Features of planting and caring for the Scythian gold variety apple tree
Frost-resistant apple tree Scythian gold with excellent productivity and juicy sweet and sour fruits is suitable for creating early-growing gardens on dwarf rootstocks. The variety is conceived as an improved replacement for Calville Snow. Read about the features of the variety and the agricultural technology of its cultivation in the review.
Description of apple variety Scythian gold
Scythian gold is a magnificent dessert apples that grow well even in cold climates. The variety was created in 1984 at the Ukrainian Research Institute of Horticulture. To obtain it, the variety Honney Gold and the hybrid form 0523 were involved.
The first of the parental varieties is distinguished by golden apples of honey taste with acidity, as well as exceptional frost resistance and productivity. Variety 0523 was selected because of its extreme resistance to scab and other fungal diseases.
- The resulting tree has all the advantages of parents:
- early bearing
- high productivity;
- winter hardiness;
- immunity to scab.
It is also suitable for laying gardens on dwarf rootstocks on an industrial, farm or household scale. The height of the tree, like some other parameters, depends on the type of stock. Thus, the most common dwarf stock in the world, M-9, is characterized by an early onset of fruiting, high yield and low tree height - up to 1.8 m.
Did you know? In order for an apple tree to grow 1 large apple, it needs energy from 50 leaves. This explains why you cannot leave all the ovaries formed. — fruits will decrease in size due to lack of nutrients for growth.
The apple tree grown on the rootstock MM-106, which belongs to the medium-tall, reaches a height of 4.2 m. It differs in that it almost does not create root shoots, withstands frosts of –12 ° C, can hold fruits and foliage almost until the first frost and grow on any type of soil.
Video: Apple tree winter Scythian gold
The main characteristics of the variety:
- appointment: dessert;
- tree: winter-hardy, early ripening, very productive, bearing fruit starts from 2-3 years of age;
- growth rates: medium;
- flowering: May;
- harvest time: September;
- disease resistance: immunity to scab and high resistance to brown spotting, powdery mildew, European cancer.
The tree is distinguished not only by early productivity, but ultra-early. There are frequent cases when an annual sapling of Scythian gold tries to bloom. In addition, he has a very pronounced tendency to overload the crop. Therefore, gardeners normalize fruiting using the methodology: remove the ovaries from one half of the tree, and the next year - from the other side or uniform thinning of the ovaries.
You will get real pleasure from the fruits. The taste of apples is similar to Calville snowy, but more juicy and delicate. You will surely like its honey aftertaste with sourness, especially in the middle of autumn, when the air temperature drops, and fresh and aromatic fruits become less and less.Description of fruit:
- apples: slightly oblong, medium and large, weighing 160-190 g;
- skin tone: in technical maturity - green, in ripened form - yellow-green with a slight orange blush;
- peel: thin, glossy;
- pulp texture: very juicy, granular, cream color;
- taste: harmonious sweet and sour;
- tasting characteristic: 4.7 points;
- productivity: annually collect up to 65–70 kg from one apple tree;
- fruit keeping quality is high; fruits are stored for up to 4 months.
Did you know? The largest apple in the world was obtained by the farmer Chisato Iwasaki from Japan. It weighed 1.85 kg. The record was recorded in the Guinness Book of Records in October 2005.
Pros and cons of the variety
- Scythian gold has many advantages:
- winter hardiness;
- immunity to scab and resistance to fungal diseases;
- stable yield;
- profuse bearing;
- excellent marketable properties of fruits, including shelf life and transportability;
- high taste;
- high content of vitamin C.
Deficiencies in the variety were not identified.
The ancestors of apple trees belong to varieties requiring a pollinator tree. Therefore, Scythian gold is also needed. It can be Priam, Pearl of Kiev, Champion, Amulet. When choosing a pollinator variety, do not forget to specify whether it blooms with the main tree at the same time.
In general, apple trees bloom all May, but each particular variety - no more than 2 weeks. When planting, the recommended distance between them is about 4 m, so that they can pollinate each other.
A large autumn harvest of fruits is one of the undoubted advantages. The number of fruits collected from one tree is enough to cover the needs of the average family and is about 70 kg.
Fruiting begins in the second year after planting. The variety is considered early winter. Harvest ripens in September-October. Apples can be used in salads, pies, sauces and drinks, as well as in other dishes.
Calorie content of apple trees Scythian gold
Apples are good for your health. From two fruits you will get a glass of fresh, amber color, juice with a high content of vitamin C. And this is also one of the features of the variety.
