Features cherries varieties Regina
One of the promising varieties of cherries for their own and industrial cultivation, late ripening, is Regina. The variety has a high resistance to disease, gives a rich harvest with excellent taste. For more information about the features of Regina cherries and the rules of agricultural technology that will help increase the effectiveness of cultivation, read below.
Description and characteristics of the variety
The culture was bred by German breeders. Varieties of Rubé and Schneider were used as parent plants. The result of breeding work exceeded all expectations, thanks to which the culture quickly spread throughout Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union.
Did you know? Fresh cherries are an excellent pain reliever. Thanks to its antioxidant content, literally 10 cherries will eliminate fatigue, help restore strength and relieve muscle cramps.
Description of the tree and fruits
Cherry Regina is a tree reaching a height of 3-4 m. The crown is pyramidal, neat, with medium thickening shoots and foliage. The strength of shoot growth is high. They are located in relation to the pronounced central conductor almost at right angles. Leaf plates are elliptical in shape, pointed at the ends. Painted in green.The Regina tree is distinguished by a round crown of medium density and long flexible branches. Their outer surface is leathery, glossy, and the inner one is a lighter, matte tone. The edges are serrated. The flowers are white, large, five-petalled. The flowering period is completely dependent on weather conditions. It begins when the average daily temperature is set at + 15 ° C. In more northern latitudes, trees do not enter the flowering phase before the end of May.
Did you know? Cherry is not only a fruit and berry culture, but also an excellent source of bee bread (insects feed on it in winter). From 1 ha of plantings of such trees, toilers collect up to 35 kg of pollen, which they then seal and turn into bee bread.
Frost and drought resistance
Regina refers to crops with medium frost resistance. It normally tolerates cold to -25 ° C. In latitudes with colder winters it does not take root. Plants are also characterized by moderate drought tolerance. The main requirement for their cultivation is to introduce moisture, focusing on the phases of vegetation and weather conditions. The culture has a high tolerance to fungal diseases and pests. When all the rules of agricultural technology and preventive measures are followed, the cherry is not affected by parasites and diseases at all.
Did you know? Cherry fruits are used to produce food coloring. The most amazing thing is that the color is not red, but green.
The variety is attractive to gardeners for its early maturity. Unlike many other varieties, the tree enters the fruiting phase already in the 3rd year after planting. Berries do not fall off the branches for a long time, do not succumb to rotting processes.In the first year of fruiting, the tree gives about 5 kg of berries. Yield annually increases and reaches a peak at about 6–7th year, amounting to 40 kg. In the future, the yield is maintained throughout the life of the tree.Regina is famous for large, attractive berries with dense sweet flesh.
Regina, like most varieties of cherries, refers to self-infertile crops. This means that you can’t wait for a good harvest if several pollinating plants with similar flowering periods are not planted on the site. In this regard, cherries are ideal:
- Schneider late;
Did you know? Cherry resin used to be used as a chewing gum to eliminate bad breath and just as a treat. But, unlike modern chewing gums, such a product benefits, saturating the body with useful minerals and vitamins.
Advantages and disadvantages
To be able to provide the tree with all the conditions for full development and fruiting, you need to study its pros and cons.
- So, Regina's positive qualities include:
- early maturity;
- high stable yield without periods of downtime and excellent taste;
- good immunity to parasites and diseases;
- late flowering - this feature completely eliminates the shedding of flowers during return frosts;
- late ripening - this quality provides the opportunity to get fresh berries in mid-summer, when most other varieties have already bred;
- high commodity indicators of fruits and good transportability;
- versatility of crop application.
- The disadvantages of the culture include:
- self-infertility. However, most varieties of cherries have such a minus.
- the second drawback is the lack of the ability to grow crops in regions where in winter the air temperature drops below -25 ° C.
Before proceeding with the cultivation of Regina cherries in a personal plot, you need to choose the right place for the plant. The tree needs abundant lighting, so it is best to place it on the south, southeast or southwest. In addition, you should take care of the quality shelter of the tree on the north side of the wind. The main requirement is that a draft should not “walk” on the site. The next factor that directly affects the growth of the tree is the depth of groundwater. It should not be less than 2 m.The culture does not tolerate moisture stagnation at the roots, so low-lying areas with swampy soil are not suitable for it. When the site is selected, you need to evaluate the quality of the soil. Sweet cherry best bears fruit on well-fertilized loose soils with high aeration ability with a medium acid reaction (within 5.5 pH). The choice of planting material plays an important role. The best survival rates are instances of 1–2 years old.
