Features of growing and caring for the apple Stroyevskoye
Especially popular among gardeners is the apple tree Stroyevsky. It has a number of significant advantages. This article reveals the characteristics of the variety, as well as the nuances of planting and caring for it.
Botanical description and characteristics of the apple tree
Several scientists from the All-Russian Research Institute for Fruit Crop Breeding worked on the creation of the variety. Work began in 1981 in the city of Oryol and lasted almost 10 years. In 1991, a new apple tree produced its first crop. Thanks to excellent winter hardiness, strong immunity and high-quality fruits, in 1995 she was included in the list of elite varieties.
Full-fledged fruiting of the apple begins at 7-9 years
In 1999, the exhibition "Revival of the Russian Village" was held, at which Stroyevsky received 2 awards. In 2001, the variety was registered in the State Register and recommended for cultivation in the central regions of Russia. But the variety also gained popularity in Belarus, Ukraine and the Baltic states.
Did you know? In Kievan Rus, apple trees appeared during the time of Yaroslav the Wise in the 11th century. The first apple orchard was cultivated by monks at the Kiev Pechersk Lavra.
The Stroyevsky tree is easy to distinguish from other apple trees. It grows quickly, but rarely grows above 3 m. Crohn of medium density. In young trees, it is rounded, and in adults it has the shape of a wide pyramid. The bark of the trunk is gray, smooth to the touch.
The shoots are painted brown, downy, curved by an arc. The leaves of a saturated green color, elongated, oval or ovoid, have a wrinkled surface. In spring it blooms profusely with light pink fragrant flowers. Fruiting is a mixed type.
The variety is in no hurry with flowering, so the first spring frosts can pass by without damaging the flowers and ovaries
Characterization and description of the fruit
The apples are medium-sized, the average weight is 130–150 g, but some reach a weight of up to 180–200 g. They are slightly ribbed, have a conical, slightly sloping shape. The peel of apples is smooth and shiny. The color is green-yellow (at harvest time), ripening, becomes golden yellow with a bright red blush and the same dense stripes.
Did you know? It is very useful to eat one apple with the seeds daily. It is this amount of seeds that contains iodine, which is necessary for the normal functioning of the thyroid gland.
The pulp is white, dense, very juicy and tasty, sweet with sourness. Due to its high density, apples are well transported and stored for a long time, preserving the presentation and taste. The tasting score of the Stroyevsky fruits for their appearance is 4.5 points, and for taste - 4.4.
The application of apples is universal. Since they are remarkable for their excellent keeping quality, they can be eaten fresh all winter. They are also used for harvesting, for example, compotes, juices, mashed potatoes, preserves.
Stroyevsky bears fruit regularly
Pros and cons of the variety
- The advantages of the variety include:
- absolute immunity to scab;
- high frost resistance (up to -40 ° С);
- beautiful presentation of fruits;
- wonderful dessert flavor;
- excellent storage and transportability;
- high productivity (over 50 kg).
- The disadvantages include:
- the need for pollinators;
- later fruiting (the first harvest has to wait 7-11 years).
Key pollinators and flowering times
Stroyevskoe is not a self-fertile variety. is he needs pollinators, i.e. apple trees of other varieties, blooming simultaneously with Stroyevsky, throughout May (the term depends on the terrain and weather).
With this role, the apple trees in memory of the warrior, Veteran, Imrus, Oryol kandil can handle.If one of these trees does not grow in the garden, you need to plant it, you can a couple of years later Stroevsky. If you do not, you can not wait for a large crop.
Despite the late fruiting, in Stroyevsky it is stable, without periodicity. The number of crops grows annually: in the first year, one tree gives 25-30 kg, in the third - 50–55 kg, and from the fifth fruitful year - about 60 kg.
In order for the apple tree to take up well, grow quickly and give good harvests, you need to prepare in advance for planting a seedling. It is very important to find a suitable place and prepare it.
Video: Apple tree planting instructions
The selected area is suitable if:
- it is well lit by the sun, has no shade from neighboring trees;
- fertile soil (chernozem, sod-podzolic and gray forest, loam and sandy loam are allowed);
- soil acidity is neutral;
- groundwater does not rise close to the surface (at least 2 m);
- not located in a lowland where melt and rain water stagnate.
Site preparation is as follows:
- weed removal;
- fertilizer application (humus, superphosphate, wood ash and potassium chloride);
- deep digging.
It is advisable to perform these steps in advance.: one month before the autumn planting and in the fall, if the planting is planned in the spring. If this is not possible, you can prepare the pit a week before planting. At the same time, a hole of the required size is dug, the soil is mixed with fertilizers and returned back to the recess. Some gardeners prefer to pour fertilizer into the pit directly during planting.
Seedlings of Stroyevsky take root well in a new place. But it is advised to buy one-year-olds, because their small roots during excavation are practically not injured. If the top has been planted, you can cut it off, but no more than 1/3 of the trunk.
To choose the right landing pattern, you need to know on which rootstock a seedling is grown. For dwarf rootstocks, a 2.5 × 4 m scheme will be suitable, and for medium-sized stocks, 3.5 × 5 m.
Pit size: depth - 60 cm, diameter - 1 m. These figures may vary depending on the size of the seedling and its root system. There should be enough space in the recess to freely spread the roots. But at the same time it should not be too deep, because the root neck should remain 3–5 cm above the ground.
Thickened plantings worsen the growth and development of trees, reduce productivity and complicate the care of plants and harvesting
- Dig a hole of the right size.
