Features of planting and caring for a pear variety Nikolai Krueger
A hybrid variety of pears, Nikolai Kruger, despite the fact that it was obtained about a hundred years ago, is still extremely popular among gardeners. And this is not surprising, because it is characterized by good stable yield and extremely tasty, juicy fruits. What are the advantages of a pear, and what are the features of its cultivation - further in the article.
Botanical description and characteristics of pears
Nikolai Krueger is a mid-late hybrid fruit plant that was bred by breeder Nikolai Krueger in Romania in 1921. The best local varieties of pears became the genetic basis of the variety, from which the hybrid received excellent yield, frost resistance and high quality of fruits.
The pear tree of the described variety is of average height, not more than 4.5 m. A distinctive feature of the culture is the sagging young and trunk branches, due to which the crown looks somewhat drooping. Many gardeners consider such a feature of the variety as an advantage, since the crown is quite plastic and easy to shape.
The shape of the crown is wide-pyramidal, skeletal branches and new shoots form a right angle with the main conductor. The bark of a young tree is smooth, has a light brown color, and over time it acquires a very beautiful, noble dark red color.The green mass of the culture is represented by numerous, medium-sized leaves, dark green color and egg-shaped, growing on branches as if "in a spiral." During flowering, small, white five-petal flowers with a pleasant aroma are formed on the tree, which in the amount of 2-3 units create inflorescences-umbrellas. From each flower, as a consequence, a fairly large fruit develops. The fruits of Nikolai Krueger are large, truncated-wide-pear-shaped or cubar-shaped, slightly asymmetric pears with a slightly tuberous surface.
Did you know? Those pears that have a pronounced sweet aroma have greater benefits and medicinal properties. Fragrance-free fruits are characterized by low nutritional value.
The color of the fruit varies from light green to light yellow. In the ripening phase, a blurred orange-red blush appears on the peel. The weight of pears, on average, is 230-350 g, some specimens can reach a mass of up to 500 g. The peel is dense, rather thin, but not prone to cracking, with a smooth and shiny surface. The pulp has a creamy white color, an oily structure and a high juice content. Pear is characterized by excellent sweet taste with a pleasant acidity. It has a delicate, sweet aroma.
Pros and cons of the variety Nikolay Krueger
Hybrid Nikolai Krueger has been cultivated by gardeners for a hundred years in vain.
- It has a number of key advantages that distinguish it from other varieties, namely:
- plasticity and elasticity of the crown, which makes it easy to form;
- excellent cold resistance, ability to withstand low temperatures –30 ... –35 ° С;
- high yields;
- earlier fruiting, which under favorable conditions occurs 3-4 years after planting a seedling;
- excellent taste of the fruit;
- good keeping quality of pears and their transportability;
- resistance to diseases characteristic of this culture.
- Despite the large number of advantages, the hybrid has some disadvantages:
- sagging branches, the tendency of the crown to droop;
- average drought tolerance;
- the need for timely harvesting due to its possible fall when overriding.
Hybrid Nikolay Krueger belongs to the category of self-infertile plants, which, in order to obtain a good harvest, require the presence of pollinators - pollen donors in the neighborhood. Other varieties of pears can serve as pollinators, which must be planted in the garden or near the site.
The following donors are considered excellent donors for the described culture:
Nikolay Krueger is a high-yielding pear crop, which, under favorable weather conditions and high-quality, timely care, is able to please with yields of up to 55 kg from one tree. The fruiting peak occurs in the hybrid at the 10th age, and lasts 10-15 years.
Features of planting and pear care Nikolay Krueger
Since the plant is characterized by the presence of a wide, sagging crown, for good fruiting and full growth, it needs a lot of space.
Important! Fruiting pear occurs 6-7 years after planting a seedling. Plants grafted on quince rootstock begin to bear fruit earlier - after 3-4 years.