Important! When buying a seedling, be sure to check the elasticity of the main roots - they easily curl around the finger with a ring. In addition, on the rhizome there should be no swelling, growths, cracks and signs of decay.
Such plants should have the following characteristics that must be evaluated when buying:
- The height of the stem is from 1 to 1.5 m.
- In addition to the main conductor, there are 3-5 skeletal branches 35 cm long.
- The barrel itself is aligned, without damage, cracks, scratches, smooth.
- The root system is well developed, includes 3-4 main processes, covered with a fine mesh of additional ones.
- At a distance of 5 cm from the rhizome on the trunk there is a slight bend with a healed wound from a rootstock cut.
- Autumn planting has the following advantages:
- during this period, a wide selection of planting material is available and its prices are relatively lower than in spring;
- the complexity of caring for a newly planted tree is reduced, due to the lack of the need to carry out frequent watering, since during this period there is enough natural rainfall.
- The disadvantage of this approach is:
- the inability to control weather conditions - with a sharp decrease in the temperature regime in the fall, winter or in the absence of natural precipitation, the tree may die.
In spring, you can plant plants in any region. Manipulation should be done before the buds begin to swell on the trees, and after the retreat of the cold, when the risk of return frosts disappears. The approximate dates are mid-April-mid-May. For different regions, the planting period in the spring will differ, depending on the weather.Prepare the pit in advance: for spring planting - in the fall
- The advantages of this approach are:
- the ability to track the phases of vegetation and the level of adaptation of the plant to a new place, which allows you to fix the deficiencies of care
- increasing the resistance of cherries to winter cold.
- The disadvantages of spring planting are:
- the laboriousness of caring for a young tree and a small selection of planting material during this period.
Regardless of the selected time for planting, the site needs to start to be prepared in six months. This will make it possible to correct the deficiencies of the soil composition, as well as help the plant adapt faster. They begin the preparation by digging the soil to a depth of at least 30 cm, followed by disinfection with 3% copper sulfate concentrate.
A week after these manipulations, 20 kg of fresh manure and 400 g of superphosphate are added to each 1 m² in areas with light soil composition and a neutral-acid reaction (loam and sandstone). If the soil is acidic, instead of manure, compost (20 kg / 1 m²) + dolomite flour (400 g / 1 m²) is used. On heavy soils, 20 kg of manure and 400 g of superphosphate + 10 kg of peat and sand are added for every 1 m².
If the soil reaction is acidic, then for every 1 m² 20 kg of sand, 20 kg of compost and 400 g of dolomite flour are added. Immediately after fertilizing, re-cultivation is carried out to a depth of at least 30 cm. The preparation of planting pits is started a week before planting. The depth of the hole is 70 cm, the width is 1 m. The planting pattern is 3 × 3 m. The upper 30–40 cm of soil from the hole is folded separately, the bottom layer is generally transferred to another place.The prepared top layer is mixed with:
- 20 kg of compost or humus;
- 10 kg of sand;
- 100 g of potassium sulfate;
- 1 kg of wood ash.
The resulting substrate should fill the pit by a third. Then drive a stake, which should rise above the surface of the pit by 50 cm, and pour 20 liters of water. Before planting, you need to carefully examine the root system of the seedling, update the dried parts by trimming. After that, immerse the rhizome in the Fitosporin solution for 2 hours. 5 l of water will require a whole bag (10 g) of powder substance. Getting to planting, in the center of the pit form a mound of conical shape. They have a root system on it, gently spread it over the entire area of the pit.The seedling installed in the center is covered with a mixture of soil, evenly distributing it among the roots. Alignment will be carried out at the place of budding - after filling the hole with soil, it should be 5 cm above the ground. When all the manipulations are completed, the hole is filled with soil. The trunk circle is compacted and filled under a tree with 20 liters of water. When the soil settles slightly, add the missing layer, and then mulch with compost. At the end of all work, they perform a garter to the stake using natural soft tissue.
Video: instructions for planting cherry seedlings
Subtleties of further care
Cherry Regina is not too demanding to care for.To achieve good results during plant cultivation, the main thing is to follow the basic rules of agricultural technology.
Important! If autumn is dry, then in mid-October it is necessary to irrigate. Otherwise, the tree will not be able to survive the frost.
