Characteristics and description of cultivars for growing in the Moscow Region
The Moscow region, due to its climatic features, is considered not the most successful region for agricultural activities. In order to get a decent crop, farmers need to take into account a number of important natural factors affecting fertile crops, as well as choose a suitable plant variety. What types of potatoes are suitable for this area, and what are the features of each of them - read on.
Recommended varieties of potatoes for Moscow region
Potato productivity will depend on several main factors: the climatic characteristics of the region, the composition of the soil and the variety of vegetables. Since the area near Moscow is characterized by a short warm period, for cultivation, it is recommended to use early or mid-early varieties of potatoes. When cultivating late varieties, which have a rather long growing season, you can not wait for a quality crop due to the high risks of frost. For the Primorsky Territory, special zoned potato varieties have been developed that are adapted to the local climate, are highly resistant to diseases and are able to germinate during germination.
Did you know? Mankind has been cultivating potatoes for over 4000 years. The first who decided to grow a vegetable were the Peruvian Indians. Moreover, they were able to breed two hundred varieties of this culture.
The Detskoselsky potato variety is characterized by a mid-early ripening period at which the crop can be harvested 65–80 days after planting the seed material. Table potato, has a wonderful taste, is perfect as a raw material for cooking mashed potatoes, chips and various dishes. The bushes of the plant are small, erect, covered with numerous dark green leaves of medium size.The tubers of the Detskoselsky variety are oval in shape, weighing between 110–120 g. The skin is pale pink in color and has small red eyes on the surface. The advantage of the variety is its stable and decent yield: for one season, 350-450 centners of potatoes can be obtained from one hectare of the site. The disadvantage of the variety is its low immunity to scab, late blight and viral ailments.
Ostara is a fruitful, mid-early table variety whose tubers are ready for harvesting 70 days after seed planting. The bushes of the plant are quite high, sprawling, with dense dark green foliage. It is this fact that must be taken into account when planting potatoes and to observe the planting pattern of 60 × 35 cm. A distinctive quality of the described variety is considered to be aligned, almost perfect circular oval tubers, weighing 90–140 g.They have a very smooth surface of a light yellow color, on which small eyes are noticeable. The pulp is dense, light yellow in color, with a small concentration of starch within 14%. Ostara is highly regarded by vegetable growers for their excellent taste; also potatoes do not boil during heat treatment. Among the advantages, high productivity indicators can be noted - about 400 centners per hectare, unpretentiousness in care. A disadvantage of the variety is its average resistance to late blight.
Important! To prevent the death of the crop, the described variety needs regular treatment with insecticidal and fungicidal agents.
Variety Romano is the result of the activity of Dutch breeders who were able, through various studies, to produce a vegetable suitable for cultivation in moderately humid climatic conditions on depleted sandy loam soils. The plant is characterized by the presence of erect, tall bushes, which are covered with numerous, small-sized green leaves.Romano tubers are medium in size, oval in shape, weighing about 95 g and have a pink, smooth skin. The flesh of creamy potato contains a fairly large percentage of starch - about 17%. Taste good, marketable - excellent. But crop yields are average, from one bush you can collect 700–800 g. On average, 110–340 centners of tubers can be obtained from one hectare of a plot. Romano is distinguished by good resistance to cancer, shows medium immunity to scab and late blight, and is often affected by a nematode and a Colorado potato beetle.
Santa is a Dutch variety of potatoes that is intended for cultivation in the middle regions of the Russian Federation, including the Moscow Region. It belongs to the type of mid-ripening plants with a vegetative period of 80–85 days. The bushes are not too tall, with a little leafy, with dark green leaves and white flowers. As a rule, about 20 tubers of a rather large size, weighing 100–150 g, develop under one bush. They have a regular, oval shape, yellow color, an even surface with a small number of eyes.The pulp is light yellow in color, with the presence of starch in the range from 10 to 14%, it tastes good, is well boiled during cooking. Sante has excellent keeping quality and is able to be stored until the next season when creating favorable conditions. Potatoes are characterized by strong immunity, have excellent resistance to the nematode, cancer, scab, can resist late blight, however, with high humidity, it is often affected by a black leg and rhizoctonia.