When planting a hybrid, several important rules must be taken into account regarding planting location and soil quality. In addition, to obtain a stable crop, you should choose high-quality, healthy planting material.
Choosing the best seedlings for planting
Specialists recommend purchasing seedlings in specialized nurseries or from proven distributors that can guarantee plant variety. For planting, a one-year or two-year culture with a well-developed root system and a healthy bark is suitable. At the same time, skeletal roots should not be dry, damaged, rotten or with signs of root diseases.The bark should be smooth, elastic, without damage, dryness and roughness. Before the planting of the material in the soil, its roots should be wrapped in a damp cloth, which will prevent the processes from drying out.
Choosing a place to land
The pear belongs to the category of photophilous plants, therefore, it prefers to grow in well-lit, sunny and fairly spacious areas, closed from drafts, with groundwater at least 2.5 m from the surface. The culture negatively relates to marshy soils, however, its root system should be quite moist. With close occurrence of water in the ground, it is recommended to plant the plant on a hill.
It is very important to provide the tree with a good flow of air, but at the same time, protect it from the negative effects of cold winds. The hybrid feels great on clay and loamy soils, with neutral acidity, which contain a sufficient amount of minerals required for its growth.When planting a tree on denser, airtight soils, it is necessary to enrich the soil with compost and liming it. The optimal period for planting will be determined by the climatic conditions of the region. The main thing is to carry out the landing when the night temperature does not fall below +10 ° C and the risk of frost return completely disappears.
A week before the alleged planting of the seedling, it is necessary to carefully prepare, dig the soil and prepare the planting pit. The size of the recess should be such that the entire root system fits freely in it - 70-80 cm deep, 90-100 cm wide.
Next, the seedling planting algorithm is based on the following steps:
- the soil removed from the pit is mixed with 20 kg of humus and 400 g of superphosphate;
- a drainage layer of expanded clay, broken brick or pebbles is lined at the bottom of the recess;
- on top of the drainage layer, a layer of fertile soil is covered, from which a small mound is formed, where a wooden peg is inserted for support;
- put up a plant on an elevation, carefully root outgrowths;
- the seedling is sprinkled with the remaining fertile soil, while the root neck is left on the surface with a height of 6-8 cm;
- the plant is tied to a support, the near-stem circle is abundantly watered with settled, cold water, using 20-30 liters per tree.
Watering and feeding
Pear Nikolai Krueger has medium drought tolerance and can tolerate short-term moisture deficiency. However, for the normal development of the culture and high-quality fruiting, it is necessary to ensure regular hydration. During the first month after planting a seedling, it is recommended to moisten it at least once a week, depending on weather conditions.
After the plant is rooted and strengthened, the amount of watering can be reduced to once every 10 days. It is especially important to organize a sufficient supply of water pear in the phase of formation and ripening of fruits. During this period, the hybrid is advised to water 4-5 times a month, using 30-40 liters of water per tree.
Did you know? The largest pear in the world was grown in 2013 by a summer resident from the village of Surkhakhi, the Nazran district, named Abas Matiev. The mass of the fruit grown by him was 1007 g.
To increase the yield of a tree and strengthen its immunity, systematic top dressing will help, which you need to do 3-4 times a season:
- first feeding carried out immediately after planting a seedling in early spring. In this case, nitrogen preparations are used that stimulate the growth of lateral shoots and the development of the root system;
- the second portion of fertilizer contribute two weeks after flowering culture. As nutrients, a urea solution is used, which stimulates tree growth;
- the third time the plant is fed potassium chloride two weeks after the second feeding. Potash preparations positively affect the formation of fruits, activate the growth of green mass and increase the drought resistance of pears;
- last time the hybrid feed in the fall, after harvesting the fruit. Wood ash is scattered under the trees, which protects the culture from diseases, and also increases its immunity to the upcoming frosts.
