Variety of apple trees Krasa Sverdlovsk: botanical description and characteristics, agricultural cultivation
The apple variety Krasa Sverdlovsk was bred at the Sverdlovsk experimental station in the 70s of the last century. The purpose of the selection was to obtain a large-fruited variety for cultivation in the Southern and Middle Urals. The article will focus on its features and growing technology.
Description and characteristics of the apple variety Krasa Sverdlovsk
Presumably, the pollination of an apple tree of the Jonathan variety by pollen of an unidentified variety or varieties was taken as the basis for selection selection. The new apple tree was presented at the All-Union Breeders' Seminar in 1979, where it was recognized as the best.
In subsequent years, the variety spread widely in large gardens of the USSR and now grows in the Urals, Volga region, in the central regions of Russia and even in Siberia. This is facilitated by unpretentiousness, winter hardiness, high resistance to disease and stable productivity.
Description of the tree and fruits
The tree is characterized by good growth. The height of the apple tree can reach 4–5 m. The diameter of the crown reaches the same size. These are ideal dimensions for large garden complexes.
Some branches are at an obtuse angle to the crown, which gives the battle a rounded shape. With age, it becomes more voluminous and needs thinning.
The main characteristics of the variety:
- appointment - dessert;
- basic characteristic - winter, fruitful, with stable fruiting, well adapted for cultivation in urban environments;
- fruiting begins at 6–7 years of age;
- growth energy - medium;
- flowering - May;
- harvesting period - September;
- disease resistance - resistant to fungal diseases.
Did you know? It is believed that in dessert apples, the vitamin C content of 1.2–1.4 times higher than in the fruits of technical varieties. In the Krasa Sverdlovsk variety, it contains 32 mg / 100 g, therefore it is more beneficial to eat them fresh.
General characteristic of fruiting:
- apples - wide-round, with a conical tip, medium and large, weighing 140-160 g, maximum weight - 240 g;
- skin tone - in technical maturity - yellow-green, in ripened form - bright red, from the side where the fruit was not lit by the sun, yellowness can be seen under red;
- peel - thin, smooth, with a wax coating;
- pulp texture - juicy, fine-grained, pale cream color;
- taste - harmonious sweet and sour with a light spicy shade;
- productivity - annually collect up to 75-100 kg from one apple tree;
- keeping quality fruits are high, fruits are stored for more than 4 months.
Disadvantages and main advantages of the variety
The variety is quite unpretentious and does not require special care, except for ordinary agricultural activities. But he has quite a few advantages.
- Advantages of the Beauty of Sverdlovsk
- very beautiful appearance of the fruit;
- maximum storage period;
- excellent transportability;
- high resistance of the variety to fungal diseases;
- stable and high productivity;
- fruits are not subject to falling;
- excellent adaptability not only to the climate, but also to the urban environment.
There are no obvious flaws in the variety. But there are a number of features. So, he definitely needs a companion pollinator and all preventive treatments for diseases.
Important! The height of the apple trees may vary depending on the type of stock on which the variety is grafted.If you get a tree in the nursery, ask about the type of stock. In addition to height, it affects yield and disease resistance.
Key pollinators and flowering times
The variety is self-infertile, which means it needs a pollinator companion. The best pollinator is considered Isetskoye later. But you can try to pick up another variety with flowering in May. When planting, the recommended distance between the apple trees is about 4 m.Flowering tree occurs in May. Please note that the apple trees bloom for almost 3 weeks, but each particular variety is only 1–1.5. Therefore, the pollinator is selected so that these dates coincide.
The yield of one apple tree is about 75-100 kg of fruit. If the conditions for development are favorable, the tree does not lack moisture or nutrients, then from one hectare you can collect up to 20 tons of fruits.Fruiting occurs rather late — on the 6–7th year after planting. Further, the tree increases its yield annually, but, starting from the age of 25, it becomes unstable, therefore fruit trees are recommended to be changed as they age.
Only modern genetically modified varieties are absolutely resistant to any diseases. Most old varieties, including Kras Sverdlovsk, are conditionally resistant to scab, rot, powdery mildew. If you do not create a favorable environment for the development of diseases: dampness, high humidity and constant contact of the roots with water, then the tree will grow and bear fruit. Resistant apple trees are also necessarily treated for prevention.
The variety is medium tolerant to frost. But this does not prevent the apple trees from growing in any climatic zones with winter temperatures up to -25 ° С. Its drought tolerance data are not indicated. But any adult apple tree is drought-resistant, since its root system has a diameter of about 5 m and a root depth of more than 2 m.
Did you know? Red-fruited apples contain anthocyanins in a peel — pigmented substances with antibacterial effect. They are able to eliminate inflammatory processes, normalize the balance of the skin, healing it. It is this effect that fabulous rejuvenating apples have.
Planting and tree care
The variety is absolutely typical in planting and care. Sapling will definitely need watering and harvesting weeds. If fertilizers were not applied during planting, then fertilizing is also necessary. An adult tree additionally needs crown formation, preventive spraying from pests and diseases, and measures to prepare the tree for winter.
