Apple variety Kovalenkovskoe: characteristics and characteristics of planting
The apple variety Kovalenkovskoe has long been known in Russia, but most often such plantings are found in Belarus, from where this variety originated. Apple trees are planted in different climatic regions, because with well-organized care, trees actively bear fruit in almost any environment. What makes the Kovalenkovskoye variety remarkable, and for what characteristics is appreciated by gardeners - read on.
It was possible to obtain apple trees of the indicated varietal variety thanks to the efforts of the Belarusian Research Institute for Fruit Growing, and already in 1999 the new variety entered the local State Register of new varieties and tree and shrub species of the Republic of Belarus. Plants of the Lafram variety were used as the parent form, which during the experiment succumbed to artificial pollination. In Russia, the Kovalenkovskoe apple tree is recommended for cultivation in the central regions of the country, but gardeners often plant seedlings in other areas.
Did you know? The first apple orchard in Russia was planted by Yaroslav the Wise in 1051, and later became known as the garden of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra.
Description and description of the apple tree Kovalenkovskoe
Kovalenkovskoe apple trees are medium-sized (up to 5 m), fast-growing trees with a dense and rounded crown (sometimes more than pyramidal). All skeletal shoots are slightly curved, but at the same time look quite powerful. Lateral branches are thick, slightly fleecy to the touch and painted dark red. The leaf plates are dark green in color, medium in size, elliptical, slightly pointed, and with town-like edges.
Experienced gardeners believe that even self-fertile apple trees bear more fruit in the presence of pollinating neighbors
Fruit ovaries often form on the glove, but sometimes appear at the ends of annual growths. The crown width of this apple tree is 3-4 m, and the annual growth is in the range of 0.9–1.1 m. Blooming apple trees Kovalenkovskoye - earlier and already in early May, white, large flowers collected in inflorescences of 5 pieces are clearly visible on the tree .
Did you know? The heaviest apple in history grew in the garden of Japanese gardener Hisato Iwasaki in 2005. Its weight was 1.85 kg, thanks to which the fruit fell into the Guinness Book of Records.
Due to the early maturity of the variety, the first apple crop can be harvested already 2-3 years after planting, subsequently receiving up to 300 centners of juicy and sweet fruits per 1 ha. All ripe apples are light green in color (with a red blush), rounded and large enough, weighing 150-180 g each.
Sometimes heavier specimens are found, reaching a mass of 200 g. The color of the fruit is more dependent on their location on the tree, since when growing on the sunny side, the pink blush appears much stronger. Moreover, the assessment of the taste of apples also depends on this, because the browned fruits are always sweeter than green ones.
- The main advantages of Kovalenkovsky include:
- early maturity;
- regularity and stability of fruiting;
- high winter hardiness;
- firm fastening of fruits to the branches of a tree even after full ripening;
- high yields;
- unpretentiousness in leaving.
Planting of the Kovalenkovskoye apple tree on the site is carried out according to the generally accepted scheme, therefore, before proceeding to the solution of the problem, it is worth choosing the most suitable place and time for the procedure, buy and prepare the apple seedling, and also arrange the planting holes, filling them with a sufficient amount of nutrient fertilizers.
Video: Apple tree planting instructions
Suitable dates for planting an apple tree
Usually, spring days are chosen for planting seedlings of the described variety, when the soil in the garden is sufficiently warm (at least up to + 5 ° C), however, the winter variant of planting is not excluded, about 3-4 weeks before the expected frosts. When performing the procedure in autumn, young plants will have time for rooting and adaptation on the site in order to form new young shoots with the first heat. In this case, fruiting will come earlier.
Learn about growing other summer apple varieties:
How to choose quality seedlings
Having decided on the timing of the upcoming planting, you should timely prepare the seedling itself, on the quality of which the success of the whole procedure largely depends. If possible, it is advisable to choose one- or two-year-old plants of the variety, since they take root in a new place much faster and are more resistant to adverse environmental factors.
As for the place of purchase - it’s good if they are specialized nurseries or gardening stores, sellers of which can provide quality certificates for all goods, though even in this case you need to know what features of the plant to pay attention to
A good seedling is characterized by the following set of positive qualities:
- the presence of a flexible, clean and healthy aerial part, without spots and dried places on branches and leaves (if you scratch a young skin with a fingernail, then a cambium layer will always be visible under it);
- “Correct”, light brown color of the roots, which must be moderately moist, without any growths or mechanical damage (brown color and slight swelling on the surface - a sign of illness);
- a clearly visible vaccination site, which is very easy to identify by a slight thickening and curvature on the stem 5–15 cm from the root neck of the plant.
