How to propagate an apple tree?
The world around us consists of many plants, one of which is an apple tree, which is grown in almost every garden. To grow a beautiful apple tree, you need to know how to propagate it correctly.
What determines the choice of the method of propagation of the apple tree?
The choice of apple tree propagation method will depend on how experienced the gardener is and on the purpose of propagation. If the goal is to develop new varieties, then apply such methods of reproduction as: seed, cuttings and layering.To prolong the life of the plant and rejuvenate it, it is necessary to apply the method of reproduction by the eyes or the so-called budding, which is one of the methods of vaccination
Technology, advantages and disadvantages of different methods of propagation of apple trees
The methods of propagation of apple trees have their advantages and disadvantages. About all the nuances and features of plant propagation, read below.
Did you know? Eating hard apples will prevent tooth decay on tooth enamel.
For vegetative propagation by cuttings, annual, not lignified shoots on which there are 4-5 buds are selected.
- The advantages of the cuttings method are:
- the possibility of rejuvenating an old tree;
- harvesting of planting material, can be made in any quantity, from April to October;
- getting seedlings for stock.
- The disadvantages of the method are:
- the duration of the rooting process.
To propagate the fruit tree without vaccination, layering can be used. The technology of propagation by air layers, based on the characteristics of the cambium tissue, which is located between the wood and the bark, and can form roots at the site of damage.The film “sleeve” on the shoot of an apple tree contributes to the softening of the bark. An advantage of the method is the speed of obtaining a seedling with a developed root system. Only six months will be required to conduct the process of growing rhizomes. The disadvantage of reproduction by air layering is the complexity of the procedure and the requirement of certain skills in the field of gardening.
Did you know? Phytonutrients in apple juice reduce the risk of developing neurodegenerative brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson’s.
The seed breeding method is most often used in nurseries, with the aim of breeding new varieties of culture. Seeds from pollinated apple trees are planted in the soil after passing through selection and stratification. First, you need to choose the right variety for propagation.According to the classification of Michurin in nature, there are 3 groups of varietal crops, which differ in the quality of transmission of gene information to offspring:
- First group consists of varieties capable of transmitting their qualities to offspring in full, provided that there is no pollination with wild animals. The group includes almost all large-fruited Chinese women, Antonovka, Muscat, Skrut, Pineapple white.
- Second group consists of plants with an unstable ability to transmit gene information to offspring - Babushkino, Grushovka, Borovinka.
- Third group includes varieties that, without observing certain conditions, are capable of transmitting genetic information - Renet green, Anis, Vorgulet, Pepin saffron, Volga turnip.
Important! Selecting seeds should pay attention to their maturity. They should be dense, evenly colored brown.Seeds must be removed carefully so that they are not damaged.
For cultivation of a cultivar without vaccination, it is better to give preference to seeds from the third group. If you need to grow a long-known variety, then you should first prepare a frost-resistant game, and plant a cultural variety on it.
- The advantages of seed propagation techniques are:
- obtaining a qualitatively new variety that will be distinguished by resistance to diseases and low temperatures;
- apple trees grown by seed are distinguished by longevity.
- The disadvantage of this method is:
- low germination of seed material;
- seedlings grown from seeds can be used only as a stock;
- late dates of the beginning of fruiting.
Video: growing an apple from a seed
The technology of reproduction without vaccination is to create an artificial stimulus for the plant to grow and root formation. For this purpose, cuttings are excellent, which must be placed in a moist, nutrient medium for root formation.
- The advantages of the method without vaccination are:
- a high percentage of rooting of cuttings;
- obtaining a quality seedling without a long and difficult vaccination process.
- The disadvantage of this method is:
- the duration of the cultivation of planting material.
The budding process is the grafting of eyes taken from the annual shoots of a tree onto a stock.
- The advantages of the method:
- unlimited amount of material for vaccination;
- obtaining on one plant up to 4 developed crowns;
- the opportunity to get different fruits on the same tree, for example, apples and pears.
- The disadvantage is:
- the impossibility of carrying out the process in rainy, wet weather.
- the process of budding, can be done only in the autumn period.
Apple tree breeding dates
The timing of propagation of the apple tree depends on the chosen method:
- Breeding by air layering should be carried out from mid-March, until the beginning of active growth and sap flow in the shoots. Landing is carried out in early September.