After planting, until the age of three, water is applied to the trees 2 times a month. Water consumption per copy is 30 liters. Adult fruiting trees contribute water according to a schedule of 60 liters per each for 1 time:
- during the period of kidney swelling;
- 2 weeks after flowering;
- 3 weeks before the fruits reach full maturity.
The above schedule is regulated depending on weather conditions. If the summer is too dry, the intensity of moisture is increased. The depth of the makeshift ditch is 10 cm. Water is poured into it during irrigation. Each year, the circle for pouring water is 5-10 cm farther than the previous one. After each moistening, it is necessary to carry out loosening of the soil, simultaneously removing weeds. Immediately after this, the trunk circle should be mulched with a layer of compost or fresh grass, 5 cm high.So that during irrigation the soil does not erode, and the roots are not exposed, they make a recess in the form of a circle at a distance of 30 cm from the trunk
They begin to feed plants no earlier than in the 3rd year after planting. Every 2 years, under the autumn digging (in mid-October), 40 kg of rotted manure is introduced. In periods when organic matter is not added, 200 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potassium sulfate are used. They are also brought in under digging. In the spring, at the time of swelling of the buds, trees are fed with nitrogen fertilizers. Use 150 g of urea or 75 g of nitrophosphate. Fertilizers can be diluted in water for irrigation or, if there is no need to moisten the soil at this stage, repack them to a depth of 10 cm, scattered in the trunk circle.Cherry Regina responds very well to the alternation of organic and mineral fertilizers. In parallel with the second watering, 2 weeks after flowering, feeding with wood ash is carried out. To do this, add 1 kg of ash to 5 liters of water, boil for 15 minutes and strain. The resulting solution is added to water for irrigation. The effectiveness of top dressing will be higher if you add the composition not only at the root, but also spray them on the sheet. This will provide additional protection against pests, as well as improve the quality of the crop.
Cropping and shaping the crown
Cherry of the variety in question lends itself well to shaping. The most suitable option for her is a tiered-sparse form. Shortly after planting, the stem is shortened to 60 cm. Next year, the first tier of the skeleton is laid, leaving the 3 most powerful shoots growing at a height of 60 cm from the ground level, shortened by 15 cm. All other branches are cut into a ring. The main conductor is cut so that it is 20 cm longer than the side ones.
Important! On each skeletal branch, no more than 3 shoots should be left.
Next year, 3 powerful one-year-old processes are left on the skeletal branches of the first order, the rest are cut into a ring. 50 cm recede from the last shoot of the first order and leave also 2-3 powerful branches - one of them will later be withdrawn, as the main one, instead of the central conductor. This approach will provide a stop to the growth of the tree in height. All biennial shoots are shortened by 15 cm, annuals - by 10 cm. In the last year of crown formation, the central conductor is transferred to a single side branch. One-year-old shoots are shortened by 10 cm. All conductors competitive with skeletal are completely removed.Subsequently, the crown is maintained in proper form with the help of sanitary scraps. They suggest the removal of shoots that are competitive with the main ones, as well as thickening the crown and growing inside it. In addition, branches that are damaged mechanically or shriveled are removed.After trimming, wound surfaces must be treated with 1% solution of copper sulfate, and then covered with garden varieties.
Pest and Disease Control
Even with all the rules of agricultural technology, plants can be affected by diseases and pests, since it is impossible to control the weather conditions and the condition of foreign sites from which the infection or parasites can be carried downwind.
Regina sweet cherry can be exposed to:
Of the pests on the cultivar in question, they may appear black aphids, cherry pipelines and unmatched silkworms. You can get rid of them by dusting trees and soil with tobacco dust or wood ash. If the technique does not help, you need to use the drug "Actara". To prepare a solution of 10 g of water add 1.5 g of substance. A single treatment will be sufficient.
Harvesting and storage
Berries are picked by hand, picking from trees along with petioles. Immediately carry out the rejection of damaged berries. Fruits are laid out in wooden boxes or baskets, in no more than 2-3 layers, separating them with parchment paper. When stored in the refrigerator, the fruits fully retain their quality for more than 2 weeks.
To extend the shelf life, the cherries are frozen or sent for processing to winter harvests (compotes, preserves, marshmallows, juices). Regina sweet cherries are very popular among gardeners. Due to its unpretentiousness in care and high stable yield indicators, it is considered not only as a culture for personal use, but also as an industrial one.
For several years of growing Regina, I can "show" to her only poor pollination. Therefore, those who plan to receive high-grade crops should pay particular attention to this issue.