Video: How to choose the apple tree seedling
If the specimen of your choice has a closed root system, it is possible to remove the seedling from the package and examine the rhizome. An earthen lump must be a whole and completely braided root system of an apple tree.
Important! When transporting a young plant from the nursery home, it is important to maintain the root system in a wet state, preventing the roots from drying out. Best of all, wet tissue will cope with this task, with which the rhizome is wrapped.
Preparing a landing spot
Being a medium-sized apple tree, plants of the Kovalenkovskoye variety prefer well-lit areas of the territory, closed from sharp gusts of cold winds. The composition of the soil can be any, but apple trees grow best on moist loamy substrates with a slightly acidic reaction.If possible, it is worth placing the hole on a small elevation, thereby avoiding the slightest fluid stagnation at the root system of the tree. The dimensions of the seat depend on the parameters of the rhizome itself, but on average the values will be as follows: 0.8–1 m wide and approximately 40–60 cm deep (the depth of the pit should be greater than the length of the rhizome by about 10 cm). When planting an apple orchard on the territory, between neighboring plants of the Kovalenkovskoye variety leave at least 4 m of free space, and 3 m between rows with plantations.
Site preparation for tree planting begins in the fall, when after harvesting the plant debris, they dig the earth and fertilize it with organics: 40-60 t / ha of manure, 200-300 g of potassium salt, 400-500 kg / ha of superphosphate, and if the existing substrate is highly acidic, then 3-4 t / ha of wood ash (or limestone) will be useful.
In the autumn period, such preparation is quite enough, but when organizing the landing hole, you will have to repeat top dressing, spending 20-30 kg of organics (humus or compost), 0.3-1 kg of superphosphate composition, 0.15-0.4 kg of chloride per pit potassium, 0.8 kg of wood ash.2/3 of the desired dosage of nutrients is poured into the bottom of the pit, and the remaining amount is mixed with the earth, which will be used in the future to seal the lower half of the pit.The planted seedling is well tamped in the trunk circle, and then watered with a sufficient amount of liquid: at least 2 buckets per 1 plant
Apple tree planting
Planting an apple tree Kovalenkovskoye is a simple task, but provides for the observance of certain requirements for the process.
Important! In order for a young apple tree to take root in a new place faster and grow, before planting a seedling, its root system should be soaked in the growth stimulator “Kornevin” or “Zircon”. Processing time - at least two hours.
- A 5–10-cm drainage layer of broken brick, expanded clay or gravel is laid on the bottom of the landing hole.
- Then, a hill of fertile soil is poured into the center and a one and a half meter wooden stake is driven in.
- A selected seedling is placed next to it and its trunk is tied with a soft rope, after which all the roots are carefully straightened.
- At the end of the procedure, the rhizome of the apple tree is covered with soil, gently shaking the seedling to distribute it evenly between the individual roots (there should not be any voids). The root neck always protrudes above the surface of the plot by about 2-3 cm.
The main subtleties of apple care
Immediately after planting an apple tree on the site, a long period of care for the fruit plant begins. First of all, a gardener should pay attention to timely top dressing, watering and pruning of a young tree, although care for the soil in the near-trunk circle will be no less important. Each action has its own characteristics, which must be taken into account before starting work.
Video: Fruit Tree Care
Loosening and watering the soil
Loosening of the land next to the planted seedling is carried out shortly after the next watering and is aimed at removing the formed crust. By spreading the soil, you improve the air exchange between the root system of plants and the environment, which favorably affects the growth of trees. It is advisable to loosen the near-stem circle to a depth of 10 cm, since the roots of the apple tree are in the surface layer and there is always the possibility of damage to them.
The irrigation rate for fruiting apple trees is 4–6 times a season, especially during the green cone phase, in the period after flowering, at the stage of ovary formation, and during apple picking. If the summer turned out to be dry, then the indicated watering rate can be increased by completely stopping the introduction of liquid a few weeks before harvesting. Watered autumn watering of the Kovalenkovskoye apple tree is carried out in October, about a month before the first frosts.
Young seedlings planted in spring at the initial stages of growth, water 1-2 times in 7 days, spending about 2-3 buckets of water per plant. After a few months, the regularity of fluid administration is reduced to 1 time per month. Mulching the surface with hay and straw will help to retain moisture in the soil and prevent the drying up of an earthen coma in the near-stem zone.
