Features of growing and detailed characteristics of pears of the Uralochka variety
The speaking name of the Uralochka pear at the same time testifies to the geographical localization of this variety and its advantages, compared with other pears, in opposing harsh climatic conditions. Read more about this outstanding pear variety in the article below.
Variety breeding history
In 1967, breeders from Chelyabinsk succeeded, by crossing the varieties Severyanka and Ussuriyskaya, to obtain a pear tree, which retained the frost resistance of their parents and somewhat increased the taste of the fruit. Currently, Uralochka is actively cultivated, respectively, in the Urals, as well as in Western Siberia and partially in the Far East. The variety is grown both for commercial purposes and in amateur gardens.
Did you know? Age ga lumbering tree can reach three centuries.
Description and characteristics of wood
First of all, the Uralochka pear is characterized by the average growth of the tree and its excellent frost resistance.
Tree morphology and fruit characterization
The pear tree of this variety grows in height no more than 5 m. Its stem is covered with smooth gray bark, and the shoots are painted in brown color. Medium-sized foliage with a shiny leaf surface framed by serrated edges has a radically green color.
The fruits are small in size, with a classic pear-shaped shape and an average weight of 44 g. They are covered with rough skin, whose yellow-greenish color, when ripe, becomes golden after ripening. Soft, fine-grained and very juicy cream-colored flesh has a sweet and sour taste, which is evaluated by tasters as 4.2 points.
The timing of flowering and fruiting
This pear variety is characterized by early maturity, so that the crop can be harvested already in the 4th year after planting seedlings. Productivity is stable.
The fruits ripen in the second half of September. After reaching the ripening maturity, pears are able to hang on the branches for up to 10 days, and then almost all at once crumble.
To get the crop, Uralochka needs third-party pollinators, among which the most effective are pear varieties:
Productivity and hardiness
A characteristic feature of this variety is its ability to increase productivity annually. Having reached the age of 7, a pear can produce up to 40 kg of fruit. At the same time, Uralochka is able to withstand severe frosts, reaching -48 ° C.
Did you know? It is possible to determine whether a pear fruit is tasty or not, without even trying it. The taste of a pear is directly related to its smell: a pleasant aroma guarantees a good taste, and its absence indicates the unenviable taste of the fruit.
In addition, this pear is resistant not only to winter cold, but also to spring frost, which distinguishes it from other pear varieties. Even if strong spring frosts somehow affected a certain number of flower buds, the tree can still yield up to 20 kg.
Pros and cons of the variety
- The unconditional advantages of this variety include:
- record frost resistance;
- the ability, in contrast to other pear varieties, to withstand spring frosts;
- some shade tolerance, also not characteristic of most varieties of pears;
- stable yield;
- good keeping quality of fruits;
- their excellent transportability;
- universality of the use of fruits;
- ability to resist scab;
- undemanding care.
- The disadvantages of the variety are usually considered:
- small fruit sizes;
- crumbling pears from a tree.
Planting seedlings of this pear variety is practically no different from similar events with other varieties of pear.
Favorable conditions for growing
As already mentioned, Uralochka shows a certain shade tolerance - however, this does not mean that it can be planted completely in the shade. A strong shadow significantly inhibits the flowering of the pear and, therefore, reduces its productivity. For some time, a pear tree of this variety must still remain under the sun.
Preferred soils for growing the variety under discussion are chernozem or forest loam; Do not plant the Uralochka pear variety in sandy or clay soil.
It should also be borne in mind that the pear does not tolerate close occurrence of groundwater and any other stagnant phenomena in the root system with the participation of water.
To grow a good pear tree, you need to take care of acquiring a worthy seedling, which is best done in a specialized nursery. In this case, it is necessary to pay attention to the state of the seedling bark and its root system. A young pear is planted in the spring, before sap flow, or in the fall - a couple of months before the onset of stable cold. Before landing, a pit is prepared in advance.
If spring planting is provided, then the pit must be prepared in the fall; for autumn planting, a pit is prepared a week before this event. A excavation is excavated in the ground with a depth of 100 cm and a diameter of 70 cm. The upper, most fertile layer of excavated soil is mixed with a pair of buckets of ground peat, humus or compost.
Important! It is critical that the stem root is not damaged - otherwise the planted tree is in danger of death.
The resulting mixture is enriched with a small amount of mineral fertilizers in the form of:
- sodium chloride;
- potassium chloride;
- wood ash.
Directly planting a seedling proceeds as follows:
- The prepared soil mixture is poured into the pit by a third.
- In the mound formed, a one and a half meter support is fixed in the form of a wooden stake.
- Then, the roots of the seedling are lowered into the pit, spreading them in the direction of the bottom.
- The roots are covered with the remaining soil mixture so that the root neck of the seedling rises at least 3 cm above the ground.
- After that, the seedling is attached to the support, and the earth is carefully rammed.
- Around the resulting near-stem circle is a 10-centimeter earthen rim for water retention.
- For watering, 3 buckets of standing warm water are taken.
- Then the trunk circle is mulched by means of sawdust, chopped peat or dry humus.
Tree Care Features
Caring for a pear tree of the Uralochka variety is not difficult, but still requires some effort.
Watering and fertilizing wood
Young pear trees require weekly watering, and adult pears are watered monthly. Watering before and after flowering, after the harvest and with the onset of the period of decay of the leaves, is especially relevant for them. Optimum watering is obtained by digging a groove around the stem.
The amount of water is determined by the area of the trunk circle at the rate of 2 buckets per 1 m² of soil. After irrigation to inhibit the evaporation of water, the trunk circle is mulched. The trees planted in the fertilized soil for 1 year do without additional fertilizing, and then they need nitrogen for active growth.
