Features of planting and care for Yaroslavna cherries
Cherry is a favorite delicacy of many, and as a result of selection, many varieties of this culture were bred. One of them is the Yaroslavna variety, which combines excellent taste qualities of berries, high productivity and unpretentiousness to climate conditions. A detailed description of the variety, its pros and cons, the technology of planting seedlings and the rules for caring for trees are given later in the article.
Description and distinctive features of the variety of sweet cherry Yaroslavna
The variety was bred in 1956 by breeders of the Institute of Horticulture, located in Donetsk. Since then, it has gained great popularity among experienced and novice gardeners, therefore it is grown not only in small summer cottages, but also on a large scale.
Did you know? Bees can collect up to 35 kg of pollen from 1 ha of cherries.
- An adult tree reaches a height of 3.5–4.5 m and is characterized by rapid growth.
- Crohn's crown has a rounded shape, moderately thick. On powerful brown shoots are matte leaves of ovoid shape and medium size. They are painted dark green and have serrated edges.
- The flowering period falls in the first half of May. At the same time, small (up to 3 cm) flowers with white-pink petals bloom on the tree. They are collected in umbrella-shaped inflorescences and exude a pleasant delicate aroma.
- Large berries grow on elongated stalks, and the mass of each of them is 8-12 g.
- The fruits are round in shape, and on the outside are covered with a dense dark burgundy peel.
- The flesh of the berry is dark red, of dense structure. It tastes sweet and juicy, with a slight sour aftertaste.
- Inside each berry there is a small round bone that can be easily separated from the pulp.
The variety of cherries Yaroslavna refers to early ripening - berries can be harvested at the end of June. Subject to proper care, each adult tree gives a high yield of ripe fruits with a good presentation.
The main characteristics of fruiting and yield of the variety in question are:
- the tree begins to bear fruit 5 years after planting a seedling;
- in the first year of fruiting, 20-30 kg of berries can be collected from each cherry;
- maximum tree productivity is achieved at 10 years of its life - such specimens give up to 100 kg of berries;
- from 1 ha of plantings, you can collect about 119 tons of fruits;
- regular fruiting, without interruptions;
- Uniformity is characteristic of berries.
Important! The total life expectancy of cherry Yaroslavna — up to 25 years old.
The southern regions are best suited for growing Yaroslavna cherries, but this variety can successfully bear fruit in any climatic conditions. Mature trees can withstand a short-term drop in air temperature to –36 ° С, but in areas with severe and prolonged frosts it is recommended to cover them before the onset of winter. Young seedlings are particularly sensitive to low temperatures.
The best pollinators
Variety Yaroslavna needs pollinators, so next to it you need to plant cherries of other species. Such trees should be located at a distance of not more than 50 m and be about the same age as the pollinated specimen. It is best to plant them around the cherry Yaroslavna - this will help to significantly increase crop yields.The best pollinators for this variety are:
- Valery Chkalov;
- Donetsk beauty;
- Melitopol early;
- Drogana is yellow.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Sweet cherry Yaroslavna favorably differs from others in many positive characteristics.That is why it is very popular among gardeners and distributed throughout Ukraine and Russia.
- The main advantages of the variety are the following qualities:
- high productivity;
- early ripening of berries;
- excellent product characteristics and sweet taste of fruits;
- resistance of berries to cracking;
- good transportability;
- high frost resistance;
- unpretentiousness to climate conditions;
- persistent immunity to common diseases and pests;
- the universality of the use of berries (fresh, in cooking, cosmetology and traditional medicine).
Important! The maximum single serving of cherries for an adult is 300 g. In a larger number, these berries can cause bloating.
- Among the few disadvantages of the variety, gardeners call:
- reduced immunity of trees to fungal diseases;
- the need for pollinators;
- high tree height making harvest difficult.
Features of planting and growing
The variety in question is quite unpretentious to climate conditions, and its cultivation does not require much effort from the gardener. In order to successfully cultivate Yaroslavna cherries in your area, it’s enough to choose the right place for tree planting, purchase high-quality planting material and clearly observe the technology for planting fruit seedlings in open ground.
