Detailed characteristics and agricultural technology of growing carrots of the Kuroda variety
Carrots are considered to be one of the main vegetables on our table. Vegetables are consumed both fresh and as part of dishes, subjected to heat treatment. Early varieties occupy a special place - it is so nice to crunch fresh carrots grown in your own garden in the middle of summer. The article will talk about the Kuroda variety, the features of its cultivation.
History of cultivation and cultivation regions
The birthplace of Kuroda carrots is Japan, where the breeders of the Sakata company, taking as a basis the famous French variety Chantane, introduced a new one in 2004. In 2007, the State Register of the Russian Federation approved a variety for cultivation in the North Caucasus region. In addition, the culture is suitable for breeding in Ukraine and Moldova.
Description and characteristics of root crops
The early variety belongs to the Chantane variety. Almost simultaneous germination of seeds is noted, very rarely goes to the arrow. Root crops have a plastic structure, are not prone to cracking. Although the variety is early, it is stored well.
The tops are long, semi-spreading, light green in color. The leaves are large and medium dissected.
Did you know? The homeland of carrots is Afghanistan, where it grew in the wild, had a purple, less often white color. The root crop acquired our usual color, thanks to the Dutch breeders who made it for the Royal House of Oran, whose color is orange.
Size and features of the fruit
Root vegetables are bright orange, shaped like a cone, have a rounded tip. On average, one root crop is 16–19 cm long and weighs 100–165 g, although specimens often reach 200 g.
The root surface is smooth, with a large number of eyes. The core is small in diameter, the flesh is dense and at the same time tender and juicy. High taste qualities of the vegetable are noted.
The content of certain substances in Kuroda carrots:
- solids - 10.5-15%;
- sugars - 10%;
- carotene - 20.5 mg.
The variety has high yield indicators: under normal conditions, from 1 ha can be harvested from 23 to 42 tons of root crops. For comparison, the yield of the popular Losinoostrovskaya variety is 13 tons, and that of the ancestor of Kuroda Shantane is 4-8 tons lower.
The highest rate of variety yield in Russia was established in the Krasnodar Territory - 436 c / ha. Of the total harvest, the percentage of marketable products ranges from 85–96%.
Did you know? Thanks to eating carrots, blood levels of calcium increase and cholesterol decreases.
The first Kuroda carrot ripens approximately 60–65 days after emergence. A month later, the crop matures in full. If you sow the seeds in April, in July you can already enjoy the ripe root crops of the new crop.
Kuroda has good resistance to most diseases. Particularly successful immunity of carrots resists various types of rot.
Pros and cons of the variety
Despite the fact that the variety is young, specialists were able to thoroughly study its advantages and characteristic shortcomings.
- Among the pluses are the following:
- great taste caused by high sugars and carotene;
- high productivity;
- good resistance to a large number of diseases, especially to rot;
- long shelf life, despite the fact that the variety is early;
- tolerates the vagaries of weather: heat, lack of precipitation, a sharp change in temperature.
As for the disadvantages of the variety, neither specialists nor amateur gardeners mention the presence of significant disadvantages.
Features of outdoor cultivation
The variety tolerates light frosts and other weather surprises quite well; it makes no sense to grow it in a greenhouse. The main points to remember when growing are characteristic of all other varieties of culture.
Try to purchase Kuroda carrot seeds from a reputable producer. It is better to do this in certified retail outlets, so as not to buy poor quality goods or other varieties.
Dates and place for landing
You can sow carrots in the fall (get a very early harvest), or in the spring. You can sow seeds in the middle of summer and get a second crop in the fall.It is better to choose a place for spring planting of root vegetables in the fall. The main thing is that the site for growing crops is well lit by sunlight.The variety grows on any soil with a neutral pH (6.0–7.0), but loams with a high humus content and a powerful arable layer are better suited. If the site is dominated by heavy soils, they need to be treated a little. Remember the rules of crop rotation.
- Carrots grow well where they grew before:
- early potatoes;
- onion and garlic.
- In places where the following crops previously grew, it is better not to sow root crops:
After carrots and other umbrellas, re-planting should be done no earlier than the fourth season. It is advisable that siderates be grown during this time period in the 1-2 season section.In the south of Russia, in most of Ukraine, the seeds are sown and at the end of March, however, it is better to wait until the soil warms up to +10 ... + 13 ° С. In autumn, sowing work is carried out shortly before the onset of frost.