Important! The best way to water the apple tree is to drip the liquid, but if it is not easy to organize, then you should dig a 10-cm hole in a circle and pour water into it already at the next watering.
Timely feeding ensures a qualitative increase in yield, while increasing the immunity of plants to diseases and pests. In the first year of growing young Kovalenkovskoye apple trees, they can not be fertilized, since the plants are quite lacking in nutrients embedded in the soil at the stage of planting fruit trees.
Starting from the second year and in each subsequent (before the beginning of fruiting) trees are fertilized according to the following scheme:
- in the spring, a urea solution is used to spray the plants (2 tbsp.spoons per bucket of water);
- before flowering itself, the crown can be treated with the “Ideal” preparation (5 ml per 5 l of water);
- in September, phosphorus-potassium top dressing will be useful (2 tbsp.spoons of complex mineral fertilizer per bucket of water).
The fertilizer pattern of adult fruiting trees is slightly different and will look like this:
- in spring (closer to the end of March) a mixture of 20 g of ammonium nitrate and 30 g of urea (per 1 m²) is introduced into the tree trunk circle of apple trees, evenly distributing it over the site and filling it into the ground;
- before flowering apple trees are fertilized with superphosphate compounds (50 g of substance per 1 bucket of water);
- in the period of ovaries nitrophoska will be appropriate (50 g per bucket of water);
- after harvesting you can spill the soil under the trees with organic mixtures (for example, a mullein solution mixed with water in a ratio of 1:10).
Special attention should be paid to areas with high soil acidity. In such cases, every five years it is necessary to add dolomite flour or lime to the soil, spending up to 0.5 kg of the selected substance per 1 m².The soil structure is improved by the introduction of green fertilizer from green manure plants such as lupine or peas. In the autumn, they are mowed between the rows and embedded in the ground, so that by the spring the grass harvest will overrun and turn into a good natural fertilizer of apple trees.
From the finished products, you can pay attention to the composition of "Gumi-30", which is often used to fertilize other varieties of culture. It increases the immunity of apple trees and creates comfortable conditions for their active fruiting, which has a positive effect on the total yield. Up to 6 sprays can be performed in one season, having previously dissolved 50 g in 10 l of water.
Cropping and shaping crowns
Pruning of fruit trees is a must during the entire time of growing apple trees. The correct execution of the procedure significantly improves the illumination of the crown, contributes to its ventilation and thereby prevents the emergence or spread of diseases and pests. When growing trees of the Kovalenkovskoye variety, which are initially prone to thickening the crown, the relevance of this event increases several times, and at each stage of growing apple trees it has its own characteristics.
Important! Whatever pruning you do, do not forget to treat the cut points with garden varieties, which will protect the wood from decay and pests.
In the first 5 years of life of a young seedling, in addition to sanitary pruning to remove broken and dried shoots, formative procedure, consisting of the following steps:
- In the first year after spring planting, the main stem shoots of a seedling are cut at a distance of 75 cm from the soil line. True, if apple trees were planted in the fall, then with such pruning it is worthwhile to wait until spring.
- In the second year of cultivation, strong main branches (up to half their length) and weaker lateral branches (up to 2/3 of their length) are subject to shortening. Only 3 branches should be left in the lower part of the tree, cutting them by 1/3 of the length, and the stem parts should be shortened at the level of the upper branches, which will stimulate the growth of second-order branches.
- In the third spring, from the second tier, you need to select 4 branches and cut them another half of the entire length (it is better to cut no more than 2/3 from weak shoots).
- By the fourth year, when the third tier of the tree is formed (usually consists of 3-4 branches), the stem part will need to be cut again to the level of the upper branches, due to which the crown of the apple tree will acquire a more even outline.
After five years of age, trees need a rejuvenating pruning, with the removal of sagging branches, tops and root shoots. In the autumn period, after falling leaves, you can immediately remove dry and damaged branches.
The apple tree variety Kovalenkovskoe is characterized by high frost resistance, therefore, when grown in the southern and central regions, no special preparation for the winter season is required.
The list of standard preparatory activities includes the following actions:
- Whitening of the stem at the end of the growing season (without a protective coating during a sharp drop in day and night temperatures, the bark without coating will quickly crack).
- Loosening and moistening of the substrate around the perimeter of the crown of the apple tree (the swelling of the soil and its moisture should reach a depth of 50 cm). So the ground will freeze more slowly and the rhizome will not experience cold shock.
- Mulching of the near-trunk zone with sawdust, hay and humus, which will contribute to the long-term preservation of moisture in the substrate.
