Cultivation and care of cherries Rossoshanskaya Zolotaya
Sweet cherry Rossoshanskaya Zolotaya has enjoyed great success among domestic gardeners for many years. As a native of the Russian Federation, she is perfectly adapted to the conditions of the local climate, not demanding in care, is distinguished by excellent yield indicators and high fruit life. What are the features of cultivation of the described variety, and what are its main advantages - further in the article.
The Rossoshanskaya variety is the result of breeding by Russian scientists of the Rossoshanskaya experimental station located in the Voronezh region. The author of the described variety of cherries was A. Voronchikhina. At the same time, the variety is divided into three types: large, black and gold. At the moment, the plant is not included in the state register of fruit and vegetable crops of the Russian Federation, however, it used to be there.
The tree is recommended for growing in Ukraine, the southern regions of the Russian Federation. Cherry is especially prevalent in Voronezh, Volgograd and Saratov regions.
Description and characteristics of the culture
Sweet cherry Rossoshanskaya Zolotaya belongs to the category of plants with an average ripening period. The tree is not high, of medium vigor, rarely exceeds 3.5 m, and has medium foliage. The crown is characterized by a pyramidal shape, has an average number of branches of various sizes. Green mass is represented by leaves of a traditional, slightly elongated shape, dark green color.
Drought tolerance, winter hardiness
The culture is characterized by good drought tolerance and is capable of producing decent crops in warm, dry summers. It perfectly survives in a dry climate, as it has a fairly powerful and branched root system that allows you to get moisture from deep layers of the soil. Cherry of the described variety is frost-resistant, can tolerate low temperatures.
However, attention should be paid to earlier flowering. If in the flowering phase in April the plant undergoes night frosts, it will freeze and not give the desired crop. When cultivating cherries in the southern regions, no such problems are observed, since there is a rather low probability of night frosts.
Pollination, flowering period and ripening period
As noted above, the variety is mid-season. Depending on the climatic conditions of the growing region, the fruits begin to ripen, either in the second half of June or in the second half of July. The culture enters the flowering phase in April.
Important! When choosing a pollinator plant, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that it should bloom in the same period as Rossoshanskaya.
At this time, medium-sized flowers appear on the tree, white flowers with a pleasant aroma. Rossoshanskaya Zolotaya is self-fertile, therefore, for good fruiting, it will need pollen donors. The varieties of cherries Nochka, Miracle Cherry or the varieties of cherries Ovstuzhenka, Leningradskaya, Galochka are perfectly suitable as pollinators.
The crop enters the fruiting phase 5 years after the planting of seedlings and continues to delight with excellent yield for 25 years. The average yield of the variety is above average. Subject to the basic agricultural practices, one hectare can collect up to 90 centners of berries. It should be noted that the fruits of Rossoshanskaya Zolotoy are rather large, rounded or heart-shaped berries, weighing 6-7 g, saturated bright yellow color.
The pulp is characterized by a high juice content, a dense, fleshy structure, creamy yellow color. The peel is dense, not prone to cracking, smooth and shiny.Taste properties of berries are very high. It has a pleasant sweet, slightly honeyed taste with a faint note of acid.
Did you know? Historians claim that the birthplace of cherries is a small town in Turkey called Cherry. Culture came to Europe in 680 BC, thanks to the commander from Rome Lucullus, who brought it there.
According to the assessment of tasters, the fruits received 5 points out of a possible 5. Due to the density of the berry and excellent resistance to cracking of the peel, the fruits are well suited for long-term storage and transportation over long distances. At the same time, berries do not lose their taste and presentation.
Disease and pest resistance
Rossoshanskaya Zolotaya has average immunity, and in adverse weather conditions and illiterate care, it can be affected by: moniliosis, coccomycosis, fungal ailments. Among pests, a variety most often becomes a “victim” of cherry flies, aphids, and leafworms.
To increase the plant's resistance to diseases and parasites, as well as to strengthen its immunity, it is recommended to feed it with mineral and organic agents, as well as carry out preventive spraying of the tree with broad-spectrum fungicidal and insecticidal preparations.
