Hoverla pear variety: description and characteristics, features of successful cultivation
Hoverla pear is attractive for its high productivity and ability to adapt to any type of soil, even heavy loam. Read more about the pros and cons of this culture, as well as the rules for growing it - read below.
Breeding History and Variety Breeding Region
A variety was bred at the Lviv Experimental Station in 1962 by Ukrainian breeders Kopan V.P. and Kopan K.M. The ancestors of the culture were the varieties Pamyat Congress and Bere Bosk. Zoned variety throughout Ukraine. In Russia, it takes root pretty well in almost all areas, except for regions where in winter the air temperature drops to -35 ° C and lower.
The considered culture is characterized by high viability of pollen grains, therefore, it is an excellent pollinator for any winter and autumn pear varieties. The plant itself is a self-fertile variety. But to increase the mass of fruits and their sugar content, it is desirable to have such pollinating trees as Kucheryavka, Noyabrskaya, Conference, Krupnoplodnaya at a distance of not more than 30 m.The crown of the tree is very compact, so it is ideal for intensive cultivation in thickened plantings.
Unlike other types of pears, Hoverla perfectly takes root on any type of soil, even with a heavy structure. However, it does not tolerate soils with a high percentage of moisture.
Did you know? According to botanical affiliation, one of the relatives of the pear is a rose.
Advantages and disadvantages
Before you buy a seedling, you need to evaluate its characteristics, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the variety. Guided by this information, it is possible to more correctly build work on the site and timely eliminate deficiencies in tree care.
- Hoverla has a lot of advantages:
- high adaptive ability - grows on any soil;
- good frost resistance;
- high tasting score of fruits;
- long shelf life of the crop and excellent transportability;
- compact tree crown, which allows you to grow a culture in thickened plantings;
- the possibility of using fruits in commercial activities and the versatility of their use in cooking;
- good tolerance of drought and resistance to most fungal diseases;
- high viability of pollen grains, which makes the culture an ideal pollinator for winter and autumn pear varieties;
- ability to bear fruit even without pollinators.
The disadvantages of this culture are intolerance to high soil moisture and slow development during shading. In this regard, it is necessary to pay more attention to the level of groundwater occurrence and the illuminance of the site.
Tree morphology and fruit description
Trees of this variety grow rapidly in the first years of life. With the onset of fruiting, growth slows down. Adult specimens reach a height of 4-4.5 m. The root system is powerful. The crown has a compact narrow pyramidal crown of medium thickening.
If necessary, a spreading crown can also be formed by trimming and bending skeletal branches to the desired angle.
Leaf plates are oval in shape with a pointed end. Their structure is dense, the surface is shiny, saturated green. There is no pubescence.
Did you know? Pear contributes to the production of endorphins, so it can become full, and most importantly — low-calorie substitute for chocolate.
The flowering is plentiful. The flowers themselves are large, saucer-shaped. They have a pleasant pronounced aroma. The tree enters the flowering phase in the second half of April.
The fruits reach removable maturity, which coincides with the consumer period, at the end of September. The yield of the crop can be extended for 3-4 weeks. The fruits are large, weighing from 300 to 500 g. Their shape is broad-pear-shaped. The peel is thin, painted in green-yellow color with a pronounced blush. The pulp on the cut is white. It has an oily structure, very juicy.
The tree begins to bear fruit from 3-4 years from the moment of planting. Crop yields stably high annually. No downtime is noted.
Productivity and tasting assessment
The amount of harvest increases over the years. The maximum number of fruits can be obtained as early as 7-10 years. In the future, the yield is maintained almost throughout the entire life cycle. From 7-10-year-old plantations, the yield is 180-320 kg / ha.The fruits received a tasting score of 4.25–4.5 points out of a possible 5. They taste sweet and sour, with light notes of almonds.
Winter hardiness and disease resistance
The Hoverla pear variety is a winter-hardy crop that can tolerate frosts down to -30 ° C. The tree tolerates drought and strong winds not bad, but when planting it is better to take care of its protection from draft.
In relation to diseases, the tree shows high resistance to scab and many other fungal diseases.
Important! When planting in waterlogged, marshy areas or with a close occurrence of groundwater, young plants undergo frostbite in the winter even if the temperature is not too low.
