Description and characteristics of early varieties of watermelon
Watermelon is a delicious berry that is grown by almost everyone who has a garden. Especially popular are the early varieties of watermelons, so consider a detailed description of the best of them, and also discuss the features of growing such watermelons at home.
Features and difference of early varieties of watermelon
An important feature that gardeners pay attention to when they buy watermelon seeds is early maturity. Early ripening varieties are necessarily planted on the site, if there is free space, the crop of which can be harvested already in the middle of summer, without waiting for autumn, to enjoy a delicious berry.
Early varieties, unlike later ones, are best planted in greenhouses, especially in the middle band, when there is a risk of death of sprouts or seeds under extreme temperature changes.
Important! Not all early varieties are suitable for growing in greenhouses, so when choosing a seed material, read the cultivation recommendations that will be indicated on the package.
Early varieties, unlike later ones, are more susceptible to diseases, so you should carefully consider this issue and take preventive measures against common diseases in a particular growing region.
Video: How to grow an early watermelon
TOP 10 best early and ultra-early varieties of watermelons
To make it easier to determine the variety that is best planted on your site, consider the list of the best with a detailed description and description.
Gift to the North
The ripening period for the Gift to the North variety is 75–80 days after seed germination. The yield under home growing conditions usually does not exceed 10 kg per 1 m², while cultivating for industrial purposes, yields of 10–12 tons per 1 ha are achieved. Watermelon berries have a rounded oval shape, the peel is of medium thickness, with a smooth shiny surface of green color with light stripes.
The average weight of a watermelon is 6 kg, but usually the fruits grow larger, weighing more than 10 kg. Watermelons are characterized by the presence of crisp and juicy red pulp with a high sugar content. A gift to the north tolerates small frosts well, has a stable immunity to common diseases of melons.
The full technical maturity of the Ogonyok watermelon occurs on 70–80 days after seed germination. The variety is characterized by increased yield indicators - up to 15 kg from 1 m² if grown on a home bed, and up to 26 tons from 1 ha when grown on an industrial scale. The berries are represented by a round-oval shape, with a peel of saturated green color and light, barely noticeable, light stripes. The peel is thin, the surface is smooth, matte.
Did you know? The world leader in growing watermelons is China, annually up to 65 million tons are cultivated in the country.
The average weight of a watermelon ranges from 2.5 kg, sometimes watermelons can grow a little more weight. The taste of watermelon is rated very highly, despite the fact that the variety is early, it has a very sweet, juicy pulp. The plant is also resistant to common diseases - fusarium wilt and anthracnose, berries normally tolerate a short-term drop in temperature.
Watermelons of the Ogonyok variety quickly spit, feel great in the coastal climate, and are resistant to major diseases.
Crimson Ruby F1
The earliest hybrid is called Crimson Ruby F1, it ripens enough for 55-60 days after emergence. Productivity is not high - up to 4 kg per 1 m² for home cultivation and up to 7 tons per 1 ha when grown on an industrial scale. The berries are oval, slightly flattened at the ends. The peel is thick, dense with a smooth shiny surface. The peel has a green color with stripes of a light shade.One watermelon weighs an average of 10-12 kg.The pulp is juicy, high in sugar, has a red color and pleasantly crunches. The characteristics of the hybrid contain information about high immunity to the main diseases of gourds, especially resistant to Crimson Ruby F1 is to Fusarium.
Farao F1 refers to hybrids that have a ripening period of 80–85 days after seed germination. The yield is about 5 kg per 1 m² for home cultivation and up to 8 tons per 1 ha for cultivation on an industrial scale.Fruits are oval-elongated, dark green with light stripes. The peel is thick, dense, shiny and smooth. The weight of one watermelon reaches an average of 11-15 kg, sometimes huge berries grow, weighing up to 30 kg. Watermelon has a sweet pleasant taste, not sugary, with richly red non-fibrous pulp. The variety is highly resistant to Fusarium and Anthracnose.
The ripening period of the Ataman F1 hybrid falls on 80–90 days after germination. The amount of crop that can be harvested at home cultivation is 6-10 kg per 1 m². When cultivated on an industrial scale, yields are achieved with an indicator of 10-15 tons per 1 ha.
