Variety of apple tree Arbat: description and detailed description, growing rules
In the world there are several thousand varieties of apple trees that differ in maturity, growth regions, quality of fruits, size of trees. One of the first undersized varieties of these fruit trees is the Arbat variety, characterized by compactness, resistance to disease, and high fruiting. You can get acquainted with the apple tree in more detail later in the article.
Botanical description and characteristics of the colonized apple tree Arbat
The columnar apple-tree Arbat arose as a result of the crossing of two donor forms at the All-Russian Institute of Horticulture and Nursery in 1984. This variety has not been entered in the State Register.
Important! Arbat apples do not tolerate long shipments.
But despite this, it is very popular among amateur gardeners, where it is grown to this day. It is used for breeding apple trees, which are small in size and have a crown in the form of a column.
Appearance of the tree and description of the fruit
Arbat apple trees are characterized by the fact that their main trunk has no lateral branches and grows in the form of a column, therefore they require little space during their development and are very convenient for harvesting.
In height, they can reach from 1.5 m to 2.5 m, each year growing by 15–20 cm, and in width - 40–50 cm. Dark green matte leaves densely cover the trunk.
The main stem is covered with shortened growths ending in flower buds, on which apples ripen after flowering.
The flowers are pale pink, small in size.
Fruits weighing 100-120 g, dark cherry color with a glossy sheen, have a rounded-elongated shape, exude a rich aroma. The pulp is dairy, juicy, fine-grained, sweet-sour.
Plus grade qualities
- The positive qualities of the Arbat variety include:
- small size - for 1 tree, 0.5 m² of land is enough;
- early maturity - the fruits ripen in the first year after planting;
- annual fruiting;
- high productivity;
- immunity to underlying diseases;
- beautiful appearance of apples;
- good tolerance of frost (up to -40 ° C) and drought;
- diverse use in cooking;
- the life expectancy of trees is 14-17 years, which can be increased by taking the necessary measures to trim the crown;
- not picky about care.
Did you know? Apples contain malic acid, which helps dissolve gallstones.
The timing of flowering and fruiting
The flowering period of Arbat varieties lasts 10 days. The first fruits from the apple tree can be obtained in the first year. But trees begin to bear fruit actively from the age of 5, giving up to 20 kg from one apple tree.reading this factor, it is necessary to ensure that the plant is not overloaded and normalize the yield. The fruits ripen in late August - early September. Apple-tree Arbat needs pollinators, which include the varieties Ostankino, Bolero, Ruslan, Teleimon.
Features of planting and care for the apple tree
Planting seedlings of apple Arbat can be both in spring and autumn. Experts recommend choosing spring time for planting (before buds open), because the plants quickly take root.
This process consists of the following steps:
- It is necessary to prepare a landing pit in the fall.
- Dig a hole 0.8 m deep and 0.8 m wide.
- At the bottom of the pit, mixed soil is covered with humus, compost, and mineral fertilizers. For the winter it is closed from above.
- Immediately before planting, the roots of the seedling are soaked in water for several hours and pruned a little.
- Strictly vertically drive in a support stake (in a hole) for tying a sapling.
- The tree is evenly placed on the tubercle formed from the fertile mixture and the roots are carefully spread.
- Sprinkle on top of the earth, ram.
- The root neck should be above the ground.
- A moat is made around the trunk, into which 2 buckets of warm, settled water are poured.
- The seedling is tied to a support.
- The near-trunk zone is mulched.
Agricultural Engineering Planting
Agrotechnical actions consist in choosing the right seedlings correctly, choosing the optimal place for planting trees and adhering to the recommended distances between plants. Also, regularly monitor the cleanliness around the trunk, removing weeds and other debris, loosen the soil, which will allow you to supply the roots with air and fight pests in the ground.
The choice of quality planting material
You need to buy planting material from trusted suppliers.
When choosing seedlings, you should pay attention to such features:
- the plant should be without foliage, without damage and signs of decay of the roots (white roots on the cut);
- age - 1 year;
- if you make a slight scratch on the trunk, under the bark there should be a layer of bright green wood.
Important! To obtain larger apples, it is necessary, in part, to manually pick flowers and ovaries.
