Features of planting and care of the Sverdlovchanin apple tree
Sverdlovchanin variety is known mainly in the north of Russia, however, it deserves the attention of gardeners from other regions. When growing this variety of apple trees, it is necessary to take into account its main characteristics and features. About how to plant and grow the Sverdlovchanin apple tree correctly, read further in the article.
Description and characteristics of the variety
Variety Sverdlovchanin was bred by L. A. Kotov in Yekaterinburg. To obtain it, the originator crossed the pollen of the apple trees Zvezdochka, Gem and Orange and the Amber variety.
The main advantage of the variety is its high yield.
Trees grow up to 8 m. The crown is branched, sparse. Shoots are fast-growing, most grow perpendicular to the trunk. Green leaf blades, elongated in shape, with wavy edges. In May, large light pink flowers bloom on the branches.
Did you know? The oldest apple tree that bears fruit in our time grows in Manhattan. It was planted by an American Peter Stuansant in 1647.
Apples Sverdlovsk average size, rounded in shape. The weight of one fruit ranges from 90 to 130 g. The color of the fruit is light green; by September they may turn a little yellow or white. The peel is slightly ribbed in structure. The pulp is juicy and crunchy, with a firm, fine-grained texture. The taste of apples is sweet and sour.
From 1 kg of ripe apples, 300-350 ml of delicious natural juice is obtained
Advantages and disadvantages
The variety of apple trees Sverdlovchanin has many positive qualities.
- Among them:
- good keeping quality;
- high productivity;
- winter hardiness;
- immunity to scab and powdery mildew;
- shade tolerance;
Gardeners distinguish only one minus of the variety - fruiting begins 7 years after planting.
Learn about cultivating other winter apple varieties:
Grade Sverdlovchanin self-fertile, accordingly, he does not need pollinators. However, to increase the number of ovaries (about 90%), other winter varieties of apple trees can be planted nearby.
It is possible to approximate the fruiting time of apple trees if a rootstock of another variety is planted on a young shoot
Apple trees begin to bear fruit 7 years after planting and yield a crop every year. As the tree grows, yield increases. Gardeners harvest 150 kg of crop from an apple tree aged 12–13 years.
Planting is an important stage, which largely determines the further development of the tree. The gardener's tasks include the competent selection of a seedling, determining a good site and observing the correct planting technology.
Video: Apple tree planting instructions
Choosing the best seedling
Planting material must be of high quality.
The fact that the plant can be planted is indicated by its following characteristics:
- age 1 or 2 years;
- smooth trunk;
- on the stem up to 5 branches;
- there are no breaks or growths on the cortex;
- the horse system has many processes;
- the roots are white.
Choosing a favorable place
Sverdlovchanin variety is best established on fertile loamy soils with neutral acidity. It is advisable that the site be illuminated by sunlight, however, a slight shadow from neighboring trees or buildings is quite acceptable.
Did you know? Plantations of apple trees occupy 5 million hectares of the entire planet.
Optimal dates for planting a seedling - early May. This is a suitable period for all regions, including the north. You can also determine the period by soil temperature - the substrate should warm up to + 10 ° C.
The landing technology is as follows:
- Dig a hole 0.7 m deep and 1 m in diameter. For mass planting, there should be a distance of 4 m between the pits and 5 m between the rows.
- Place the seedling in the planting pit.
- Holding the trunk with one hand, gently spread the roots with the other.
- Fill the pit with soil.
- Pour the plant with 20 liters of water.
Fig. 1 - the process of planting a seedling, Fig. 2 - a correctly planted seedling
The yield is primarily affected by the care of the apple tree: not only the quantity, but also the quality of the fruit depends on watering, top dressing and pruning.
Video: Fruit Tree Care
Seedlings in the first year of life are watered every week. Under one tree should be poured 30 liters of water.
Rooted plants watered as neededwhen the dry season comes. However, one should not neglect soil moisture during the heat - the root system does not tolerate overdrying. One adult apple tree is watered using 70-100 liters of water.
Important! After each watering, be sure to loosen the soil. Otherwise, the soil will be taken crust, and the rhizome will not have full access to oxygen.
To save moisture recommended to mulch the trunk circle. As a mulch, it is better to use natural materials - sawdust, leaves or straw.
The close occurrence of groundwater is detrimental to tall apple varieties
Trees must be fertilized regularly for better growth and yield.
Agronomists are advised to make root dressings according to the following scheme:
- in the end of April - 500 g of urea;
- at the beginning of flowering - a solution of 160 g of potassium sulfate, 200 g of superphosphate and 100 g of urea in 40 l of water;
- at the end of flowering - a solution of 3 g of sodium humate concentrate and 150 g of nitrophosphate per 30 l of water;
- after picking apples - 300 g each of superphosphate and potassium sulfate.
Form the crown of the apple tree in the spring before the start of the growing season.
Trimming is to remove:
- branches growing inward;
- shoots that go beyond the crown circle;
- frozen and broken branches.
The variety belongs to very frost-resistant varieties. Trees can withstand temperatures up to –40 ° С. If the gardener wants to further protect the tree, you can mulch the trunk circle with sawdust, fallen leaves or peat.
The apple tree of Sverdlovsk is quite tall
Possible growing difficulties
The variety is resistant to powdery mildew and scab, but is not protected from all diseases. There are several common problems that gardeners and gardeners often encounter.
The main danger to plants is the apple moth. Use the Fufanon insecticide to control the pest. To prepare the working solution, 10 ml of concentrate and 10 l of water are mixed. One tree takes 2-5 l of solution, depending on the age and size of the plant.
Important! The drug "Fufanon" can not be mixed with other means.
There are also a number of problems not related to infections or pests.. To solve them, you need to change the approach to growing apple trees.
|Burns on the trunk||Autumn and spring lime whitewash|
|Apples are too loose||Reduce the use of potassium-nitrogen fertilizers with magnesium in the composition|
|The fruits become brown.||The cause may be excess moisture, excess nitrogen, or excessive shade. Depending on the reason, watering should be moderated, nitrogen application with fertilizers should be reduced, and the source of shade from the tree should be removed.|
|There are black spots on the peel, and the taste becomes bitter||Calcium-based top dressing|
|Ripe watery consistency fruits||Add dolomite flour to the barrel circle at the rate of 40 g per 1 m² of land|
|With a large number of buds, small fruits ensued||Add ash or nitroammophosk to the soil|
|Ripe fruits are hard, the peel is covered with cortical spots||Prepare a solution of boric acid at the rate of 15 g of the drug per bucket of water, spray the tree|
Harvesting and storage
The fruits ripen massively by the end of September.
The following factors indicate fruit maturity:
- yellowish green color;
- the fruits are not difficult to tear from the stalks;
- healthy fruits may fall from the branches.
Harvest is best removed first from the southern part of the plant, and then from the northern. First harvest from the lower branches, gradually rising to the top of the tree. Due to the large size, a ladder is needed to harvest from an adult apple tree.
The collection is best done in a short time - no more than 3 days. Apples of the described variety are stored for up to 6 months at a temperature of 0 ... + 4 ° C and humidity 77–79%.
The main advantage of Sverdlovchanin is winter hardiness. Apple trees are unpretentious in leaving, so even an amateur gardener can cope with them. With proper care, the tree will annually produce a rich and tasty crop.