Agricultural Engineering Planting
One of the most important points when growing a crop is the pre-plant preparation and selection of seedlings. It is on this that the survival rate of the plant on the site and, accordingly, the yield in the future will depend.
Choosing a quality seedling
When choosing a seedling, you must immediately determine its age. One-and two-year-old copies are best taken root on a site. Age can be determined by the appearance of the plant. The thickness of the stem of young shoots is 12 mm.One-year-old seedlings do not have lateral shoots; in two-year-old specimens, there are from 3 to 5 branches about 30 cm long.
Stamp and branches should be painted in a uniform gray-brown-greenish color. Blotches or uneven color indicate infection of the seedling with fungal spores. Branches should be flexible, not over-dried and brittle.
The next important criterion is the state of the root. In pears, it is of a fibrous type, that is, it has several main roots 30 cm long and a lush mass of additional roots. The rhizome should be moist, without signs of rot, growths and deformations. The color is light gray, uniform.
In addition to the above, it is worth paying special attention to the condition of the root neck - this is the place of junction of the stock and scion. This area looks like a slight bend and is located 5 cm above the central root.On a bend, you can clearly see a healed wound or a stump from a cut rootstock. It is important to understand that the vaccine is made at least 1.5 years before the sale, so the cut must be healed. If the wound is fresh at this point and does not heal, the plant is likely to be infected with fungus spores.
Optimal landing times
The rate of rooting of a seedling in a new place depends on the timing of planting. It is optimal to land in the fall - in mid-September-early October. During this period, the plant will put all its strength into rooting and will not spend them on growth.
But such a planting time is relevant only in regions with mild winters in which the soil does not freeze. For areas with severe winters, it is more advisable to plant in the spring. So the seedling will have the opportunity to grow stronger during the warm period and prepare for winter.
Did you know? To digest a pear, the human body takes 40 minutes, which takes more calories than is consumed with the product.
How to choose and prepare a place on the site
The landing site should be well lit from all sides. The most suitable option is the south, southwest or southeast of the site. It is worth paying attention to the moisture content of the soil on the site. Pears should not be planted in lowlands, in flooded and swampy areas.The depth of the hole is 60 cm, the width is from 80 to 1 m. There are no requirements regarding the soil composition, the main thing is to fertilize the site well before planting.
When planting in the fall, a landing pit is prepared in a month, during spring planting, a plot is prepared in the fall, and a hole in 7-10 days. First of all, the landing site is cleared of vegetation, then dug up to a depth of 30 cm and a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid is treated.
A week later, during spring planting, contribute to each 1 m²:
- 20 kg of fresh manure;
- 20 kg of peat mixed with sand in a ratio of 1: 1 (only on heavy soils);
- 300 g of superphosphate.
A month and a half before the autumn planting, a similar manipulation is carried out with digging and disinfecting the soil, and after a week, 20 kg of compost and 300 g of nitrophoska are added to each 1 m².
The process of preparing the landing pit for autumn and spring landings is identical. The depth of the hole is 60 cm, the width is from 80 cm to 1 m, depending on the type of soil. On light soils should be done wider. The upper 30 cm of soil from the hole is mixed with 20 kg of compost and 800 g of wood ash.
In the central part of the pit, a stake is driven in, which should rise 1 m above the soil level. Then layer by layer alternating clean garden soil and fertilized, fill the pit by a third. If the weather is rather humid, then watering is not carried out. If dry and sunny, pour 30 liters of water into the pit.The landing process looks like this:
- In the center of the pit they build an embankment.
- Set the roots of the seedling on the embankment so that the stake is on the north side of the stem.
- Alignment is carried out along the root neck - after filling the pit with soil, it should remain 5-7 cm higher.
- They fill the hole with soil, and then the trunk circle is compacted.
- Depending on the weather, the trunk circle is immediately mulched with a layer of compost of 5 cm or pre-poured into a hole of 20 liters of water.
Did you know? Pear wood is highly durable. That is why musical instruments are most often made from it, and in China it is considered a symbol of immortality.
Features of further care
Agrotechnical measures carried out during the cultivation of Goverla are no different from those for other varieties. Only young trees will require more attention. In general, the variety is not whimsical to care for.