The best place to land
The best place for the Arbat apple tree is a sunny place, without drafts, on an elevation, with a deep occurrence of groundwater (from 1.5 m deep in the soil). If stagnation of water is still observed at the landing site, drainage must be provided.
The planting scheme for seedlings of the Arbat variety consists in the fact that between the trees you need to leave a distance of about 0.5 m, and between rows - 1.5 m, given the small size of the crown. You can also use the 1 m x 1 m scheme.
Fertilizer and Watering
The first time after planting, you need to water the trees every 3 days. 3-4 young buckets of warm, protected water are poured under the young trees; trees older than 5 years need about 10 buckets of fluid.
Fertilizer can be applied already for 3 years, since the trees until this time use nutrients sprinkled in the planting pit.
In early spring, fertilizing with nitrogen-containing organic fertilizers is carried out: manure or compost (4 buckets to dig in the trunk circle). In June, it is recommended to add nitrogen (150 g per 10 liters of water), phosphorus (250 g per 10 liters of water), potassium (150 g per 10 liters of water).
Autumn dressing is carried out after harvesting with the help of kalimagnesia (20 g per 1 tree), superphosphate (10 g per 1 tree) and other preparations containing potassium and phosphorus.
A very important procedure for the Arbat apple tree is crown formation.
- pruning is carried out at the end of spring by well-sharpened and disinfected garden tools (garden shears, a hand saw, a garden knife);
- in the first year of vegetation, all lateral branches are cut, leaving 2 buds on shortened segments, from which, later on, shoots 20-30 cm long will grow;
- for 2 years, branches located horizontally are removed. Shorten them by 30 cm. Vertical shoots - located near the main trunk, do not touch, apples will form and grow on them next year;
- for 3 years, repeat the previous activities, with the difference that it is necessary to remove the branches that bore fruit last year;
- in the fall, you can only do sanitary pruning, removing dry, diseased and damaged branches.
Although the Arbat apple tree belongs to the frost-resistant varieties, it is still better to cover it for the winter, since the top of the tree can freeze, as a result, the shape of the plant will change. The root system also requires additional protection.For this purpose, you can use hay or straw, covering them with a trunk zone.
Young trees can be covered with burlap or other non-woven covering material. In late autumn, the tree needs to be tied to a support so that it does not break under the influence of strong winds or heavy snowfall. To whiten the trunks with lime mortar and wrap with a fine mesh, thus protecting against small rodents.
Disease Control and Prevention
Arbat, a columnar apple tree, is very convenient to treat against pests or diseases.
This variety is most often affected:
- apple moth, which can destroy most of the crop. In order to prevent a harmful invasion of the codling moth, you need to spray the plant with special preparations: Coragen (0.2 ml per 10 l of water), Lufox (10 ml per 10 l of water working solution), Match (8 ml per 10 l water), etc .;
- apple florist, which hides under the bark of trunks or in leaves, and going outside, eats young foliage and buds. You can fight it with the help of chemicals, such as: Fufanon (5 ml per 5 liters of water), Inta-Ts-M (1 tablet per 10 liters of water).
But most importantly, it is necessary to regularly carry out preventive measures against the occurrence of diseases in trees and pests:
- remove and destroy dry branches, leaves and fallen fruits;
- check the condition of the tree itself for damage;
- in the fall and spring, deeply dig the trunk area;
- timely fertilizer to strengthen the immunity of apple trees .;
- Before budding, spray the trees with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid. You can use iron or copper sulfate for this purpose.
Did you know? US President George Washington loved to prune apple trees in his garden. This process had a calming effect on him.
Harvesting and storage
The fruits of the Arbat apple tree can be harvested starting in late August or early September. This must be done on time, as they quickly crumble. Shelf life is about 3 months. Then the apples begin to rot and lose their taste.
It is best to use a well-ventilated, cool, dry room for storage of the crop, with a temperature of +1 ... + 3 ° C, air humidity of about 50%. Apples should be stored in disinfected cardboard or wooden crates, each layer of fruit, in the process of laying, overloaded with paper.
Arbat apple trees are loved by gardeners because of their decorative appearance, compact shape and delicious apples that can be used universally, as well as ease of care and stable fruiting.