- Shelter of young apple trees with agrofibre, burlap or lapnik, with preliminary treatment "Epin Extra" (increases the resistance of plants to sharp temperature drops).
If rodents have been spotted on the site, it is worthwhile to additionally cover tree trunks from them. The most effective way of protection will be the use of a fine wire mesh, which wraps the trunk.
Pest and Disease Control
The described Belarusian apple tree variety has increased resistance to scab, but this does not guarantee the absence of signs of the disease during the entire time of growing Kovalenkovsky apple trees. Besides, violation of agricultural requirements can lead to other problems, among which the following are considered the most common:
- Moniliosis - characterized by the appearance of gray growths on the cortex and decay of the fruits. In order to prevent an ailment, it is important to cut the trees in a timely manner and collect scavenger, and for the treatment of the disease, in the phase of the green cone, plants are sprayed with 3% iron sulfate. At the end of the flowering period, you can perform additional processing with 1% Bordeaux mixture.
- Powdery mildew - manifests itself as a dirty white coating on the bark, leaves and shoots of the plant. Gradually, leaf blades fall off and yield decreases, which is unacceptable for any gardener. To eliminate the problem, before flowering, apple trees are sprayed with “Skor” or “Topaz” preparations, previously dissolving 2 ml of the substance in a bucket of water. At the end of the flowering period, the treatment is repeated, only this time with 1% HOMA. At the end of the season, you can additionally spray trees with 1% Bordeaux liquid, and for preventive purposes you need to dose watering and feed apple trees with phosphorus-potassium compounds every year.
- Black cancer - clearly visible on black spots on the stem and individual lateral branches. The affected areas rot, and the bark cracks on them, opening the way for pathogenic microorganisms into the deep layers of plant tissues. Over time, the apple tree completely dries and dies. The main prevention of the problem is based on the timely collection and burning of fallen leaves, the annual pruning and whitewashing of apple trunks. If signs of the disease are already present, the affected areas will have to be cut off and the surface cleaned to healthy tissues, additionally disinfecting it with a 3% solution of copper sulfate.
- Apple moth - a small pest, the caterpillars of which eat the pulp of the fruit, thereby contributing to their premature decay and decay. For preventive purposes, with the advent of autumn, apple tree strains are cleaned of the old bark, and the soil in the near-stem circle is dug up. Around the middle of summer, caterpillars are caught with glue belts, placing pheromone traps in the area. In the extermination of the codling moth, the “Match 050 EU” (50 g is dissolved in 1 liter of water and treated with trees before flowering) and 10% “Benzophosphate”, which should be used after harvesting on the site, are effective drugs.
- Apple duster - a harmful insect whose caterpillars gnaw out the ovaries and are the main cause of shedding apples. To prevent their appearance, gardeners dig the soil on the site and use hunting belts, and to get rid of pests before flowering apple trees, they are sprayed with Karbofos solution, and then they are treated with Endobacterin (100 g per bucket of water).
- Apple Blossom - significantly reduces the flowering of apple trees Kovalenkovsky, which is why their productivity falls.In addition, adults often eat leaves, thereby contributing to their drying, twisting and falling. Treatment of plants from this pest is carried out using the drug "Fufanon" (10 g per 1 liter of water), although only the green cone phase will be the ideal time for spraying.
The list of possible problems of the Kovalenkovskoye variety really seems to be very extensive, but with the properly organized care of all these problems, it is possible to avoid, therefore, the successful cultivation of the crop depends only on the gardener.
Harvesting and storage
If you take into account the ripening time of apples Kovalenkovskoe, then when grown in Belarus and Ukraine, plants can be attributed to late-ripening varieties, with the possibility of harvesting no earlier than the end of August. However, in this case, it is not possible to immediately remove all the apples because of their uneven ripening on the branches, so the harvest often ends only in late September or early October.
When cultivated in the suburbs, the possibility of summer harvesting of fruits is regarded as early ripening, even if we consider that mass harvesting is carried out not earlier than mid-September. The fruits removed from the branches are placed in wooden or plastic crates, sprinkled with 2-3 layers, after which the filled containers can be lowered into the basement.
The shelf life of apples in a cool room does not exceed 2 months, and if longer storage is required, then it is more reasonable to use fruits for processing to preserves, jams and compotes.
In general, the apple tree variety Kovalenkovskoye is excellent for growing in most of the Russian Federation, with the exception of mid-north and far-north regions. The wonderful taste of apples and the comparative unpretentiousness in care make them one of the most popular options on the territory of three countries at once.