The berries are oval with a thick, smooth peel of green color, which is covered with stripes of a light shade. Each fruit weighs at least 10 kg, more often - from 15 kg. The taste is pleasant, sweet, juicy flesh, rich red color. The variety is characterized as resistant to anthracnose and fusariosis.
The Top Gan hybrid ripens for 75–80 days, from the moment the first shoots appear on the bed. Productivity depends on the observance of cultivation agricultural techniques, usually when cultivated on a home bed, they collect up to 17 kg per 1 m², and when cultivated for industrial purposes - up to 20 tons per 1 ha.
Watermelon berries are characterized by an oval shape, a dense and thick peel, painted green with small stripes of a lighter shade. The weight of one fetus ranges from 8-10 kg, sometimes reaches 15 kg. The pulp is juicy, sweet, crunches and has a light watermelon aroma. A feature of Top Gan is excellent immunity to anthracnose and fusarium.
An early-ripening sugar variety that ripens on 65–75 days after seed germination. It has a high yield - up to 15 kg per 1 m² for home cultivation and 20 tons per 1 ha for cultivation on an industrial scale.
Did you know? The largest watermelon in the world was grown in 2013 by an American farmer from Tennessee, the weight of the fruit was 156 kg.
The fruits have a rounded, slightly elongated shape, characterized by the presence of a thin peel of dark green color with stripes of a light shade. One watermelon on average weighs up to 6 kg, sometimes larger berries grow up to 8-10 kg. The pulp is crisp and juicy, saturated red, has a sweet, pleasant taste. The variety is characterized by high immunity to anthracnose.
Watermelon Nice has the characteristics of an early variety, after germination of seeds before harvesting, only 70–75 pass. The variety is high-yielding, with 1 m² about 17 kg of fruit being harvested at home. On an industrial scale, you can cultivate up to 30 tons per 1 ha.The fruits are represented by an elongated rounded shape, green in color with a large number of light stripes. The peel of the watermelon is thin, but strong, well protects the juicy red sweet pulp from damage. The weight of one fetus is on average 5-6 kg.
Sugar Lightning F1
The ultra-early hybrid is F1 watermelon Sugar Lightning, the ripening period is 60–70 days after seed germination. F1 sugar lightning has a good yield, at home you can collect up to 10 kg per 1 m², for industrial cultivation - up to 15 tons per 1 ha.The hybrid is characterized by a spherical shape of the berries, has a thin peel, dark green in color with a mild pattern or without it. One fruit has an average weight of 1.5–3 kg.The pulp is rich in juiciness, sugar content, honey flavor. The hybrid is well tolerated by lowering air temperatures and even small spring frosts.
The watermelon variety Skorik is able to produce crops already 80 days after germination in the garden. Despite the low yield - up to 5 kg per 1 m² when cultivated on a home garden, the variety does not lose popularity among gardeners, but is not usually used for industrial purposes.Skorik fruits have the shape of a ball, peel of medium thickness, dense, green in color with characteristic light stripes. Each watermelon weighs an average of 4-5 kg; occasionally, larger fruits grow. The pulp of the fruit is saturated red with a light raspberry hue, very sweet, juicy and crunchy. The variety is highly resistant to powdery mildew and bacterial spotting.
Watermelons of the Skorik variety feel good in the greenhouse and on the open ground, fully ripen in less than three months.
Features of care and cultivation of early ripe varieties
Watermelons are unpretentious gourds, but still require minimal care to obtain a high-quality rich crop. Plants tolerate drought well, therefore, regular watering, provided abundant natural rainfall is not required.
Important! A large amount of moisture in the soil makes watermelons less sweet and tasty, they quickly decay and are poorly stored..
For the entire growing period, with a lack of rain, watermelons are watered 4 times:
- during the period of active vegetation;
- during flowering;
- during the formation of the ovary;
- during active fruit growth.
Excess fluid in the soil affects the plant badly, it can provoke rotting of leaves, shoots and roots or cracking of the fruit if you water the bush during the ripening period of watermelons.