The apple of Scythian gold includes:
- fiber 13-15%;
- fructose and other sugars - up to 12%;
- amino acids - up to 0.7%
- Vitamin C - 12 mg.
Did you know? Red apples contain a special pigment substance. It has an antibacterial effect and helps restore skin. And this function of anthocyanins is reflected in folk tales. There, this property is attributed to juvenile apples.
Apples are low-calorie foods. In one, weighing 150-160 g contains only 80 calories. The composition also includes 17 g of carbohydrates, 0 g of fat and 0 g of protein.
The benefits of consumption
Apples are good for health because they contain a large set of biologically active substances. Due to their fiber, they are in demand in diets for weight loss. The composition contains soluble and insoluble fiber.
Soluble gel in the stomach, creating a feeling of fullness. And insoluble, it serves as a kind of sorbent that removes toxins from the body, harmful cholesterol and toxins.
- Fruits with regular consumption have a positive effect on the body, namely:
- reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease;
- have an antioxidant effect;
- normalize blood pressure;
- reduce the risk of cancer;
- anti-inflammatory effect.
Planting and caring for the Scythian gold
The variety is quite undemanding to growing conditions.. It does not suffer from diseases, frosts, droughts and even from the composition of the soil. This is an apple tree that can grow in almost any conditions, but if you make them ideal, you can count on large yields.
Did you know? On earth, there are about 8,000 varieties of apple trees. There are so many of them that every second fruit tree in the world — Apple tree.
For landing you need:
- stake for tying a planted tree.
It is recommended to dig a hole just before landing. It should exceed the size of the root system to a sufficient extent - to ensure the full growth and development of the underground part of the apple tree.
Sizes of the pit: depth - 0.5 m, diameter - 0.5–0.8 m.
If the soil is sandy or clay, you can improve its structure by mixing manure with soil. The manure must be overgrown before use (at least 6 months), otherwise it will burn the roots. It is not recommended to use compost in planting pits so as not to attract pests.
For planting, spring or autumn is suitable.Spring planting is recommended for annual seedlings or those with weak roots. Autumn planting is suitable for plants with a powerful root system, as well as in regions with mild winters.
- Dig the area by removing weeds, stones, swirls and other debris.
- Dig holes of the given sizes. They need two: under the main apple tree and its pollinator.
- Mix soil with rotted manure (5 kg) to enhance nutrition.
- Put some of the soil into the pit.
- In the center, set the stake for tying the apple tree.
- If the roots of the seedlings are dry, they are soaked before planting for 2–4 hours, and then dipped in clay mash with the addition of copper sulfate - to protect against fungi that may be in the soil.
- Place the apple tree in the center of the pit.
- Add soil and compact it.
- If the earth sank, then still fill up.
- Check that the roots are well covered by the ground, and that the junction of the scion and stock is 5 cm above the ground.
- Tie the apple tree with a soft cloth to the peg.
Important! During the autumn planting of apple trees, it is forbidden to fertilize so as not to provoke intensive growth of branches. This will weaken the seedling and he will not have time to prepare for the winter.
It remains to cover the root zone with a mulching layer. It can be sawdust, spruce branches, straw. The task of mulch is to protect the soil from compaction and drying out, as well as to prevent the growth of weeds. During the first three weeks, the seedling is watered 2-3 times a week for better rooting. The rate of water consumption is 1 bucket.
Caring for an apple tree includes:
- regular irrigation;
- nutrient application;
- disease prevention;
- preparation for winter.
But it is important to remember that even the best care will not increase the viability of an initially weak or unhealthy seedling.
Watering and feeding
In dry and sunny weather, seedlings are watered weekly. An adult apple tree - 1-2 times a month. Young plants can experience stress in the absence of moisture, so it is important for them to follow the watering schedule. If possible, drip irrigation should be used.
Fertilizing is subject to a number of rules:
- The seedling is not fertilized for 2 years, if fertilizers were applied during planting.
- A young tree needs 50 g of balanced fertilizer with an equal ratio of parts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and an adult needs about 200 g.
- Before the start of the growing season, ammonium nitrate is added - 40 g or 600 g of urea. These are sources of nitrogen. It is needed for active vegetation.
- After flowering, to maintain the development of the fruit, 70 g of potassium sulfate or other potash fertilizers and 40 g of superphosphate are needed. Potassium is an activator of metabolic processes, and phosphorus is needed for the development of roots and fruits.
Pruning strong trees is a must. It can be divided into several types:
- crown formation;
- removal of dry, diseased and damaged branches;
- thinning of the crown.