- The procurement of material for propagation by seeds is carried out in the fall. Planting of sprouted material should be carried out with the onset of spring thaw.
- Cuttings for propagation are best prepared from the end of May to July. Landing is carried out from mid-September to early October.
- Cuttings for propagation without vaccination are cut off at the end of May.
- The process of budding is carried out in the spring in mid-May and in the fall in mid-September.
How to root cuttings of apple trees at home?
The rooting of cuttings is carried out from May to September. Instructions for breeding apple trees with green cuttings:
- cut a stalk with leaves at least 30 cm long;
- from the selected cuttings, cut off the upper and lower parts, so that 4 buds remain on the resulting shoot area;
- a mixture of 10 kg of soil with 10 kg of peat is poured into a wooden box;
- a layer of wet sand of 5 cm is poured over the soil;
- Root cuttings in sand 2 cm deep;
- build a film shelter on top of the box to create a greenhouse effect.
Video: rooting cuttings of the apple tree
How to propagate an apple tree by air layering at home?
Propagation of an apple tree by means of air layering is a laborious process, but as a result, the gardener will get a strong and hardy plant. About the preparation for the procedure, and about rooting the layering, read below.
Important! A greenhouse with cuttings, it is necessary to install in the northern part of the site or under a tree so that direct sunlight does not fall on it.
Preparation for breeding
To carry out the breeding procedure, using air layers, The following materials need to be prepared:
- plastic bottle with a capacity of 2 l;
- sleeve made of polyethylene 40 cm in length;
- soil mixture.
Choosing and preparing an escape
The shoot, which will be used as a layering, must be grown on the sunny side, there should be no branches on it. Layering, should be 2 years of age, its diameter is 2 cm. To prepare the escape for the future rooting procedure, you must:
- Around the end of March, it is necessary to wrap the selected shoot in a plastic sleeve. Wrap up the middle part of the shoot.
- To wrap polyethylene to the branch, you can use an insulating tape, fixing the sleeve, on both sides. In this position, the shoot is left until June, so that during the time spent in the greenhouse conditions, the shoot becomes softened.
- In early June, it is necessary to remove the film in order to make incisions in the softened area, for which it will be necessary to find the joint between the age branch and the green growth.
- From this relative point, it is necessary to retreat 10 cm up from the trunk and make an annular cut, 1 cm wide.
- At a distance of 1.5 cm upwards from the first incision, another 2 are made. Incisions are needed to enhance the root-forming ability of the branch.
- Kidneys that are located above the softened area must be cut off.
Video: apple tree propagation by air layers
How to root air layers?
In order for the layering to release roots, it is necessary to place it in a nutrient medium. Instructions for rooting air layering:
- The softened part of the layering is placed in a plastic sleeve, fixing it with insulating tape on the sides.
- Trim the bottom of a 2 liter bottle.
- Introduce the branch into the bottle so that the neck is at the bottom and firmly fix the bottom with tape.
- Pour the solution stimulating root growth into the container for a period of 48 hours. After pouring the solution, making small holes in the plastic bottle.
- With the prepared substrate from the soil, fill the bottle to the very top. Pour 100 g of water to moisten the soil.
- The upper part of the structure must also be sealed with electrical tape.
- Wrap the structure with paper to prevent drying out of the substrate during sun exposure.
- The soil is moistened 3 times a week, in an amount of 200 g of water.
Tips from experienced gardeners
According to experienced gardeners, the best method of reproduction is cuttings. The method can be used even by beginners in gardening. Tips from experienced gardeners:
- On the apple tree, which has reached 7 years of age, several vaccinations can be made.
- Vaccination is best done at the base of the branch, rather than at the end, to ensure rapid growth of the cuttings.
- It is necessary to remove basal shoots so that the tree, on which rootstock is produced, does not spend extra forces on their nutrition.
- It is better not to produce apple propagation by cuttings in the spring, because they poorly take root due to lack of nutrients.
Apple tree, one of the most popular fruit crops grown in orchards around the world. Due to the existence of a large selection of plant varieties and methods of their propagation, the possibility of cultivating an apple tree is subject to even a person without experience in gardening.