As noted, the hybrid Nikolai Krueger is prone to sagging branches and has a fairly high growth rate. At the same time, there is a slow development of lateral shoots required for crown formation. That is why, experts recommend regularly pruning branches for 2/3 of the length, which will contribute to the activation of growth of the lateral processes.
Important! The circumcision procedure must be carried out in early spring, before the sap flow begins.
In addition, it is necessary to carry out sanitary pruning of branches every year, during which it is recommended to remove shoots that are dry, weak, damaged, broken and with signs of ailments. For the event, it is necessary to use a sharpened knife or secateurs, previously disinfected in any disinfectant.Pear pruning scheme. After pruning, all places of the slices should be covered with garden varieties or crushed charcoal, which will prevent possible infection of the tree with fungal infections.
In late autumn, just before preparing the plant for wintering, it is necessary to whiten the trunk and lower skeletal branches of the pear with chalk or lime solutions, acrylic or water-based paints. Events should be carried out in a dry, calm and warm, by the standards of autumn, day.
On average, about 800-1000 g of whitewash is used on a fruit plant.Such treatment will protect the plant from damage, a sharp change in temperature indicators, sunburn, and will also become an effective additional protection against rodents and pests.
Hybrid Nikolay Krueger is characterized by excellent winter hardiness and is able to tolerate low temperatures well, up to –30 ... –35 ° С.
The plant does not need a special shelter for the winter, however, before the onset of cold weather, experts advise:
- dig the soil of the tree circle;
- water the plant abundantly;
- Mulch the soil around the tree with sawdust, hay or straw;
- wrap a layer of burlap or other insulation around the trunk.
For additional protection of the pear from mice and rats, it is recommended to tighten a metal mesh around it, around the perimeter.
Did you know? Surprisingly, the leaves on the pear grow on the branches in the strictest order, forming an angle of 135 degrees relative to each other. This arrangement allows them to receive maximum sunlight and moisture.
Diseases and Pests
The pear of the described variety has strong immunity and shows special resistance to scab and bacterial burn. In some cases, with increased humidity and violations of the rules of care, it can be affected by fruit rot, which manifests itself in the form of concentric stains on the fruits.Fruit rot of a pear. Over time, the peel in the affected areas begins to change color, becomes brown, the flesh softens and loses taste. To combat the disease, experts advise spraying the tree with fungicidal preparations, for example, Fundazolum or Skor.
In addition to diseases, the hybrid can become a victim of attacks of various parasites:High efficiency in pest control is provided by spraying the tree with solutions of modern broad-spectrum insecticides, for example, Decis, Karbofos, Metaphos, or treating the plant with colloidal sulfur.
A number of preventive measures will help prevent the development of ailments and the appearance of parasites:
- soil loosening in summer and its deep digging in autumn;
- regular cleansing of the trunk circle from weeds and plant debris;
- picking carrion and rotted fruit hanging on branches;
- timely sanitary pruning with the subsequent burning of damaged and diseased branches.
Harvesting and storage
The fruits of Nikolai Kruger reach technical maturity in the second half of September, and it is at this time that it is necessary to begin harvesting activities. Pears should be removed in warm, dry weather, otherwise the fruits picked up at high humidity will deteriorate quickly and are poorly stored.For long-term preservation, it is recommended to collect unripe fruits, which, if the proper conditions are organized, will be able to lie until March, without loss of taste and marketability. Pears should be stored in a well-ventilated, dry and cool room, with stable temperature indicators - 0 ... + 2 ° C and a relative humidity of 80-90%. Fruits are preferably wrapped in clean paper and placed in several layers in wooden or plastic boxes.
The pear Nikolai Krueger has been popular with gardeners for about a hundred years. It is completely unpretentious in the care, does not require special conditions for growing, is characterized by excellent frost resistance and excellent stable crops. The fruits of the hybrid - delicious and aromatic pears, will become a full-fledged source of vitamins and minerals in the winter, and will also be able to give unforgettable gastronomic sensations to even the most demanding gourmets.