If you want to plant a vegetable as early as possible, you should be guided by such temperature indicators: soil - not lower than + 8 ° С, air - not lower than + 10–12 ° С at night.
Preparation of planting material and soil
For maximum germination and enhance immunity of seeds, they should be prepared before planting. They begin by removing traces of essential oils that prevent germination from the surface of the seeds.
Do it this way:
- Take a piece of fabric (thin cotton, linen, chintz), about 40 × 40 cm in size, as large as possible. Sprinkle seeds in the middle, fold the fabric like a pouch, tie the corners.
- Immerse such a bag with seeds in a container with water (+45 ... + 50 ° C), rinse well several times. Leave the pouch with the contents in the water until it cools down.
- Remove the contents from the pouch, place in a fine-mesh sieve, rinse thoroughly under running water, alternating hot and cold. Put the seeds on a lint-free towel to dry.
Perform the procedure in this way:
- The same piece of tissue from which the pouch was made is abundantly moistened in water or in a growth stimulant (Epin, Zircon). You can moisten the fabric in a solution of ash or sodium humate (respectively, 3 tbsp. L. Or 3 tsp. / 3 l of water).
- Seeds are placed in a damp cloth, left for 6-8 hours in the refrigerator, every 2 hours taking them out for 20 minutes. Thus, hardening of the material for planting occurs.
- After the specified time, the moistened tissue with the contents is placed in a bowl or plastic container, placed in a warm, lit place, covered with a film. It is necessary to constantly monitor the degree of tissue moisture, adding water if necessary.
- When the seeds begin to break through the seeds, they can be planted in the ground.
In autumn, they dig up the land for planting and bring 1 bucket of compost or humus for each square meter of area.In the event that the soil is heavy, add sawdust, river sand or peat. Digging should be to the depth of the shovel, trying to remove pebbles from the site (meeting them on the growth path, root crops form “horns”).
If the soil in the garden has a high acidity (pH 5.8), dolomite flour (1 tbsp. / 1 m²), or chalk, cement dust is added to it when digging. You can prepare the soil mixture for the beds, on which Kuroda will be able to bring abundant crops for several years in a row.
To prepare the mixture, take the following ingredients:
- peat - 1 bucket;
- needles - 1 bucket;
- sifted river sand - 2 buckets;
- wood ash - 1 shovel.
All components are thoroughly mixed and laid in place of future beds, the layer thickness is 20–25 cm.
Landing pattern and process
Kuroda is sown in the same way as other varieties of carrots. It is better to do this in a soil that is well moistened.
The root crop planting scheme is as follows:
- the orientation of the beds is north-south;
- the depth of seeds - 1-2 cm;
- aisles - 25-30 cm;
- the distance between neighboring root crops is 6–8 cm.
Due to the fact that the seeds of the culture are small and almost black in color, it is problematic to plant them at the right distance from each other.To facilitate the task, use this method:
- In a place prepared in advance for landing, parallel grooves are made with a depth of 1-2 cm and a distance between them of 25-30 cm.
- Take paper napkins (towels) or toilet paper, cut strips with a 2-3 cm tire, the length of the strips does not matter.
- Prepare starch paste by dissolving 1 tbsp. starch in 1 cup of hot water.
- Apply a thin strip of paste on each strip of paper. On the paste, every 6–8 cm, put the sprouted seeds and leave to dry. For the convenience of laying out the seed material, it is better to use tweezers.
- After drying, a strip is placed in the groove under the landing and covered with earth.
Did you know? During World War I, the Germans learned how to make "soldier's coffee" from roasted carrots. In addition to the attractive taste and aroma, the drink had a tonic effect, reminiscent of the effect of real coffee.
Caring for Kuroda carrots consists in watering, feeding, thinning and removing weeds, and combating potential diseases and pests. The variety can not be called capricious, it does not require any special efforts from the gardener. However, that moderate amount of necessary work should be done on time.
Watering and fertilizer
Kuroda does not need frequent watering. If sufficient rainfall occurs in spring and summer, you can do without additional watering at all. Root crops have one remarkable property: they very well draw water from the soil.The usual watering rate for Kuroda carrots is 3 l / m², in dry weather - 4.5–5 l / m². This carrot tolerates moderate drought with virtually no consequences, it does not lead to cracking of the fetus or some other unpleasant results. If the summer is very dry and hot weather, it is enough to water the beds every 1-1.5 weeks.