Spring planting is preferable in regions with frosty winters. Where the climate is mild and the minimum temperatures do not exceed -10 ° C, you can plant trees in spring and autumn until October.Apple tree planting: 1) wrong, root system deepened, 2) wrong, high planting, 3) landing done correctly. For planting a seedling, spring or autumn is suitable.
For planting, choose a site with fertile soil, preferably on a hill, so that from the north the apple tree is protected from the cold wind. The soil should be well-drained. Lighting - bright, at least 6 hours of sunlight per day.
Agricultural Engineering Planting
Good yield is ensured by the proper selection of planting material. Sapling can be bought in a nursery or in the market. The difference between the nursery and the market is that the purchased seedling corresponds to the name on the label. You can also request there additional information about the type of stock, yield, cultivation features.
Characteristics of a good seedling:
- the state of the roots is strong, elastic, voluminous and healthy. In the section, the root will be white and fibrous, the size is about 30 cm, there should be no swelling and growths on them;
- the trunk is straight, without damage;
- branches - at least 5 on a 2-year-old seedling, also without damage or traces of pruning;
- the color of the bark is brown, and under it should be a greenish layer;
- leaves are absent;
- age - no more than 2 years.
Important! It is forbidden to make lime before planting, and then add fertilizers that contain phosphorus. They are incompatible.
Immediately before planting, the site is dug up, weeds and stones are removed, and then a landing pit is prepared. Depth - 0.5 m, diameter - not less than 0.5 m. It should exceed the size of the roots to provide them with more loose soil and opportunities for development.
The seedling itself also needs to be prepared. From the nursery, it can be supplied with "empty roots" and they must be filled with water. To do this, the roots are soaked in water for 2–4 hours immediately before planting. And then they are dipped in clay mash with the addition of copper sulfate. This will protect them from contact with fungi that are in the soil.
- The upper part of the soil, which was removed from the pit, is mixed with a bucket of rotted manure.
- The prepared mixture is laid to the bottom.
- The apple tree is set in the center.
- A peg is installed next to it, to which a seedling will be tied.
- They fill up the hole, starting from the sides and moving towards the center.
- Having fallen asleep to half, pour a bucket of water.
- Add soil.
- Seal it near the trunk.
- Tie up an apple tree.
- Check whether the roots are well covered with soil, and that the point of connection of the scion and stock is 5 cm above the ground.
- If necessary, add soil.
Important! If 2 trees are planted, then the distance between them should be about 4–5 m so that they can pollinate each other. Do not reduce the distance, as the crown of Krasa Sverdlovsk can reach a diameter of 5 m, and the trees will begin to interfere with each other.
Fertilizer and Watering
Watering the first year of growth should be weekly. The roots of the apple tree are not well developed and may suffer from a lack of moisture. In this case, the leaves will begin to turn yellow and fall off. Watering begins in the spring with the beginning of the growing season and continues until September - until the harvest. The watering rate is 1 bucket per week. The requirements for an adult apple tree are not so stringent. Its roots can extend to a depth of more than 2 m and far enough wide. Such a tree is drought tolerant. 1-2 waterings per month are enough for him.
General watering rules:
- in rainy weather do not water the trees;
- pour water slowly so that it saturates the earth well;
- it is better to use drip irrigation;
- for young trees, water when you see that the soil has dried out;
- The main rule is to eliminate stagnation of water at the roots.
Video: How and what to feed fruit trees
If fertilizers were applied during planting, then the seedling will have enough of them in the first 2 years of growth. And an adult apple tree will be needed (in kg / 10 sq. M):
- nitrogen - 14–20;
- phosphorus - 8–12;
- potassium - 18–25 ;.
Important! If the growth of the previous year for a tree is 30–60 cm, then it does not need fertilizer. Excess fertilizer is harmful to plants.
Cropping and shaping the crown
Most of the branches of the Sverdlovsk Krasa grows at an angle of 90 degrees, so the crown naturally takes a rounded shape. When trimming the crown, its natural shape is left, just shortening the growth of the branches.
Molding can be performed on the 3-4th year of seedling growth. Presumably, at the time when it reaches a height of 1 m, it is shortened by 30–40 cm. This causes branching. In the future, shortening of already formed skeletal branches occurs annually, the result of which will be further branching.
Pruning also stimulates fruiting, since the frigging shoots give foliage, but form few fruit buds. Pruning is carried out in winter when the tree is at rest.
In an adult apple tree:
- remove dry or damaged branches;
- shorten the main shoots;
- remove shoots that create a thickening of the crown.
After harvesting, the garden begins to prepare for wintering. Among the main events:
- foliage and carrion harvesting;
- weed removal;
- deep digging of the soil;
- alignment of the holes near the trunk circles with the total height of the soil.
All unnecessary organics can attract pests as wintering places, so they are completely destroyed. The roots of the tree are the most vulnerable to frost, since without them the tree cannot develop, therefore they are covered with mulch. It can be straw, sawdust, spruce branches, other materials. The thickness of the mulch layer near the trunk is at least 6 cm. It will work as an insulating coating and prevent freezing of the soil.
