Variety of apple trees Bessemyanka Michurinskaya: description and detailed description, growing rules
Apple tree is a popular tree in our gardens, so this culture has a huge variety of varieties, and each variety has its own characteristics in terms of agricultural technology. The article will discuss the features of cultivating the Bessemyanka Michurinskaya variety.
Variety breeding history
The distinguished breeder Michurin I.V. was engaged in the breeding of the variety in question. He crossed the varieties Bessemyanka Kosinskaya with Skryzhapel. The new variety received zoning in the East Siberian, Central, Central Black Earth, and Northwest regions. It turned out so successful that it was repeatedly used to obtain many other, no less worthy varieties.
Did you know? 60% of apples grown in the United States are from northern Washington.
Description and characteristic of a tree
To better understand what this magnificent variety is, you need to familiarize yourself with its description.
Tree morphology and description of apples
Apple tree Bessemyanka Michurinskaya is a tall, strong tree with a rounded crown. It consists of a small number of powerful branches that bear fruit. Shoots are small, thickened, covered with large wrinkled emerald-colored leaves with slightly curled edges. In the ground, the tree holds strong roots, extending in depth by five meters.
Fruits are formed average, 170-175 g. Their shape is rounded with slight flattening in the center. The surface of the apple is slightly ribbed. The skin is yellow, with a greenish tint and raspberry blush. Under it is a creamy juicy and aromatic pulp of a pleasant consistency, with a sweet and sour taste and a wine aftertaste.
The timing of flowering and fruiting
The variety is not self-pollinated, so pollinators should grow nearby. Ideal will be: Anis, Ottawa, Mantet, Melba. The tree begins bearing fruit in the 5-6 year.
Did you know? In the Slavic tradition, to express their mutual sympathy, a guy with a girl had to exchange apples. Taking an apple girl thus consented to marriage.
Productivity and hardiness
The directories indicate that the variety is high-yielding. On average, one adult tree can produce 220 kg of apples. When the most productive fruiting period begins, the tree gives a stable harvest every year, provided that proper care is taken.
The apple tree tolerates temperature jumps and significant temperature drops, so wintering for her is easy.
Pros and cons of the Bessemyanka Michurinskaya variety
- The advantages and distinguishing features of this variety of apple trees include the following:
- not very branchy tree of medium height with an oval crown in "youth";
- average winter hardiness;
- excellent presentation of apples;
- medium-sized fruits;
- juicy, sugary, aromatic pulp;
- consistently high productivity annually;
- good immunity to scab and fungal ailments;
- long shelf life of fruits (up to 100 days).
- Needs pollinators;
- ripe fruits quickly crumble.
One apple contains:
- sugars - 11.2%;
- titratable acids - 0.69%;
- solids - 14.2%;
- ascorbic acid - 21.3 mg (per 100 g).
Features of planting apple varieties
The planting process of Bessemyanka Michurinskaya as a whole proceeds in the same way as in the case of other varieties of apple trees.
Favorable conditions for growing
Autumn (from the end of September) and spring (April) landing is possible. When choosing any of the landings, the main thing is to carefully monitor so that there is no threat of frost.
Important! It is also possible to grow a tree on sandy ground, but you will have to spend a lot of energy to feed it.
A place for a tree is being prepared in the southern part of the site, so that the apple tree receives the maximum amount of sunlight and the fruits grow juicy, sugary. Moisture should not stagnate in this place and groundwater should not come close to the surface. If there is no other place, you need to form a high hill in the landing pit or drain its bottom well.
Light, air- and water-permeable soil is suitable for apple trees. Fertile sandstone and loam have such characteristics.
Landing is carried out in the following stages:
- Dig a landing pit 2-3 weeks before planting, ideally a couple of months (with spring planting, prepare a pit in the fall).
- Calculate the size of the pit by the size of the root system of the seedling (so that it fits freely).
- Cover the bottom of the pit with a layer of organics and minerals mixed with a fertile layer of soil.
- Fill the hole with a hole and install a peg-support. Form a hole.
- When planting, carefully place the seedling in it, spreading its roots.
- Fill the seedling with earth, leaving the root neck to rise 2–4 cm above the surface of the earth.
- Water the young tree abundantly.
Tree Care Features
To obtain an annual crop, it is necessary to perform all manipulations to care for the plant (watering, top dressing, pruning) strictly according to the schedule.
Watering and fertilizing wood
A young tree is watered throughout the growing season (spring-autumn) through a hole in the near-stem circle. For one watering, it is advisable to spend as much water in buckets as a tree does. The first watering is carried out at the beginning of summer, then during the period of fruit loading and again in the fall, before frosts.
How to get married with an adult apple tree in June-July:Watering: once every 2 weeks, in hot, dry weather - 2 times a week (3-4 buckets); Fertilizer: - foliar top dressing: 2 times in June with an interval of 2 weeks (urea or Kemira) - during fruit loading: 20 g of Na humate + 1 kg of nitrophoska / 200 l of water (3 buckets / tree)
How to get married with an adult apple tree in August:Watering: every 2-3 weeks (2-3 buckets per tree); You can harvest the autumn apple tree
How to get married with an adult apple tree in September:Fruit harvesting; Prevention from pests and diseases: spraying (urea 700 g / 10 l of water or iron / copper sulfate) after harvesting; Fertilizer: RK (300 g each of superphosphate and potassium sulfate)
In the first year, the apple tree does not need nutrients. Starting next year, in the fall, organics and mineral complexes containing potassium are introduced. In the spring, before the buds open, they are fed with nitrogen complexes. It is undesirable to use fresh manure as a fertilizer, since it harms the root system.
Apple tree Bessemyanka Michurinskaya pruned twice a year:
- in spring, to form a crown;
- in the fall, for the prevention of disease.
Formative pruning is performed from the first year of life and lasts several years, while the tree is actively growing. Shoots are shortened by a third. During preventive pruning, diseased, dry, deformed branches are removed, in addition to those that strongly thicken the crown and do not allow the crop to form normally, and also interfere with its free collection.
To obtain a quality crop, it must be normalized, then the fruits will be large and juicy. In June, 4-5 days after the natural falling of the ovaries, it is necessary to remove all damaged, poorly formed or underdeveloped ovaries. In each inflorescence, you need to leave a couple of flowers, others to remove.
Principles of pruning a fruit tree:
Diseases of the tree and the fight against them
The variety is immune to scab and fungal diseases, but it is still necessary to carry out preventive work to prevent these scourges. It is necessary to spray the apple tree with Bordeaux liquid in the spring, feed the diseased, diseased and dry branches, as well as damaged fruits, in a timely manner.
Among the pests may appear:
For preventive purposes, the plants are treated with insecticides (Insegar, Match, Lufox) and fungicides (Horus, Skor, Tiovit Jet) three times a season according to the instructions for the preparations. You can use ordinary Bordeaux liquid.
Harvesting, storage and transportability of the crop
Harvest of Bessemyanka Michurinskaya ready for harvest in September. Subject to all storage rules (in a cool, well-ventilated place), it can lie for 100, and sometimes more, days. The main thing is to have time to collect the fruits before they begin to crumble from the trees, otherwise their storing and transporting performance deteriorates significantly.
Bessemyanka Michurinskaya is an ideal autumn cultivar for cultivation in cold climates. It is unpretentious, but responds well to proper care and pleases with very tasty and sugary fruits. They can be eaten fresh, added to salads, and also used to make jam, jams, compotes, added to baked goods.