Foulbite treatment for bees
The health of bees in an apiary is a key aspect of effective beekeeping, so beekeepers devote a lot of time to the health of bee colonies. Every beekeeper knows that these insects are susceptible to disease. The most disastrous are rotten infections. They adversely affect brood, adversely affect the health of the whole family, become a source of infection for other families, and affect the quality of honey. It is about the foulbrood who will be discussed in this article.
What is a foulbrood?
Foulbrood is an infectious bacterial disease of bee larvae. Honey plants, pollen, food, and dead corpses of larvae are the main sources of rotten infections. If the soil contains spores of the pathogen rot, this will also cause a disease of the bee family.
These microorganisms spread through honey plants from the soil. Then, through pollen, bee bread, brood frames, hives, human hands and equipment, microorganisms go to bee families. Cleaner bees are the direct sources of the spread of infection within the sick family.
Healthy families can become infected by robbing sick bee colonies. The spread of the pathogen can occur: when rearranging the frames with food, when sending bee families, when selling honeycomb packages of bees.
If the apiary was already susceptible to infection with a rotten infection, then after a few years the disease may occur again. Unfavorable climatic conditions, improper conditions of keeping, and feeding can contribute to this.
Important! It is necessary to urgently begin to take urgent measures to improve, in order to prevent the spread of infection. Ignoring the timely conduct of such actions, the result will be the death of the infected family, and possibly the entire apiary.
It is characteristic of the initial stage of the disease that a small number of larvae in different places of the honeycomb are affected and then killed. The bees themselves clean the brood chambers, free them from the rotting corpses of the larvae, and the uterus again sows the vacant cells.
Over time, the uneven distribution over a hundred cells becomes noticeable. Change in color and condition of the larva is called motley brood. This signals the beekeeper about the health problems of the bee colony.
Varieties of rotten
After the winter, bee colonies are exhausted, therefore they become more sensitive to various infections. The most common diseases of bee brood are American and European foulbroods, as well as paragnitians.
Their causative agents are bacteria that form spores. There are distinctive features and characteristic signs of these diseases, having become familiar with them, it will be easier to take measures to combat them.
Infectious disease, its causative agent is persistent bacillus Larve. American foulbrood is the most dangerous type of microorganism, refers to the disease of closed brood. In dried crusts of larvae and partially in honey, spores can be found for several decades.
Infection of larvae occurs in the summer, at the time of laying eggs by the uterus until the moment of their sealing. The incubation period is from 3 to 7 days. Hot weather favorably affects the development of the pathogen.
Shortly after sealing, the beekeeper may notice a disease:
- Lids acquire a dark yellow hue, look sunken, holes appear.
- The natural luster of the larvae disappears, their skin can break through.
- When decomposing, the larva, stretched out, fits snugly to the bottom wall of the cell, rising slightly to the upper part of the cell edge.
- The color of a rotting coffee-colored larva.
- A characteristic smell of wood glue appears.
- Putrid adhesive substance has the appearance of a thin web, which can stretch up to 15 cm.
Cleaner bees cannot clean it themselves, so the infection remains in the cell. To remove a dried crust, beekeepers sometimes have to destroy an entire cell of a honeycomb. If you do not take measures to combat the disease, this can lead to the death of the entire bee family, because the disease is acute.
Infectious disease, its causative agent - Bacillus Pluto, the degree of danger is slightly less than that of the American foulbrood. The dispute does not form, it is easier to treat. Infection of larvae occurs in the spring.
The cause of the disease can be cold weather and lack of feed. The infection affects the open brood at 3-4 days of age of the larvae when they look like rings. An infection of a print brood occurs if the disease becomes chronic.
For diseased larvae it is characteristic:
- Restless movement and death in different positions.
- The corpses of the larvae lose their mother-of-pearl color, change their shades from yellowish to brown, and become flabby.
- A hole in the caps is not observed.
Cleaner bees can remove dead larvae themselves, because their crusts are not adhered to the cell walls and the dried mass is not difficult to clean. Putrid mass is not sticky and slightly malleable. Sour odor or the smell of missing meat can come from the nest.
Noticing the first signs of damage to the larvae, you must immediately take all the necessary veterinary and sanitary measures. At this stage, the treatment brings positive results.
The American and European foulbrood can simultaneously hit the brood of one bee family. In this case, the disease is called a paraglider and has a low degree of danger. The causative agent of the disease is a gram-positive, motile bacillus that forms spores.
Clinical signs will be similar to the symptoms of other rotten diseases. In the chronic course of the disease, not only older larvae, but also pupae can be affected.
For a parabench it is characteristic:
- The appearance of thick convex covers of a dark color without holes. However, in the center you can see a cone-shaped recess.
- Larvae die in unnatural poses. Then they turn into a putrid viscous mass and begin to exude an unpleasant odor.
After drying, the larvae and pupae are easily removed from the cell. A timely noticed disease and timely treatment will save the life of a bee family.
Causes and signs of foulbrood
To ensure the productivity of beekeeping, you need to be aware of issues related to the causes of foulbrood, signs, methods and methods of combating the disease.
A person is not able to influence the occurrence of one or another infection. The spread of rot is caused by the resistance of pathogens. Microorganisms spread very quickly by ticks. They are the carriers of pathogens of rotten diseases and open the "door" to infectious diseases.
Did you know? The average bee family consists of 50–60 thousand individuals. For productivity to be at a high level, such a family will need 30 kg of honey during the year.
The main signs of the appearance of the American foulbrood:
- Infection occurs in early summer, rarely in late May.