- At the bottom lay a layer of drainage of small stones or broken bricks. This is true with a close occurrence of groundwater.
- Sprinkle drainage with earth. Top with a mound of fertilized soil dug from a hole.
- Put a sapling on the knoll, spreading the roots.
- Fill the hole with the remaining soil mixture so that the grafting site and the root neck remain on the surface, and well compacted.
- Snap the tree to the support.
- Water abundantly, but without washing the roots.
- When water is absorbed, cover the trunk circle with mulch.
The apple trees of Stroyevskoye are not particularly whimsical in growing, but the main rules for care, of course, are important to observe.
Watering and feeding
Seedlings planted in fertilized soil do not need additional nutrition in the first year. From the second year on, nutrition becomes necessary, especially on poor soils.
The feeding mode looks like this:
- In early spring - nitrogenous fertilizer (urea, ammonium nitrate, nitroammophosk) or a liquid solution of manure (1: 5), infused for 5 days. Dropped liquid is watered on the barrel circle, previously loosened.
- At the beginning of summer - mineral additives with a high content of phosphorus and potassium (superphosphate and potassium sulfate) and less nitrogen (urea) or liquid mullein.
- Autumn to prepare for winter - phosphorus-potassium fertilizers (without nitrogen) with organic matter.
Particular attention should be paid to watering seedlings. The frequency and volume of irrigation water depends on the age of the tree. In the first two years, seedlings are often watered in 2 buckets per plant. Mature trees are rarely watered, but 2 times more abundantly.
Proper recharge will positively impact tree productivity
Frequency and cropping methods
Pruning is one of the mandatory apple care measures.. It contributes to the healthy development of the tree and stable fruiting. Pruning is sanitary, shaping and rejuvenating.
Sanitary pruning is carried out in spring, autumn and, if necessary, in summer. All dry, frozen, broken and damaged shoots are removed from the tree. It is necessary for plant health. Sanitary pruning is of particular importance in the fall, it prepares the seedling for wintering.
Forming pruning is done to form a beautiful crown that is easy to care for. Crohn is formed in the first years of life.
- performed only in early spring, before the swelling of the kidneys;
- skeletal branches form in 3-4 tiers, between which a distance of 40-50 cm is left;
- lower skeletal branches should be longer than higher; growing higher, and the central shoot above lateral by about three buds;
- all branches thickening the crown, growing inward or at an acute angle, intersecting and rubbing are removed;
- the strong shoots left are pruned slightly, which slows their growth upward, and contributes to the growth of new shoots to the side.
In an adult tree, forming pruning is reduced to removing branches that thicken the crown. But in the apple tree, the Stroevsky krone is not very strong, so you can trim it every 2-3 years.
Anti-aging pruning is relevant for old treeswhose yield has decreased markedly. Branches that have ceased to bear fruit, even skeletal branches, are cut off completely, and the remaining branches, including the central shoot, are shortened. This helps the tree distribute nutrition, awaken sleeping buds and grow new fruitful shoots.
Important! Sections after each pruning should be lubricated with garden varnish or any oil paint for disinfection. Otherwise, wounds can rot and become a source of infection.
Stroyevskoye has good winter hardiness; it is not afraid of frosts down to -40 ° С. Therefore, in the central and southern regions, trees do not need insulation. To prepare an apple tree for winter, it is enough to pour and feed plentifully in the autumn.
In regions with harsher winters, there is a need for warming. It consists in mulching the trunk circle and wrapping the trunk with spruce or covering material. This will protect the tree not only from frost, but also from rodents. Young seedlings should be cut as low as possible so that they are covered with snow.
Diseases and Pests
Stroyevsky is an immune variety, i.e. he has immunity from certain fungal diseases. For example, a tree is absolutely not affected by scab. But it can get other diseases:
- powdery mildew - white coating, due to which the leaves curl and fall off; colloidal sulfur (80 g per 10 l of water) is used for treatment; prevention - spraying with sulfuric solution in the spring when the first leaves appear, then - after 14 days;The first sign of powdery mildew disease is a whitish coating on leaves and young shoots
- moniliosis, or fruit rot affecting fruits; control method - rotten apples to pluck from a tree and burn; preventive measures - thinning pruning of branches for good lighting and airing of the tree and 3-time spraying with 1% Bordeaux liquid (1 - 3 days before flowering, 2 - when a drop of grass appears, 3 - 14 days after the second spraying).Moniliosis is a fungal disease to which the Stroyevsky variety has immunity, but it will not be superfluous to prevent fruit rot
The great advantage of the apple tree Stroyevsky is her pest immunitywith which she copes independently.Therefore, preventive treatments are not necessary.
Harvesting and storage
Removable maturity for apples Stroyevskoe usually occurs in the second half of September. This period may vary due to weather conditions. After eating, the fruits are quite acidic, but after lying for about a month, they acquire a pleasant sweet and sour taste.
Important! Picking apples from the tree should be careful not to damage the skin. Otherwise, the shelf life will be greatly reduced.
For storage, it is advisable to use a dry and cool room. In such conditions, apples lie until the beginning of spring. And in closed boxes or boxes they will remain fresh and juicy until the summer.
Grade apples Stroyevskoye juicy, sweet, with a slight sourness
Variety Stroyevskoe is ideal for those who want to plant an unpretentious, frost-resistant, fruitful apple tree in their garden. Compliance with the basic rules of agricultural technology guarantees an annual abundant harvest of juicy and delicious apples.