Features of the cultivation of the apple cherished variety
In 1958, scientists from the M.A. Lisavenko (Zhebrovskaya L.Yu., Kornienko T.F., Kalinina I.P., Grankina Z. A.) crossed apple varieties, and as a result, the coveted variety appeared. It became one of the most common varieties in the Siberian region due to frost resistance and high resistance to fungi and insects, and since 1995 it has been included in the State Register. Let's find out more about it.
Botanical description and characteristics of the apple tree
In the process of selection of varieties, Ranetka purpurea and Pepin saffron varieties were crossed, the result was crossed with Belfler-Chinese and Melba. The originator is the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Federal Altai Scientific Center of Agrobiotechnology", which is located in Barnaul.
The Treasured Apple Tree can be described as follows:
- The growing region is Western and Eastern Siberia.
- Average height 2.5 m, occasionally 3.5 m.
- Thickness of the crown is weak, wide spreading, crown spherical.
- The bark is smooth, brown with a dark tint on the branches and brown with a brown tint on the trunk, covered with a small pile.
- The branches are thin, growing almost steeply to the trunk.
- The leaves are oval with a sharp tip, dark green without shine, wrinkled, the middle is concave, the veins are poorly distinguishable.
- The flowers are white, small, the smell is faint.
- Fruits are spherical with a small funnel, grow on short stalks, inside the seed boxes are small brown seeds.
- The color of the apples is white with a red blush over almost the entire surface. There are few subcutaneous points; they are hardly distinguishable.
- Sweet apples with a slight acidity, taste slightly reminiscent of strawberries, almost do not smell. Inside, juicy, crispy, resilient.
Did you know? The oldest apple tree grows in Manhattan - its owner Paul Stuvesant planted a seedling in 1647.
Pros and cons of the coveted variety
- The benefits of the variety include:
- frost resistance;
- slightly thickened crown protecting from scab;
- good yield;
- the ability of the crop to be stored for a long time;
- the ability to transport fruit;
- pleasant taste of apples;
- beautiful appearance of fruits;
- simultaneous ripening;
- annual ripening of the crop;
- various crop applications;
- quickly begins to bear fruit.
- The disadvantages of this variety include:
- inability to withstand frosts above -40 ° C;
- with age, apples grow smaller.
In order for the apple crop of this variety to be richer, other varieties for pollination are planted nearby: Firebird, Altai Rumyanoe, Altai Bagryanoye.
Harvest of this variety is harvested in the second half of September. One tree can produce up to 75 kg of apples with an average size of about 60 g. In young trees, the fruits are larger, can be up to 70 g, mature in smaller ones, the average weight becomes about 40 g. These apple trees give a crop every year.
Important! In the process of testing, which was carried out by the scientists of the Center at the Kulunda GSU in the Altai Territory for 6 years, the yield was at the level of 107 centners per 1 ha.
Rules for planting and caring for an apple tree
The coveted variety is characterized by the following features in planting and courtship:
- In cold regions, seedlings cannot tolerate autumn planting and die, therefore, they are planted only in spring.
- A tree is wrapped around a trunk.
The choice of seedlings for planting
A seedling that meets the quality requirements should not have:
- dry roots;
- damaged bark;
- signs of disease.
You can buy seedlings only from well-known sellers.
Choosing the right place to land
The following requirements are imposed on the place for planting a tree of the Treasured variety:
- low groundwater level (not less than 1.5 m);
- protection from the wind;
- sun access;
- lack of likelihood of flooding;
- the presence of chernozem, sandy loam or loamy soil;
- snow accumulation in winter.
Important! Sawdust cannot be used to mulch the soil around Cherished, because of them the soil will become too wet and the tree will die.
To plant the coveted apple, you must:
- In autumn, select a landing site and prepare a pit 0.6 × 0.6 m in size. Pour drainage and a mixture of manure, complex mineral fertilizers and topsoil into the pit, filling 1/3.
- In the spring, when the air temperature reaches + 8 ° C, start planting, pour water into the pit.
- Insert the support.
- Hold the roots of the seedling for several hours in water.
- Lower the seedling into the pit, spread the roots.
- Sprinkle with earth, leaving at least 5 cm of the root neck on the surface.
- Tamp the ground, along the perimeter of the pit make a shallow ditch, into which pour 2 buckets of water.
- Tie a seedling to a support.
- Mulch the ground around a planted tree.
Watering and fertilizer
To water an adult apple tree, about 100 liters of water are needed, it is poured into a ditch around the tree in the spring when awakening occurs, and in autumn when the leaves fall. In summer, watering is carried out only during a drought. For watering seedlings, you need about 20 liters of water 1 time per week.
Fertilizer is applied twice:
- In the fall they fertilize with manure.
- In the spring they are fertilized with complex mineral fertilizers.
Formative pruning of trees of the Zavetnoe variety is carried out in the spring, forming a crown in the form of a bush and leaving a stump 30–50 cm high. At the same time, it is important not to touch horizontally growing branches, since the largest number of apples grows on them. Sanitary pruning is carried out in autumn and spring, cutting old, incorrectly growing and diseased branches.
Whitewashing of the trunk of the apple tree protects against gnawing animals, harmful insects and sunburn.
Winter preparations include autumn pruning, top dressing, watering and warming trees. The trunk of the tree is wrapped with roofing material, coniferous branches or agrofibre - this is not only protection against frost, but also will not allow rodents to damage the bark.
Did you know? In Celtic, paradise is denoted by the word «avalon», which translates as "country of apples."
Diseases and Pests
A dangerous disease for this variety is scab - a fungal disease that affects the leaves and fruits of the apple tree. To protect against it, a solution of 700 g of urea and 50 g of copper sulfate in 10 l of water is used. For treatment, Ditan M-45, Topaz, Horus, Rubigan, Skor, Medea are used.
To control pests, the following methods are recommended:
- Moth, mining moth, fruit sapwood, silkworm, hawthorn - birds can help in the fight against them, for this they are attracted by the arrangement of feeders. You can use chemicals: copper sulfate, Bordeaux liquid, vitriol, preparations of Intavir, Kinmix, Decis, Fury, Actellik or Chorus, they spray the tree before and after flowering.
- Mice - protect them from wrapping the trunk for the winter, whitewashing, traps, Bacterodentzid, Ratibor.
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting is possible already from a 4-year-old apple tree, this happens in late September. However, in warmer regions, apples can ripen in late August. Fruits in this tree for 5 years, but if you actively care for it, you can harvest up to 10 years.
You can store apples up to six months in the cold. They are used in different ways: someone prefers to eat raw, some cook stewed fruit, preserves, jam, bake pies with them. Delicious apple juice is obtained from this variety.Thus, the coveted variety is an apple tree that can be grown in regions with a cold climate, if you take care of the spring planting and prepare it for winter.
These are delicious, beautiful apples that ripen in large quantities and can be stored for a long time if the trees are protected in advance from pests and diseases. Thanks to its easy maintenance, it is recommended to grow the variety even for beginners in gardening issues.