree: Firstly, we don’t have to wait several years to enjoy the first apples. It yields fruit already in the first year after planting. Secondly, it takes up very little space, since it has no lateral branches. The seller said that if we buy several such apple trees, they can be planted at a distance of half a meter from each other. Thirdly, this variety of apples belongs to late autumn, that is, the apples themselves can be stored for 2-3 months, which distinguishes them from summer apples. In general, our whole family is happy with the purchase of this garden tree.