Dates and place for landing
In the southern regions, it is preferable to plant sweet cherries in the second half of October, a month before frosts, so that the tree can adapt to open ground conditions. In regions with a cool and temperate climate, it is best to plant trees in the first half of March, until the buds open.
The plot for planting sweet cherry Yaroslavna must meet the following requirements:
- good sun exposure - its rays stimulate the growth of seedlings, and also provide for the formation and ripening of large berries;
- the chosen place should not be located in a lowland - water may stagnate there, and excess moisture is detrimental to the roots of the tree;
- a sufficient amount of free space - the crown of the tree is very voluminous and forms an extensive shadow on the plot with a diameter of up to 4 m;
- the depth of groundwater should be at least 3 m from the surface - as a result of constant flooding, the root system of the seedling will begin to rot;
- lack of cold drafts - they can weaken the immunity of the tree;
- nutritious and slightly moist soil of neutral acidity - chernozem, loamy or sandy loamy soil that passes water and air to the roots is best suited.
Important! The air temperature at the time of planting cherries should be at least +10°WITH.
Choosing the best seedlings
The quality of the seedlings directly depends on their survival on the site and the volume of the future crop. Manufacturers offer the widest assortment of young trees in the fall, but if necessary, the purchase can also be made in the spring.
Seedlings are recommended to be purchased only in specialized stores or from trusted sellers, choosing instances for landing on such grounds:
- seedlings that have reached the age of 1 year are best rooted in the soil - they usually have 1 main conductor and 5-6 side branches;
- in a healthy tree, the roots are elastic, without growths, rot and dried areas;
- the grafting site should be clearly visible on the lower part of the trunk - it confirms that the selected specimen is not a wild-growing tree species;
- in a high-quality seedling, the bark on the trunk is even and smooth, without mechanical damage and spots.
A place for seedlings of sweet cherry Yaroslavna need to start cooking in the fall. Preparation includes the introduction of the necessary substances into the soil, as well as the digging of planting pits. They are prepared at least 2 weeks before planting, and if this procedure is planned for spring, then holes for seedlings are dug out in the fall.
Did you know? The Middle East is considered the birthplace of cherries - it was there that the ancient Romans first saw the described culture.
In order to properly prepare a place for growing this crop, you need to perform the following actions:
- remove plant debris and debris from the soil;
- dig a plot to a depth of 30–40 cm, adding 12 kg of humus per 1 m² of area, as well as 100 g of superphosphate and potassium sulfate;
- if the soil has a high level of acidity, it is recommended to liming it - for this, 0.4 kg of dolomite flour or wood ash is added per 1 m²;
- dig out landing pits with a depth of about 80 cm and a diameter of at least 1 m, leaving a distance of at least 3-4 m between them;
- at the bottom of the recess lay a layer of drainage from rubble or pieces of broken brick;
- mix the upper part of the earth obtained by digging a hole with 7 kg of compost, 180 g of superphosphate, 60 g of potassium sulfate and 450 g of wood ash;
- drive a wooden support with a height of about 1.5 m to the bottom of the depression in the center, and then form a mound around it from the prepared mixture of soil and fertilizers;
- pour 10 l of water to the bottom of the landing pit and leave a recess for the subsidence of the soil - you can cover it with a film on top to better maintain moisture in the soil.
The process of planting seedlings of sweet cherry varieties Yaroslavna does not have distinctive features. To young trees safely rooted in the soil, you must be careful when working with their root system, protecting it from damage.
Step-by-step instructions for planting cherries of the described variety are presented below:
- Prepare a thick mixture of clay and water for the roots - it should have a consistency of thick sour cream.
- If the root system of a seedling has dried up, you need to soak it in water for several hours. Immediately before planting, dip the roots into the clay mash.
- Place the tree in the planting pit so that its root neck is at a height of 4-5 cm above the soil surface. Gently spread the roots on the surface of the knoll.
- Sprinkle the seedling with the remaining soil and ram it around the trunk to form a near-stem circle with a diameter of about 60 cm.
