Features apple varieties Venyaminovskoe
Despite the huge variety of apple varieties that are grown in private courtyards and industrial gardens, the winter variety that was bred at the end of the last century and has a wide list of positive qualities, which are described in detail in the article below, deserves attention. And we will talk about the apple variety Venyaminovsky.
Plant Description and Characterization
The apple-tree of the winter variety Venyaminovskoye was obtained by selection surveys in 1990 (the first full-fledged fruit crop was grown), which was carried out at the Russian Research Institute of Fruit Culture Selection by scientists V.V. Zhdanov, E.A. Dolmatov, Z. M. Serova.
In 1995, it was officially approved as an elite variety and in 2001 it was zoned in the gardens of the Central Black Earth region, after it passed the (state) tests in 1998. The territories of the middle zone of the Russian Federation were also designated as priority for growing Venyamin apple trees.
Important! Due to its increased resistance to low temperatures, the above variety can grow without significant damage in cold areas.
Trees of this variety are tall because the height of apple trees varies from 3.5 m to 7 m (depending on the stock). Crohn - rounded shape, relatively rare. Skeletal branches are durable and grow relative to the trunk almost at an angle of 90 °.
This feature determines the wide spreading of the crown, which should be taken into account when laying a young garden. The ends of the shoots are directed upwards. The surface of the cortex is characterized by a smooth structure, color - in gray tones. Fruit ovaries form on the glove.
Minor shoots - brown, faceted at the cut, curved arcuate. The structure is cranked, and the thickness is medium. Small lentils are located on the surface of the branches in large numbers. The leaves have an elliptical shape with sharpening at the ends and a serrated, wavy edge. The glossy, ribbed surface of the sheet plate is painted dark green. Flowers are small, with petals of a white-one-time hue, collected in bouquets of 4-6 flowers in each.
Did you know? The English word "The Apple" - an apple, came from the name of the god Apollo, who was the patron saint of an apple tree in Ancient Greece.
In addition to the main tone, the apples are inherent in a bright raspberry blush and clearly visible subcutaneous points. The pulp is juicy and sweet and sour taste inherent in dessert varieties. In structure, it is dense, coarse-grained, pale green color. Tasting score - 4.4 points.
Pros and cons of the Venyaminovsky variety
Like any other variety, Venyaminovsky combines both positive features and disadvantages.
- Unconditional advantages include:
- increased resistance to scab;
- regular harvest;
- excellent taste;
- transportability over long distances without loss of consumer characteristics;
- long shelf life;
- high degree of resistance of trees to low temperatures and quick recovery after freezing.
- The disadvantages of the variety:
- relatively small fruit size;
- spaced in time ripening period;
- tendency to fall in fruit;
- the variety needs pollinating neighbors.
The variety is classified as high-yielding, early-growing. Trees in the age range from 8 to 11 years are able to bring about 1500 kg of fruit per hectare.
Veniaminovsky apple trees are partially self-fertile. This means that in the process of self-pollination, only 8% of the ovaries are nucleated.
The following varieties are called the most suitable pollinators:
- Miron sugar;
- Arcade summer.
In order to obtain in the near future a full-fledged, regularly fruiting fruit tree on a personal plot, it is necessary to observe the rules for planting seedlings.
Important! Due to qualities such as increased winter hardiness, there is no need to choose a landing site that would be protected from the north.
Since Veniaminovsky apple trees belong to the winter-hardy variety, seedlings are planted both in spring time (April) and in autumn (mid-September - early November). When spring planting, the main thing is to have time to complete the procedure before the buds open.
Soil selection and preparation
If the planting of seedlings is planned in the spring, then the planting pits are prepared in advance - in the fall of the previous season. And with an autumn landing, it is advisable to carry out preparatory work at least a week before the landing manipulations.
Veniaminovsky apple trees fully develop in soils:
- non-acidic - the pH should be below 6.0;
- with the occurrence of groundwater below 2–2.5 m of the upper soil layer. In the case of planting seedlings formed on dwarf rootstocks, a depth of 1.6–1.8 m will suffice;
- loamy, sandy loam, chernozems, forest gray soils with good water and air exchange, loosened.
In the process of forming a planting recess, weeds are carefully removed from the upper soil layer, after which a layer of soil is selected to the depth of the blade, which is mixed with five kilograms of manure or compost (fermented), 0.4 kg of ash and 1 tbsp. l nitroammophoski.Some time after the subsidence of the earth, make sure that the root neck is located above the surface at a height of 2 cm
How to plant seedlings
The algorithm for planting a seedling:
- In the landing pit (depth - 70 cm; width - 100 cm), a drainage layer of expanded clay or pebbles is poured to the bottom, the reference stake is deepened.
- The next layer will be a nutrient mixture consisting of peat and humus (in a bucket), a glass of wood ash and a full tablespoon of nitroammophoska.