Among mid-season potato varieties Slavyanka is one of the most popular. The culture is characterized by excellent resistance to ailments, in particular - cancer, scab, late blight, mosaic, twisting of leaves, capable of bearing fruit in conditions of high humidity or drought. Productivity - 250-300 kg / ha. The growing season of the crop is 80–85 days. During this time, fairly tall, erect bushes with medium leafiness grow.During flowering, small, delicate, red-violet flowers form on the potato. Tubers of Slavyanka have an oval-elongated shape and weight from 90 to 180 g. It is quite easy to distinguish the variety by the pink-purple color of the peel, on which red eyes are almost invisible. The pulp is white, contains no more than 13% starch. Potatoes have excellent taste and aesthetic qualities, thanks to which they are often grown on an industrial scale, for sale.
Did you know? The world's most expensive La Bonnotte potato variety is cultivated on the French island of Noirmoutier. The cost of 1 kg of vegetable starts from 500 euros.
The Tuleevsky variety is the result of breeding by Russian scientists. He pleases with excellent yield, which is 400-450 kg / ha, good resistance to cancer, scab and late blight, lack of whimsical growth. The bushes of the plant are very compact and neat, which makes care for them simple and easy. Large potatoes, oval in shape, weighing 130–270 g.The peel has a yellow color, has a slightly rough, mesh surface with a small number of small eyes. The pulp is light yellow, with a fairly high percentage of starch, about 17%. Tubers are characterized by excellent keeping quality and are able to be stored without changing their taste and marketability until spring.
One of the most delicious and fruitful is considered an early variety of potatoes Gala, created by breeders from Germany for cultivation on sandy and sandy loamy soils prevailing in the Moscow region. The growing season of the crop is only 65–80 days from the moment of planting material landing in the ground. The vegetable bushes are low, not too sprawling, with erect, not very thick stems. The leaves of the plant have a dark green color, with a slight roughness on the surface.Potato Gala - medium, oval in shape, weighing 100-120 g, with a dense, even skin of yellow color. The pulp is yellow, does not blacken and does not boil during heat treatment, contains 12-14% of starch. The variety is quite unpretentious in care, is characterized by excellent resistance to many ailments typical of solanaceous, but can be affected by late blight and rhizoctonia. With proper care, in one season 350-400 kg of fully developed, beautiful tubers can be collected from one hundred square meters of land.
Important! When grown on heavy, airtight soils, the variety often suffers from ring rot. To prevent the development of the disease should be enriched the soil compost or humus, as well as liming.
Among the mid-season varieties of potatoes, the vegetation period of which is 90-100 days, Lyubimets deserved special fame in the suburbs. The vegetable was bred back in the last century by breeders of the Soviet Union and quickly gained popularity due to undemanding to soils and weather conditions, high yields and strong immunity to various ailments. Bushes of the plant are powerful, well-developed, with high leafiness. About 10-14 potatoes of approximately the same, average size and weight ripen under one bush.The peel is light beige, with a small number of eyes. The pulp is white, fine-grained, contains about 11-15% of starch. The potato tastes soft and pleasant, it is often used for cooking various dishes: mashed potatoes, salads, casseroles, etc. Tubers are characterized by excellent keeping quality, which is 96%. The pet has a strong immunity to such ailments as scab and late blight, and is also rarely affected by pests. Its productivity is 240-400 kg / ha.
Features of planting and growing potatoes
The Moscow Region is considered a risky farming zone. That is why, in order to get a high-quality and decent harvest of potatoes, it is important not only to choose a suitable variety of vegetables, but also to provide him with optimal conditions for growth and timely care. The season of agricultural work in this region begins at the end of April - the first weeks of May, when the snow will completely melt, the air temperature will stabilize and the soil will warm up to + 9 ° С. It was during this period that potatoes should be planted.
Important! Untimely planting of seed material can reduce the yield several times.
Planting potatoes, depending on the composition of the land, it is recommended to carry out one of the following methods:
- Trench. Suitable for breathable, light, sandy soil with low moisture content. The plan for planting the seed is as follows: dig trenches 8–12 cm deep, and seed material is laid in them with an interval of 60–70 cm. The distance between the trenches should be at least 10-15 cm. It should be noted that in the region of the Moscow Region it is rarely possible to find light sandy soil, so the described method of planting potatoes is rarely practiced here.