To build green mass, nitrogen is also necessary for adult trees. Organic fertilizers are rich in this element. Feeding from bird droppings, 0.5 kg of which is added to a bucket of water and insist for a week, has proven itself well. Then, the resulting solution is diluted with water in a proportion of 1:10 and watered with a trunk circle.
Organics can be replaced with mineral fertilizers in the form of urea, 200 g of which is diluted in a bucket of water. In addition to its nutritional properties, urea also has the ability to strengthen the plant's immune system.
Following flowering, the pear tree is fed a nitroammophos, which improves the quality of the fruit. During the period of fruit formation, the tree especially requires phosphorus and potassium, which are supplied to the plant with the help of complex mineral fertilizers directly into the soil of the trunk circle, or through foliar top dressing.
Important! Mineral fertilizer pear tree is fed annually, while the introduction of organic fertilizer is enough for 3 years.
Mineral fertilizers, with the exception of nitrogen, feed the pear and throughout October - this is done to enhance the frost resistance of the tree. For this purpose, a mixture of 30 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium chloride per tree is prepared. Adding wood ash to the soil is also beneficial.
- crown strengthening;
- improving the condition of skeletal branches and bark;
- pear rejuvenation;
- better illumination of the ovaries;
- extension of the fruiting period;
- increase in fruit size;
- easier harvesting;
- disease prevention.
Cropping is divided into:
- formative - In young age;
- sanitary - on adult trees;
- anti-aging - on old pears.
Pruning is carried out in the spring before the sap flow begins at a steady temperature of + 5 ° C. Then, from the beginning of June, pincing is carried out, which consists in pinching their tops on young shoots.
In late August and until mid-October, autumn pruning is carried out. Before the onset of frost, the wood on saw cuts and cuts has time to dry, which protects it from freezing.The following rules must be observed during trimming:
- use only well-sharpened and disinfected tools;
- cut the branches into a ring (an annular protrusion at the base), without leaving slowly healing stumps;
- trim a running tree in several stages, without depriving it of total pruning;
- immediately cut the sections and saw cuts with garden varieties, drying oil, oil paints based on it, or paraffin;
- Do not get involved in excessive pruning, remembering that this provokes the appearance of tops.
Diseases of the tree and the fight against them
The pear variety under consideration demonstrates good resistance to the scourge of fruit trees - scab. He also quite successfully resists the attacks of a gall tick. However, under adverse conditions, the tree may suffer from:
- Black Cancer (Antonov fire), which is fought by removing the affected areas with a sharp knife, while capturing part of the healthy tissue and cauterizing the cut site with copper sulfate or a mixture of mullein and clay. If the disease strongly captures the young tree, it is immediately destroyed by burning.
- Moniliosis, which is disposed of by treating the shoots with a solution of copper chloride or Bordeaux liquid.
- Rust, against which spraying is used in spring and autumn with Bordeaux fluid.
- Brown spotting, which manifests itself by the appearance on the leaves of brown spots resembling burns. To combat this disease, HOM or Abiga-Peak preparations are used, as well as the same Bordeaux mixture.
- Gray rot, causing the appearance of large brown spots on the foliage and on the fruits. They fight it with the help of spraying the tree with the preparations “Skor” or “Rayok”.
- Soot fungus, characterized by the appearance on the fruits of black plaque resembling soot. The pest is a pear medunica that provokes the appearance of this fungal disease, so the fight against the disease is to destroy the medunica.
- Powdery Mildew, causing the appearance of white plaque on the leaves, leading to their withering and falling.To combat the disease, Topaz is used.
- Mosaic disease, manifested by a mosaic pattern on the foliage. No treatment for this disease has been found. As a preventive measure, diseased plants are destroyed.
- Cytosporosischaracterized by the formation of brown or red spots on the bark, as well as cracks, as a result of which the tree dries up and dies. As a fight against the disease, the affected branches are immediately cut off and destroyed, and the remaining ones are treated with Bordeaux fluid.
- Bacterial burncausing foliage blackening, softening and cracking of the bark. As an immediate treatment, cutting off the affected areas on the cortex and treating the wounds with copper sulfate or Azofos is used. The treatment of a tree with antibiotics such as Gentomycin, Kanamycin, Streptomycin or Rifampicin is also indicated. A tree severely affected by this disease must be destroyed.
- Root cancercausing growths and papillomas on the roots of a tree. As a prevention of this incurable disease, the disinfection of the root system before planting with a solution of copper sulfate acts. The diseased tree is uprooted and burned.
Harvesting, storage and transportability of the crop
The fruits of the Uralochka pear variety reach mature maturity in the 2nd half of September. After that, they are able to hang on a tree for up to 10 days, and then almost all fall off together. Another feature that makes it necessary to choose the right time for picking pears from a tree is the possibility of freezing of fruits due to early frosts.
The regions where Uralochka is mainly grown are characterized by a cold climate and the early onset of autumn frosts. And if the tree itself copes with them perfectly, this cannot be said about the fruits. At a temperature of -3 ° C they freeze, drastically losing their storage capacity. If the fruits are removed from the branches on time, they are able to be stored for a month, being remarkable for their remarkable transportability.
The pear variety Uralochka is actively cultivated in farm and amateur gardens of the Urals, Western Siberia and partly the Far East. Outstanding frost resistance combined with good yield, high palatability and unpretentious care makes its cultivation in cold regions commercially advantageous for large horticultural farms and attractive for amateurs.