- Tie cherries to the support and pour 20-30 l of water on the tree. When the liquid is completely absorbed into the soil, cover the surface of the trunk circle with a layer of peat or sawdust with a thickness of about 5-7 cm.
Cherry Care Rules
To annually harvest ripe and sweet berries, you need to stimulate the growth and development of the seedling. To do this, the tree is regularly watered and fed with fertilizers, as well as pruning branches and warming the cherry before frost. On the basic rules for caring for the variety in question later in the article.
Did you know? Sweet cherry seeds are not recommended for food - they contain amygdalin, which, after entering the intestines, is converted to hydrocyanic acid.
Sweet cherry Yaroslavna belongs to drought-resistant varieties of fruit crops, but even it needs moisture for growth and fruiting. It is especially important to carry out the correct watering of young seedlings and adult trees at the stage of formation and ripening of the crop.
It is recommended to water the crop at least 3-4 times per season, following these rules:
- it is necessary to irrigate the trees during the formation of the ovaries - a lack of moisture in the soil at this stage will lead to a significant decrease in productivity;
- water consumption for each tree depends on its age - for watering young seedlings you need 10–20 l of liquid, and with each next year this amount increases by another 10–20 l;
- in summer, with a prolonged absence of rain, the cherry is watered 1-2 times - this contributes to uniform ripening of the crop and gives the berries a good taste;
- water needs to be poured into the area of the near-stem circle, and in order to better absorb moisture from the roots, it is recommended to loosen the soil around the trunk before irrigation;
- it is best to irrigate trees in the morning, using warm water previously warmed up in the sun;
- the last watering is carried out in the fall after harvesting - while the roots are saturated with moisture, which helps the cherry to better tolerate wintering;
- after the liquid is completely absorbed into the ground, the space around the trunk is covered with a layer of humus or peat - this slows down the evaporation of moisture.
Proper pruning helps thin out the crown of a fruit tree, provides normal access of sunlight to all fruits and is a necessary procedure for preventing the appearance of diseases and pests. In an adult instance, old and damaged branches, as well as extra shoots, must be removed annually.
Important! In the first few years of growth of a young seedling, they form a crown of the correct form, consisting of 3-4 tiers.
- Immediately after planting, the top of the seedling is cut off at a height of 80–90 cm from the ground, and its side branches are shortened by 50%.
- It is recommended to cut off the frozen shoots at the end of May - this procedure can be performed only in warm and dry weather to avoid gumming.
- Forming pruning is carried out at the beginning of June, leaving a standard height of at least 60 cm.
- In the process of seedling growth, the central conductor is annually shortened by 15–20 cm - this stimulates the growth of the crown of cherry in width.
- During the first years after planting, the seedlings form 1 tier of skeletal branches per year - for each of them choose some of the strongest shoots growing in opposite directions at a distance of at least 15 cm from each other.
- The distance between adjacent tiers of skeletal branches should be about 60–80 cm;
- Annual growth on the main lateral branches of the tree is shortened by about 30% to stimulate the growth of new shoots.
- In an adult tree that has reached the age of 5 years, small branches are removed that grow too close to each other or towards the center of the crown.
- Autumn sanitary pruning is carried out at the end of September - only dry and old branches are removed.
Cherry pruning should be carried out with a sharp and disinfected tool, and all surfaces of the slices should be immediately treated with garden varnish to prevent infection.
At different stages of growth and development, Yaroslavna cherries need different types of nutrients. They help the tree to form a green mass, provide high productivity and sweet taste of berries.
Important! In the next spring after planting cherries during digging up the trunk circle to a depth of 10-15 cm, 200 g of urea is added to enrich the tree with nitrogen.
- After the tree has reached the age of 4 years, ditches up to 25 cm deep are dug around it - liquid fertilizer solutions are poured into them.
- Adult fruiting trees are fertilized in early spring - under each of them a liquid solution of ammofoska (30 g of fertilizer per 10 l of water) is added.
- In May, cherries are fed 3 times with a solution of urea or ammonium nitrate (30 g of substance per bucket of water) - the interval between feeding is about 10 days.
- During the autumn digging of the soil around the trunk, 30 kg of humus, 120 g of potassium sulfate and 400 g of superphosphate are introduced under each tree.