- The printed brood is affected.
- A distinctive feature is motley brood.
- Lids have holes.
- External signs of a honeycomb are a varnish surface.
- The difficulty of removing dead larvae.
- The highest danger of the death of the whole family. It can occur in the middle or end of summer.
Video: American foulbrood
The main signs of the appearance of the European foulbrood:
- Infection occurs in spring, less often in early summer.
- The open brood is affected.
- A distinctive feature is the transparency of the larva, the randomness of movements, the consistency of putrefactive mass resembles the structure of a poorly kneaded dough.
- Lids most often do not have holes.
- External signs of a honeycomb are the absence of a glossy surface.
- Dead larvae are easily removed.
- The average degree of danger of family death.
The main signs of the appearance of a paragill:
- Infection occurs in spring or summer.
- The open and printed brood is affected.
- A distinctive feature is a color change, the unnatural position of the larva before death, the underdevelopment of the pupae.
- Lids with holes of irregular shape.
- The external signs of the honeycomb are the lack of brilliance.
- Dead larvae are easily removed.
- Low risk of family death.
Important! An accurate diagnosis of the disease can be made by conducting research in the veterinary laboratory, providing samples of honeycombs. The reliability and accuracy of the results directly depends on the correctly selected pathological material, on the correct packaging. (only wooden crates are used) and delivery times.
Features of the treatment of the disease
The quarantine mode in infected hives is the main therapeutic method for fighting rot. The quarantine period lasts approximately a year. If possible, the neighboring apiaries should also be closed. During this period, one cannot transport honeycombs and honey, sell beekeeping products and feed healthy bees with it.
Basic sanitary actions during the initial diagnosis:
- to destroy sick families and cells by burning;
- drive unaffected families into a clean hive;
- replace the uterus;
- disinfect all equipment;
- register the disease with the veterinary service.
For the treatment of rotten diseases, therapeutic feed is used.
Therapeutic feed recipe:
- prepare sugar syrup in a concentration of 1: 1;
- add any of the drugs per 1 l: norsulfazole sodium 1-2 g; chlortetracycline and streptomycin for 500 thousand units; neomycin, erythromycin, monomycin, kanamycin, tetracycline or oxytetracycline, 400 thousand units;
- Dissolve the preparation in 100 ml of boiled warm water, pour into sugar syrup, mix, feed to bees - 100 ml / 1 cell.
Bees should be fed until complete recovery. The veterinarian will give an accurate dosage of medications after the examination. Bees are often rehabilitated with antibiotic-based drugs: Askovet, Askosan, Mykozol, Nozemat, Oksivit, Unisan, Nozet. They stop the spread of the pathogen, prevent the outbreak of infection of the entire family or apiary, weaken the health of the bee.
Drugs tend to accumulate in honey, so using drugs for treatment, especially antibiotics, alone and in the wrong dosage, you can harm bees and spoil the products. It is better to use tools that will not have a negative impact on microflora for processing honeycombs.
Video: how to get rid of foulbrood
Preventing the disease is easier than curing.
- To avoid the appearance of decay, you should:
- carefully examine the uterus and bee layers when buying;
- carry out disinfecting procedures every year, update 3 part of cells;
- clean the territory of the apiary from pollution;
- exclude contact of bees with quarantined families.
Did you know? To collect 700 g of honey, you will need to use the labor of 600 bees. This is because 1 bee during its life is capable of producing such a quantity of honey that will be commensurate with the volume of 1/12 tsp.
The following prevention methods are considered very effective:
- Feed additives. The use of feed additives enhances the immunity of bees, compensates for poor nutrition. It can be such drugs: “Covitsan” or “ApiSelen”. However, stimulants should be carefully given to bees so as not to provoke hypervitaminosis, which will adversely affect their health.
- Immunomodulators. Immunomodulators have well established themselves as means that can restore the immunity of a bee, that is, they are created using natural products of the vital activity of a honey bee. Apply Apisil, Hitililan and Candisil. Hives, frames, all wooden fixtures are subjected to mechanical cleaning. Use a blowtorch for firing and disinfectants for processing.
- Preparation of a solution for disinfection. For 1 liter of water - 10% solution of hydrogen peroxide, and 3% solution of formic or acetic acid. Use 3 times with a break of 60 minutes. on 1 m². In a solution of caustic soda, wooden frames are boiled for 15–20 minutes.
- Preparation of solution for irrigation honeycombs. Irrigation is carried out from the control panel or disinfectant installation. Manipulations should be carefully carried out on both sides of the frames so that the cells are completely filled. The solution is made on the basis of 5% iodine monochloride. The procedure period is 24 hours. To remove the solution from the cells, you need to shake off the frames, rinse with water and dry.
- Beekeeper clothing disinfection. The beekeeper’s clothes, bathrobes, face nets should also be disinfected. These items need to be immersed: for 3 hours in a 2% solution of hydrogen peroxide or for 2 hours in a 1% solution of activated chloramine. After the procedure, all items must be rinsed in water and dried.
Video: disinfection of the hive after rotten
The place where the beehive with an infected family was located should be dug up and watered with a 10% solution of freshly slaked lime. You can use a blowtorch to heat the surface. Enormous damage to beekeeping is caused by infections and diseases affecting bees.
An infected family can become a reference point, which can lead to the death of not only individual individuals and families, but also the entire apiary. An infected family is poorly developed, which means it makes small winter supplies, without bringing a good income in the future. All preventive procedures must be carried out in a timely manner, and if necessary, consult a veterinarian and clearly implement his recommendations.