Proper soil care is one of the obligatory agricultural measures to improve the quality of oxygen access to the roots, distribute moisture correctly and protect trees from ground pests, as well as fungal spores.Loosening is carried out after each rain and watering. In the warm season, the soil is loosened to a depth of 5–10 cm, in early spring and autumn - to a depth of 15–20 cm. In parallel with this manipulation, weeds are removed along with the roots.
Immediately after cultivation, the soil must be mulched. During the entire growing season, you can use peat with sawdust (1: 1) or compost as mulch, and only compost or rotted manure before winter preparation.
Fertilizing and watering
Fertilizers begin to be applied from the second year of life of the tree on the site, with autumn planting, from the first. In mid-May, and then in mid-June, 6 tbsp. l nitrofoski diluted in 30 l of water. This approach stimulates the growth of powerful shoots necessary for the formation of the skeleton of the tree.
Next year, nitrogen fertilizer is again applied according to the same scheme. If the growth of shoots is too intense, then nitrophosphate is introduced only in early May. This feeding scheme is relevant for non-fruiting specimens.
In order to get a crop already from the 4th year of life of a pear on a site, nitrogen fertilizing is minimized. So, in May they bring in 6 tbsp.nitrofoski to 30 liters of water. After flowering - 30 g of potassium sulfate and superphosphate. In the autumn, under digging, 10 kg of rotted manure in combination with 90 g of superphosphate.
Young non-fruiting trees are watered 5 times a season. Make 30 liters of water under 1 tree.Adult instances make moisture according to the schedule:
- during flowering;
- in the phase of ovary formation;
- 3 weeks before the physical ripening of the fruit.
The water application rate for adult trees is from 30 to 50 liters per 1 pear. It is advisable to combine watering with fertilizer.
Spraying a tree from pests and diseases
Preventive treatments for diseases and pests are carried out in the spring, before the buds open. Bordeaux fluid or copper sulfate is usually used at this stage. Solutions make 3% concentration. After harvesting, spraying with Fitosporin solution is carried out. He is bred in water in a proportion of 5:10.
If signs of fungal diseases appear (rust or moniliosis), they are treated with Mancozeb according to the instructions. In the presence of pests (aphids, leafworms, ticks, sawflies) use the drug "Actara".If the number of pests is small, then they can be quickly eliminated by dusting the tree itself and the soil around it with wood ash or tobacco dust.
Branch pruning and crown shaping
Pruning begins one year after planting. Perform this manipulation in the spring, before the swelling of the kidneys. Stems without branches are cut 20 cm above the intended branching. If there are branches, then the central conductor is shortened so that it is 20-30 cm higher than skeletal branches.
All shoots growing at a height of less than 50 cm from the soil level are cut into a ring. About 5 skeletal shoots are left on the stem itself, looking in different directions. They are shortened by 1/3.
If it is necessary to form a spreading crown, fasteners made of metal or wood are installed around the trunk, to which skeletal branches are tied, bending them at an angle of 90 °. When the branches will freely hold the necessary shape, the strapping is removed.
In subsequent years, they carry out the supporting pruning of an existing skeleton, pinching it by 5-10 cm. On the first-order branches, 2 second-order shoots are left, the rest are removed.When the crown is formed, only sanitary pruning is performed, which involves the removal of shoots that thicken the crown and are damaged mechanically, by diseases or pests. This type of pruning can be carried out at any time during the growing season, if necessary.
Important! Throughout the entire life cycle of a tree, branches competing with the skeletal and the main conductor should be removed.
After all the pruning manipulations on the tree, wound surfaces remain that make the plant vulnerable. In this regard, each such procedure should be accompanied by the treatment of wounds with wood ash, followed by sealing with garden var.
Protection from the cold and preparing for winter
Pears of this variety, especially young ones, need high-quality preparation for winter.
This event is held in several stages:
- watering and fertilizing after harvesting;
- the elimination of damaged branches with the closure of wound surfaces with garden var;
- loosening of soil in the near-stem circle, followed by mulching with a 10 cm compost layer;
- whitewashing the trunk to a height of 1 m from the soil level with lime;
- wrapping the trunk with burlap or building a sheaf of spruce branches.
Hoverla pear is highly resistant to diseases and pests. She perfectly takes root in any locality and is unpretentious in leaving, therefore it can become a real find for gardeners looking for a crop for industrial production, as well as for beginners in gardening.