Advantages and disadvantages
- Gardeners cultivating cherries of the described variety, note a number of its strengths compared to others:
- high yields with competent cultivation;
- excellent taste of fruits;
- excellent keeping quality of berries and their transportability;
- drought tolerance;
- stable fruiting rates;
- a high above-ground part, which makes harvesting berries an easy and simple task.
- Among the few disadvantages of the variety can be noted:
- self-infertility, the need for pollinating plants in the neighborhood;
- medium immunity to diseases and parasites;
- unsuitability of culture for cultivation in the northern regions.
So that the cherry can fully reveal its natural potential and show excellent fruiting, when planting a seedling, some important features should be observed.
Recommended Landing Times
Experienced gardeners do not recommend planting trees in the fall. The fact is that the plant is characterized by large annual growths and they can not mature in a young seedling before the onset of cold weather, which will ultimately lead to its freezing.Landing events should be rescheduled for spring time. In spring, the seedling is allowed to be planted after the earth has warmed up well, to a temperature of + 8 ° C. As a rule, this period falls at the end of April - beginning of May.
Choosing the most suitable place
Cherry prefers well-lit, spacious and bright areas located on a small hill. Such a planting is necessary so that, after the snow melts around the tree, excess moisture does not accumulate, to which the culture reacts extremely negatively.
In addition, the place must be reliably protected from drafts and cold winds. It is advisable that a sufficient amount of sunlight falls on the tree throughout the day, which will contribute to the accumulation of the sweet, honeyed taste of the berry.
Important! When planting a seedling, you need to ensure that there are no other trees in the district 6 m from it, since excess neighbors contribute to a decrease in yield.
Rossoshanskaya does not impose special requirements on the soil, the main thing is that the soil is sufficiently loose, air- and water-permeable, nutritious. When growing a tree on acidic soils, it is recommended to liming them, to add sand or vermiculite.
What crops can and cannot be planted next to cherries
Rossoshanskaya sweet cherry is extremely demanding on the neighbors.
Suitable for the neighborhood with it are these types of trees:
- other varieties of sweet cherries;
Plum, apple trees and cherries are negatively affected by fruit bearing and cherry development rates; therefore, it is advised to abandon their planting on the same site as Rossoshanskaya.
Selection and preparation of planting material
Plant survival, its further growth and fruiting will largely depend on the quality of planting material. Specialists are advised to purchase seedlings from trusted distributors or specialized nurseries.
Important! Saplings, older than two years, do not take root well and much later begin to bear fruit.
For planting, preference should be given to an annual plant with a fully developed, strong and healthy root system.
Signs of quality planting material are:
- the presence of a pronounced vaccination site;
- powerful, strong, elastic root processes without damage, dryness, rot or signs of disease;
- good root lobe;
- elastic and smooth bark without wrinkling and dryness;
- the presence of young shoots that bend easily.
Immediately before planting the seedling, you need to thoroughly prepare the soil, dig, dig, if necessary, liming.
Next, the landing work algorithm is based on the following actions:
- dig a recess 60 × 80 cm in size;
- the soil extracted from the pit is mixed with humus (15 kg), superphosphate (120 g) and potassium sulfate (60 g);
- a drainage layer is lined at the bottom of the pit, which is used as broken brick, pebbles or expanded clay;
- a small layer of fertile soil is put on top of the drainage, a small mound is made from the ground, where a wooden peg is inserted, which serves as a support for a seedling;
- a plant is put on an earthen mound, the root processes are gently straightened;
- the plant is sprinkled with nutritious soil, leaving a root neck of 5-8 cm on the surface;
- The soil around the seedling is a little tamped, watered abundantly with settled, cold water, using about 10 liters;
- the plant is tied to the support with elastic, not tight threads or material.
After planting a seedling, he needs to provide competent, timely care, especially in the first month of growth.The scheme of planting fruit trees.
Cherry of the described variety is not too whimsical to care for, however, the timely implementation of basic agricultural practices can accelerate the survival rate of a crop, its fruiting and increase productivity.