- Gently pour a bucket of water (room temperature) into the hole.
- After a short period of time necessary for uniform absorption of liquid, a young apple tree plant is placed in the center of the recess. It is imperative to carefully distribute the root system of the plant on top of the soil layer, and orient the seedling in space as follows: the darker shade of the bark of the tree should be turned to the south side of the space, and the light to the north. Two-year-old planting material sometimes has asymmetry caused by a more pronounced development of the "southern" side. In this case, to align the barrel, the spatial orientation should be changed.
- Fill the roots with a mixture of fertilized surface soil layer (as mentioned in the previous paragraph of the article), while slightly twitching the seedling to prevent the formation of empty "pockets" around the roots.
- Watering the planting with two buckets of water, ramming the soil and mulching with a two-centimeter layer of sawdust or peat.
- The seedling is fixed by tying it to the support with a tape made of soft natural material.
Apple tree care
Caring for fruit trees consists in regular agricultural practices, which will be described in detail below.
Fertilizing and watering
Top dressing is carried out according to the standard scheme for apple trees.
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The amount of fertilizer is given for one tree:
- The first spring fertilizer - nitroammofoska, 1 tbsp. in dissolved form. The procedure is combined with watering.
- The active phase of flowering is the ash of tree species of plants. 300 g sprinkled under a tree. They irrigate the earth with water.
- Ripening fruits and after harvesting - a mixture of potassium salts and superphosphate, a teaspoon of each ingredient.
Of particular importance are regular irrigation of soil under garden plants during the period of active growth - 3 buckets / tree every 10-15 days, at the time of flowering - a bucket of liquid with an interval of three days and during the formation of the ovaries and “pouring” of fruits - once per 3 buckets per week. Water rates depend on specific weather conditions in a given season.
Crown shaping and trimming
Plants of the described variety undergo a pruning procedure from three to four years of age, which is carried out with thinning and sanitary purposes every 2-3 years in the first month of spring. Damaged, dry branches are cut out, as well as those whose thickness is less than the thickness of a simple pencil.
You should remove the "tops" - a shoot that grows on the main branches strictly up and "pulls" nutrients onto itself, as well as shoots that randomly grow deep into the crown, thereby thickening it.
Important! Without fail, the cutting parts of the tools must be disinfected with alcohol or vodka, and the surface of the slices (even a small in area) that occurs after removal of the shoots is covered with garden varnish or varnish based on varnish.
The Venyaminovsky variety, as mentioned above, is very frost-resistant. However, preventive measures to prevent the negative effects caused by low temperatures should be taken. To protect the root system from freezing, at the end of October, an abundant watering of the trunk circle is made, the surface of which is covered with a thick layer of mulch for the winter.
The trunk and skeletal branches (up to half) are whitened with a solution of lime with the addition of PVA glue, after which they are wrapped with burlap, agrofibre or spruce coniferous trees and the insulation layers around the trunk are fixed with twine.
Protection against rodent animals is effective in the form of a fine-mesh mesh-netting, which is installed in the form of a cylinder around the trunk, having been buried 20-30 cm deep into the soil of the trunk circle.
Since the variety is very resistant to apple diseases, and the resistance to the most formidable disease - scab - is caused at the gene level, the main threat to Veniaminovsky apple trees is pests.
Amateur gardeners recommend the use of natural raw materials in pest control. Trees are sprayed with infusions of wormwood, hot pepper, onion husk, ash (used both individually and in mixtures with each other).
Aphids - the main pest of the apple orchard, does not tolerate the influence of calendula, cilantro and dill growing next to the trees. Tansy growing around trees prevents most harmful insects from appearing.
Of the chemicals used:
- Copper sulfate - used for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes in the phase of formation of flower buds.
- “Karbofos”, Bordeaux liquid - used according to the instructions before flowering.
- "Fozalon", a solution of 4% - use, adhering to the annotation to the drug, in the period of fruit ovary.
- Urea - plants are treated during fruiting.
Did you know? Apples do not drown in water, since they are 25% air.
The drugs can effectively fight not only with aphids, but also with the moth, apple moth, hawthorn and fruit sapwood. Before the onset of the winter period, fallen leaves, carrion, insect nests are removed from the site.
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting is commenced starting in mid-September, choosing a dry, sunny day for this process, since wet apples tolerate the storage process much worse. Timing may be shifted depending on the region and climatic conditions.
Fruits are carefully removed from the tree, preferably with a stalk, and placed in wooden or plastic boxes, which, in turn, are placed in a cellar or special storage with a stable temperature (not higher than + 5 ° C) and humidity 80–85%. In such conditions, apples may not lose their presentation and taste until March.
Despite the fact that the Venyaminovsky variety is still very young, plant experts advise to pay more attention to it. Resistance to scab, high palatability, versatility of use, frost resistance, good keeping quality and transportability - all these qualities make this apple tree a priority in a personal plot.