The very first pruning is shortening the central trunk. At a height of 1 m, it is cut to 30-40 cm. This should stimulate the growth of side shoots. 4 of them will form the edges of the "vase", the remaining side shoots are removed.
Then the upper branches are slightly shortened, which stimulates further branching. If the crown is formed, then in winter, when the tree is at rest, only sanitary pruning is performed. Make sure that all branches are evenly lit and well blown with air.
Important! Limit apple seed consumption. They contain cyanide. Of course, in order to poison, you need to chew and eat at least 200 seeds, but you should not experiment.
Whitewashing refers to protection methods. Firstly, it prevents the migration of insects from the soil to the crown. Lime used in whitewashing is toxic to many pests. Therefore, the procedure is performed 2-3 times a year.
And secondly, in winter, the protective layer will protect the trunk from cracking. Wood does not give off heat well. The bright sun in the winter day manages to heat it well.But immediately after sunset, the air temperature drops sharply, and the warm surface of the tree bark becomes cracked due to the temperature difference.
To avoid this, the bark is whitened, and the whitewash reflects the sun's rays from the surface. Spring whitewashing is performed in early March, before the snow melts. Autumn painting with protective compounds is carried out in October.
Once the crop is harvested, the garden can begin to be prepared for wintering. You will need to remove weeds, fallen leaves, rotten fruits from it. Apples are removed and those that have fallen, and those that have remained on the tree. If they are not collected, then they will become a place for wintering phytopathogens and pests. A deep digging of the soil is also carried out to destroy pests.
- if holes for irrigation were made under the trees, level them to prevent stagnation of rainwater at the roots;
- if there was mulch in the near-stem circle, then the “summer layer” is replaced with a new one;
- A net is mounted around the trunks if you need to protect young trees from rodents.
Important! Do not use chemicals for spraying if the harvest is less than 25 days. Many pesticides do not have time to become safe for people in such a short period of time.
Diseases and Pests
The variety has no disease problems. It is resistant to them, and has immunity to scab. If the soil is well drained and fertilized, the tree has enough light and open space, then it grows strong and is able to cope with pathogens on its own.
To prevent disease, you can spray with copper sulfate or other copper-based solution. The first spraying from fungal diseases is carried out in the spring before the kidneys open. A week after it, they are treated with general insecticides from pests.
After the leaves appear and until flowering repeat spraying with a solution of Bordeaux fluid. A day after the end of flowering, treatment is carried out from the codling moth. During the season, you will need to spend 2 more such sprayings with a distance between them 3-4 weeks. This is necessary, since over the summer the codling moth gives as many as 3 generations of butterflies and this must be taken into account when processing.
Possible problems and ways to deal with them:
- If the tree withers, the leaves fall off, and the roots become gray and soft, then this is root rot caused by prolonged contact of the root system with water. To prevent this from happening, make sure that the water is completely absorbed after irrigation and only then spend the next one.
- If you see a drying branch, then it may be cytosposrosis, bacterial cancer and other diseases. For all situations, the treatment seems to be: remove the diseased branch, spray the tree with copper-based fungicide, grease the cut with this solution, and then paint over with oil.
- Mosses and lichens can settle on the bark of old trees. They are cleaned with a brush, and the tree is sprayed with a 3% solution of copper sulfate.
To reduce the population of codling moths and other flying pests, set pheromone traps. These are constructions with a sticky substance inside, to which insects stick. The rate of trap placement is 1 per 100 apples. They are suspended among fruits, but so that they hang from the outside of the crown.
Harvesting and storage
Ripening begins in September and can last until October. Apples themselves can remain on the branches until frost. To understand whether it is time to harvest, pay attention to color. A ripe apple is fully consistent with the color gram declared for the variety.
A sunny, dry day is suitable for harvesting. Collected apples are sorted.Damaged, deformed, or struck fruits are stored separately to eat or process in the coming days. The rest are disassembled in size and stacked in separate boxes or boxes. When stacking in several layers, they are transferred with paper to prevent friction of the fruits against each other.
Harvest of "Scythian gold" can be stored up to 4 months. If you have many different varieties, sign on the boxes the date by which they need to be consumed. Keep fruit boxes in a room with an air temperature of about 0 ° C and a humidity of 70–80%.
Scythian gold is a variety with many advantages, characterized by unpretentiousness. It can be recommended to anyone who has a place to plant in the garden and a desire to provide themselves and their friends with healthy and nutritious apples.