Particular attention should be paid to feeding watermelon bushes to increase yield and size of fruits. Fertilizing should be done twice:
- 14 days after seed germination - a solution of ammonium nitrate (20 g per 10 l of water) is introduced into the soil. Each bush is watered with a nutritious mixture, 2 l under the root;
- during the period of active formation of the ovary, a nutrient mixture is introduced: calcium chloride (4 g), ammonium nitrate (4 g), superphosphate (6 g) per 1 m², pouring plenty of water.
In addition to watering and top dressing, the formation of bushes is carried out so that the plant uses the main forces and nutrients to form and grow fruits. The formation of the bush is carried out immediately after the appearance of the first ovary.
There are 2 ways to grow watermelons:
- in one lash, in the case of the cultivation of large-fruited varieties - all side shoots are removed. On the main shoot leave no more than 3 fruits, the rest are removed. Pinch the main stem, retreating 3 sheets from the place of formation of the ovary;
- in several lashes - the main stem is shortened at the level of 4 leaves after the ovary. Pinch the side lashes, tearing off part of the shoot up to 5 cm long. Up to 3 strong shoots should be left on the bush, the rest should be removed, leaving a small "stump" of 3 cm, which will inhibit the growth of new lashes. The shoots that were attached are carefully inspected, each leaves 1 fruit, choosing the largest and healthiest in appearance.
The resistance to diseases in early varieties is different, in addition, they are often affected by all kinds of pests, so we will consider how to treat plants from common diseases and preserve the crop from pests.
The diseases that most often affect early ripe varieties of watermelons are presented:
- powdery mildew - has a fungal nature of origin, covers leaves and lashes with white coating, causes deformation, unpleasant taste and decay of fruits. It is necessary to deal with the problem with the drug “Karatana FN57” or its analogues, according to the instructions on the package;In the absence of timely treatment, powdery mildew can lead to the death of even an adult watermelon
- olive spotting - a bacterial disease, which manifests itself in the form of olive-gray spots on the fruits, which soon begin to rot. It is necessary to deal with the problem by treating the plant with “Fundazole” according to the instructions;
- anthracnose - a bacterial disease that causes the appearance of spots of copper, brown and gray in all parts of the plant, causes deformation and a change in the taste of the fruit. To combat the problem using a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid or the drug "Kuprozan", according to the instructions.Anthracnose affects the entire plant.
Among the pests that are often found on a watermelon bed, there are:
- gourd aphids - a small insect that affects the shoots of the plant does not allow the green lashes and leaves to develop normally, eating their juice, therefore, it minimizes the yield and can cause the death of the plant. To combat aphids, the drugs Fufanon, Iskra, and Komandor are used according to the instructions;
- spider mite - a small insect that feeds on the juice of leaves and shoots of a plant, depletes the bush and becomes the cause of complete drying of the ground part. To combat the pest use the drug Fitoverm, according to the instructions.
Harvesting and storage
It is necessary to collect early ripe varieties of watermelons, according to the terms indicated on the packaging with the seed material that you purchase for planting. Harvesting is done as each fruit ripens, breaks between harvest periods can range from a few days to 1-2 weeks.
The main signs of a ripe fruit are:
- cessation of fetal growth;
- the presence of a yellow spot in the place of contact with the soil;
- shrunken antennae that grow near the peduncle;
- characteristic cracking when squeezed by palms, which only ripe berries emit;
- the disappearance of a matte coating from the surface of the peel.
It is necessary to separate watermelons from lashes with a sharp knife, leaving a part of the stalk up to 5 cm in size. Store watermelons at a temperature of +1 to + 3 ° C and humidity of about 80%. In such conditions, the fruits can be stored without loss of taste and appearance for 3 months. A place suitable for storage is a refrigerator or a cellar with shelves, shelves of which are covered with straw or dry peat. It is necessary to lay the fruits in 1 layer, keeping a distance of 5 cm between each watermelon.
Important! For better preservation and prevention of diseases, it is recommended to treat the fruits with 25% milk of lime or chalk.
Thus, the yield and taste of the fruits, with the right choice of varieties of early ripening, can be no worse than late-ripening watermelons, and you can enjoy delicious pulp already in the middle of summer. In order to grow quality fruits, it is necessary not only to choose the right variety, but also to take into account the peculiarities of plant care, which are described in detail in the article.