Root crops are fed, alternating mineral fertilizers and organics. The first time fertilizers are applied 3 weeks after emergence. As a top dressing, you can use such a tool:
- water - 1 bucket;
- potassium sulfate - 1 tbsp. l .;
- superphosphate - 2 tbsp. l;
- carbamide - 1/2 tbsp. l
Important! The abuse of humus during the application of fertilizing can cause the appearance of “horns” on root crops.
- water - 1 bucket;
- potassium sulfate - 1 tbsp. l .;
- nitroammofosk - 1 tbsp. l
The same top dressing should be carried out after the first thinning of the seedlings. Organics are added no more than twice a year, one of which - in the fall.
Thinning and weed control
To get a good harvest of carrots, consisting of large fruits of a presentation, it is necessary to thin out the beds. Seedlings are thinned out if the seeds were sown very densely (the distance between neighboring seeds is about 1 cm).Otherwise, a huge number of small ugly roots that vaguely resemble carrots in pictures will grow.
After the appearance of the first shoots, the first thinning is also carried out. To facilitate the procedure, it is better to water the seedlings before this. The purpose of the procedure is to remove excess seedlings so that the distance between the remaining is 3-4 cm.
When removing extra seedlings, they need to be pulled up only, there should be no diagonal effort (this can damage neighboring root crops). After thinning, the beds are watered with warm water (4 l / m²), gently rammed the places where the seedlings were removed, weeding between the rows.
After another 20-22 days, the procedure is repeated. Now it is necessary to thin out so that between the "neighbors" there is 7-8 cm of free space.
Important! Thinning out carrots is better after sunset or early in the morning until the sun has risen. The fact is that the smell that appears during the procedure attracts pests (carrot fly), and in a cooler environment it is not so noticeable.
Pests and diseases
Kuroda is a young variety; when it was bred, breeders used all their knowledge and rich experience in enhancing plant immunity. As a result, a variety resistant to most diseases appeared. However, good resistance does not mean that Kuroda is not at all threatened by any disease or pest. If preventive measures are taken on time, the development of troubles of this kind can be prevented. Soon after sowing, fungicides such as TNTD and Abita-PIK are used.
Among the diseases that pose the greatest danger to the plant, it is necessary to distinguish the following:
- Fomoz. A characteristic feature is that the green is covered with gray spots. To prevent the disease, the seeds are heated to +50 ... + 60 ° C before sowing. In addition, potassium supplements should be regularly performed during the growing season.
- White rot. Carrots cover a cotton-like coating under which mucus collects. As a preventive measure, organic fertilizing should be applied and watered with warm water.
- Bacteriosis. The green of the outlet turns yellow, rusty spots appear on the stems. The disease is effectively treated with the help of the drug "Hom".
- Rhizoctinosis. Dots and spots of black color appear on carrots, gray under the surface of the skin. Plants are treated with copper oxychlorate.
Pests characteristic of Kuroda carrots:
- Carrot fly. You can find out that this pest was wound up on culture by a characteristic feature: greens cover a bronze-colored coating. To minimize the risk of a pest, it is necessary to dig the soil well and deeply before sowing the seeds, add ash and tobacco dust to it.
- Medvedka. The appearance of this insect can be noticed almost immediately: a lot of mechanical damage appears on the root crop and greens - traces of eating the plant. During the autumn gardening work, you should deeply dig the soil and add detergent, kerosene or tincture of pepper into it.
- Leaf Carrot. The main food for the larvae is the juice of the ground part of the plant, as a result, the greens turn yellow, then it dries and withers. To get rid of the pest, apply leaf treatment with tobacco infusion.
- Wireworm. Prevention of the appearance of the parasite on the vegetable is regular nitrogen nutrition.
- Winter scoop. First of all, tops and the upper part of the root crop suffer from the parasite. Insecticides such as "Politron", "Decis" have proven themselves well.
Dates of collection and storage features
Harvest Kuroda can be harvested up to two times per season. Despite the fact that the variety is early, it is stored well, especially if you create the appropriate conditions. In order for the root crop to lie down as long as possible, without loss of marketability and taste, it should be collected in dry weather, and then allowed to air dry.Then the remnants of the earth are removed and stored in a refrigerator or cellar (basement) for storage.
Important! The most suitable storage conditions for root crops: temperature - 0 ... + 2 ° С, humidity - 85–95%.
Kuroda, in fact, is the modern development of the popular Chantane carrot variety. Having transmitted the best qualities (taste, productivity) from the ancestor, specialists in the field of selection tried to level out a few shortcomings, and they succeeded.