Watering. Rossoshanskaya does not like heavy watering and can easily endure short-term drought. During the vegetative period, it is recommended to moisten the tree 3-4 times, applying about 60 liters of water under one plant. The first time the culture should be watered in the phase of bud blooming, the second during flowering, the third in the ripening phase of the berries and the last after harvesting.Before carrying out irrigation measures, it is necessary to thoroughly loosen the soil of the trunk circle, so that moisture can easily get to the root system. After moistening, it is recommended to mulch the soil around the tree with hay, straw or sawdust, which will allow to retain moisture and prevent the development of weeds.
Top dressing. In the first year of growth, the cherry does not need additional feeding, as it uses nutrients that were introduced into the soil during planting. In the second year, the culture is fed several times during the season: in the spring, phosphoric fertilizers are added, which contribute to the growth of green mass, in early July, the plant is fed with complex preparations, in September, it is fed with phosphorus-potassium products.
Did you know? Cherry berries are recommended to be consumed fresh, because during any heat treatment they lose almost all the beneficial components and vitamins.
Cropping and shaping. Since a plant is able to give a good increase in shoots over a year, it needs regular shaping and pruning. At the beginning of fruiting, the seedling needs to shorten the central shoot and skeletal branches, which are arranged in tiers.Three strongest and strongest shoots should be left in each tier, at the same time, the distance between tiers should be at least 50 cm. Adult trees need to be cut each year, removing old, dry, damaged, broken or diseased shoots.
Pest and Disease Control
As noted above, the described culture variety has medium immunity, and, if the main agricultural rules are not observed, it can quite often be exposed to:
- Moniliosis. It manifests itself in the form of drying out shoots, falling leaves, the formation of rot inside the branches. To combat the disease, you should completely cut off the infected shoots and spray the plant with fungicides.
- Coccomycosis. The disease is easily recognized by the appearance on the foliage of characteristic dark red spots, which increase over time, leading to drying out of the foliage and its decline. To prevent the disease, during flowering and the formation of buds, the tree should be treated with a solution of Bordeaux fluid.
- Fungal diseases. Diseases develop on the bark, foliage, shoots of culture, can be of different colors. When growths appear, they are removed, and the affected areas are treated with garden var.
In addition to ailments, various pests can attack cherries:
- Aphid. Parasitizes on the underside of a leaf plate, eats leaves that become dry and yellow. High effectiveness in combating the parasite is provided by modern insecticides, which need to be sprayed with foliage during the formation of the kidneys.
- Leaflet. The leaves of the culture eat, as a result of which they dry up, turn yellow and fall off. To destroy the pest, it is advised to use a chloroform solution, which is used to treat the tree in the phase of ovary formation and after harvesting.
- Cherry fly. One of the most dangerous pests, because it feeds on the fruits of cherries. Pest control is rather complicated and consists in installing special traps and treating trees with the “Condor” solution.
Simple preventative measures help prevent the development of ailments and the defeat of Rossoshanskaya by pests:
- loosening and mulching of the soil;
- regular weed control;
- cleaning the site of dried vegetation;
- professional treatment of trees with insecticides and fungicides.
Important! All trimmed damaged branches must be destroyed by burning them, and, outside the land.
Harvesting and storage
Cherry fruits ripen, depending on the region of cultivation, in the first weeks of June or July. Berries are recommended to be removed on a dry, warm day, since fruits picked in a period of high humidity are difficult to store for a long time.
As a rule, the berries are picked together with the stalks and stored in glass or plastic containers. It is necessary to tear the cherries very carefully, since the broken bouquet twigs are not restored, which leads to a decrease in the amount of yield in the next season. Torn berries are carefully sorted, discarded rotted, damaged, bursting fruits.For long-term preservation leave only dense, large, not overripe, without visible damage to the cherries. Fruits are stored in a refrigerator or in a room with stable temperature indicators –1 ... + 1 ° С and relative humidity of 90–95%. Under such conditions, the berries can be stored without loss of taste and aesthetic qualities for two weeks.
Did you know? In the world there are many varieties of cherries, however, less than two dozen are actively grown.
Also, the fruits are allowed to freeze.Sweet cherry Rossoshanskaya Zolotaya is one of the most successful varieties for cultivation in warm climates. It does not require transcendental growing conditions, is easy to care for, and is able to give extremely tasty, juicy and sweet berries in the middle of the summer season, just when they are most in demand.