The winter sun heats the wood. And when night falls, the air temperature drops sharply, and the tissues of the warm tree crack. To prevent this, spend autumn whitewashing of the trunk. White color reflects the sun's rays and does not allow strong heating of wood.
Did you know? So many apple trees now grow on the earth that every second fruit tree — it's an apple tree. And the territory of apple orchards is equal to the territory of Slovenia.
Ways to combat diseases and pests
Diseases are activated due to frequent rains or increased soil moisture. You may be watering too much or the soil is not sufficiently drained. Make sure that the soil is completely dry between waterings. It is necessary for the health of apple trees.
The main diseases and pests of apple trees:
- Scab. It appears in the form of brown and olive spots on leaves and fruits. For its prevention, fallen leaves and flowers are removed in the garden. For processing use the preparations "Chorus", "Strobi", "Rayok". Processing is performed before or after flowering. Krasa Sverdlovsk is considered resistant to this disease.
- Aphids and sooty fungi - also a common problem of apple trees. Aphids are small insects that feed on plant sap. They live in colonies that accumulate on leaves or cuttings.The result of their activities are twisted leaves, as well as a sticky coating. It is a breeding ground for the development of sooty fungi. Their disputes are constantly present in the environment, but appear only when conditions arise for this. Blurry black spots on the fruit are a fungus. The most effective are considered "Captan" - contact fungicide from the class of phthalimides or solutions based on sulfur.
- Orange dots on the leaves - this is also a fungus. It causes leaf rust. For treatment, fungicides containing "Fenarimol" or "Miklobutanil" are used.
- Powdery mildew appears in warm and humid times. Its main feature is a flour-like coating on the leaves. For treatment, a solution of colloidal sulfur is used.
- On old trees can settle lichens and mosses. They create constantly wetting areas on the trunks, so they must be cleaned with a brush, and the tree is sprayed with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid.
- Bacterial cancer manifested as a result of damage to the trunk and branches with frost in the winter. These are blackened sections of branches. The affected branches are cut out, the tree is treated with a solution based on copper, they also lubricate the place of the cut, and then paint it with oil paint.
The main measures for the prevention of bacterial or fungal infections are the timely removal of affected parts of plants, the removal of organic debris in the garden in the fall and the treatment of trees with copper sulfate solution before budding, and then as necessary. The concentration of Bordeaux fluid solution should not be higher than 1%, otherwise you burn the leaves. A 3% solution can be used only until buds open in early spring.
As for insects, there is no complete protection against them, so farmers try to prevent their intensive reproduction in their garden. Spraying from them is carried out with insecticides, hang bird feeders, as well as traps with pheromones for insects.
The main pests of the apple tree:
- Apple tick - a microscopic insect that feeds on plant sap and settles on the underside of the leaves. For processing from it use the preparations "Actelik", "Fufanon". Processing is performed immediately, 2-3 days after flowering.
- Leaf-tree It infects flowers and causes shedding of ovaries. It resembles aphids both in appearance and in the way they live. For wood processing, spraying with a solution of insecticidal soap is used as soon as a pest is found.
- Penny slobbering - not the smallest insect, reaching a length of 10 mm. It can be of different colors, but salivary influxes on leaf cuttings are a characteristic sign of its presence. Spraying from it is carried out by Fitovferm, Aktellik or Inta-Vir.
- Bark can damage scale shield. You must have seen gray seals on the cortex. The chitinous cover of the insecticide does not allow insecticides to enter, so they will not give an effect. The brush is removed with a brush on a film placed under the processing site, after which the treatment is carried out with Inta-Vir, Aktellik, Aktara or another drug.
- And of course, the main pest of apple trees is codling moth. The moth begins to lay eggs in the ovary as soon as flowering ends. Its larvae, developing, feed on the pulp of the fetus. Since the moths in the summer give up to 3 generations of butterflies that can lay eggs, they are processed several times. The first time the treatment is carried out before budding, on a bare tree. The second time - before flowering and the third - immediately after it. Of modern drugs, Coragen is used. It blocks muscle activity, and the caterpillars are immobilized. At the egg stage, this means that they cannot get out of them. Some gardeners carry out each treatment with a new drug. Presumably, this works more efficiently than three treatments with the same solution.
Harvesting and storage
Ripening begins in September and can last until October. Fruits can hang on branches as much as you need, without losing their qualities. Ripe apples should have a bright varietal color and have enough sweetness. When you pick a fruit, it should be easily separated from the branch
A sunny, dry day is suitable for harvesting. Apples must be sorted. Damaged, deformed, or struck fruits are laid separately. They need to be consumed or processed almost immediately. The rest are divided into sizes: medium and large, and then stacked in boxes. Fruits should not rub against each other or against the walls of the box, so they are transferred with paper or other material. Apples are well transported and do not lose their appearance throughout the entire storage time.
Important! When laying apples, leave enough space. As they continue to grow even in a drawer, increasing in size.
This variety has a huge number of advantages and can very well be used in both personal and commercial gardening. Its unpretentiousness and productivity make it stably popular. But at the same time, it is important to remember that in order to get good harvests, it is necessary to carry out the main apple care measures in a timely manner.