- Smooth. With this method, small holes are dug at a distance of 70 cm, ash and onion husk are poured into them, tubers are placed. This planting is often used by gardeners, it is suitable for nutritious, loamy soils.
- Combing. An ideal method of planting potatoes on heavy, clay soils with a high level of humidity is comb. Planting work is carried out according to this algorithm: from the soil make ridges 10-15 cm high, seeds are planted in them with an interval of 70 cm from each other. Such planting allows you to protect the bushes from excessive moisture, to provide them with comfortable conditions for growth and development.
To obtain an early harvest of potatoes in the described areas, greenhouses or greenhouses are used.When planting a vegetable, it is preferable to choose spacious, light areas without shade from trees with sandy loam or loamy soil. The best predecessors of the culture are legumes, cucumbers, cabbage. It is not advisable to plant a plant in the lowlands due to the high humidity of the soil. Before planting, it is recommended that you carefully dig the ground, make humus or compost.
Did you know? Potato was the first vegetable that was grown in space. This event happened in 1995.
Regardless of the method of planting a vegetable, after the emergence of seedlings, it is necessary to provide quality care:
- Watering. With a ridge or bed planting, water is fed into the aisles, with an even - into the holes. The frequency of humidification will depend on the amount of precipitation: in case of drought, potatoes should be watered every other day, with sufficient moisture - focusing on drying out the top soil layer. It is very important to provide the culture with sufficient water in the phase of tubers setting and ripening.
- Top dressing. At least twice a season, experts recommend feeding the plant. The first portion of fertilizers, in the form of humus and saltpeter, must be applied after emergence. The second time the bushes are nourished during flowering - for this they use a solution of water, nitrophosphate and superphosphate. It is not recommended to feed the vegetable after flowering.
- Soil care. In the care of potatoes, loosening and weeding the soil, hilling the bushes are very important. The first event allows you to saturate the soil with oxygen and nutrients, thereby activating the growth of tubers. Ideally, the soil should be loosened before each watering. Hilling for the first time should be carried out when the seedlings reach a height of 12-14 cm. The second time the plant is huddled before the tops are closed. Weed weeding must be carried out regularly, as they grow.
- Protection against pests and ailments. Potatoes are often enough attacked by pests, in particular the Colorado potato beetle, nematodes and wireworms. To protect plants, it is necessary to spray them several times a season with solutions of fungicidal preparations - Aktara, Skor. To treat the culture from insect parasites, folk remedies can be used, for example, infusion of tomato tops, garlic infusion, concentrated broth of wormwood.
Harvesting, transportability and storage
In the Moscow region, potatoes are ready for harvesting in late July - early August, since early or medium-early varieties with a short growing season are used for growing vegetables. Two weeks before digging up the tubers, it is recommended to mow the tops, which will increase yield. Harvesting vegetables is considered a rather time-consuming process, which includes not only digging up tubers, but also their further sorting, preparation for storage.
To remove them from the soil, just dig them a little with a shovel or cultivator. Dug up tubers must be left in the garden to dry and dry. Next, the potatoes should be sorted: select seed for planting for the next season, select separately the largest potatoes that will be eaten, and the smallest ones used for animal feed. It is also very important to distribute tubers by variety, since each of them has individual characteristics of application and storage.
Before moving the crop for storage or transportation, the potatoes must be laid out in ventilated boxes and sprayed from pests. It should be noted that only healthy, medium-sized potatoes that do not show signs of damage, rot, exposure to ailments or parasites are suitable for transportation or long-term preservation.It is recommended to store potatoes in a dry, ventilated, cool room, with temperature indicators of + 3 ... + 5 ° С and relative humidity of at least 65%.Periodically, tubers must be sorted out, discarding damaged and rotten tubers.
Achieving high potato yield in the Moscow Region is quite difficult even for experienced vegetable growers. However, choosing a variety suitable for cultivation, providing plants with comfortable conditions and observing basic agricultural techniques when caring for them, any summer resident will be able to grow potatoes, pleasing with their taste and aesthetic properties.