- To maintain a neutral level of soil acidity, it is necessary to liming it every 5 years - about 400 g of wood ash is applied per 1 m².
Sweet cherry Yaroslavna shows good resistance to cold and tolerates even very severe frosts. But in order to protect the stem and shoots of the tree from freezing, as well as prevent their damage by rodents, it is recommended to carry out the correct preparation of cherries for winter.
It begins in September and includes such actions:
- cleaning the soil around the trunk of debris, weeds and fallen berries;
- digging the ground around the tree in order to destroy pests larvae wintering in the ground;
- mulching the soil around the cherry with humus, peat or sawdust - the thickness of the mulch should be about 10 cm;
- tying the lower part of the trunk with several layers of thick paper, kapron or burlap - protects the trunk from freezing and rodents;
- whitewash of the stem and the bases of the lower skeletal branches - protects the bark of cherries from sunburn and pests.
Diseases and Pests
If the site for growing Yaroslavna cherries was selected taking into account all of the above requirements, and the trees were properly maintained, then the probability of damage to the crop by diseases or pests is small. But in the event of a problem, the gardener should be able to recognize the signs of infection in time and begin immediate treatment.
Did you know? From ripe cherries, a green food coloring is made.
- Fruit rot (moniliosis). A sign of this fungal infection is a gray-yellow coating on the berries, which subsequently leads to blackening of the fruits and their premature fall. Affected berries are immediately removed from the tree, and the crown is sprayed with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid.
- Bacterial cancer. This disease can not only reduce the yield of cherries, but also completely destroy the tree. The main sign of infection is brown watery spots on the bark and fruits, which gradually increase in size and infect the entire tree. Damaged shoots are pruned in spring and autumn, while capturing about 6 cm of healthy wood. The sections of the slices are carefully treated with 1% solution of copper sulfate, and then coated with garden varieties.
- Coccomycosis. The disease affects the leaves of cherry, covering them with increasing in size brown spots. Gradually, the entire crown of the tree turns yellow and falls prematurely, and the ovaries and fruits fall off. To combat the infection, the sweet cherry is sprayed with a 3% solution of Bordeaux fluid.
- Cherry fly. This pest lays eggs on the tree, from which small caterpillars emerge. They damage the pulp of the berries and make them unsuitable for use, reducing the yield of the variety by 90%. To combat the pest, special traps of plywood sheets are used, on the surface of which glue is applied. With a large number of pests, the crown of cherries is treated with insecticides (for example, Actellic).
- Black aphid. The pest is small and settles on the leaves of cherry, sucking juice from them. This leads to the fact that the green mass of the tree begins to turn yellow prematurely, the leaves fall off, the crop yield decreases. To exterminate insects, the crown of cherries is sprayed with the infusion of tomato tops (2 kg of greens in 5 liters of water). In case of severe damage, special preparations are used (for example, "Actofit").
- Cherry Pipeline. This insect harms the ovaries and fruits of cherries, and also damages the kidneys. Caterpillars hatched from the eggs of the pipe-throat feed on the pulp of the fruit, eat the buds and buds of the tree from the inside. If the number of insects is small, you can manually shake them off the tree, but for large-scale damage, insecticides are used (for example, “Aktaru”).
- Autumn digging around the tree;
- removal of fallen leaves and debris from the trunk circle;
- correct pruning of branches;
- adherence to the watering and dressing schedule;
- whitewash the trunk;
- disinfection of cracks on the surface of the cortex with a 5% solution of copper sulfate;
- spraying cherries with copper-containing preparations before flowering and after harvesting the berries.
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting sweet berries begins in late June or early July.The fruits on the tree ripen at the same time, so you need to pick them in 1-2 receptions, so that they do not have time to crumble to the ground.
Important! To increase the shelf life of berries, they can be frozen or used to make canned preserves.
- berries are picked by hand along with the stalks - this helps to increase the shelf life of the product;
- the cherries are carefully stacked in prepared containers, protecting the berries from bumps and mechanical damage;
- in the refrigerator, fresh fruits can be stored for 3-4 days.
Sweet cherry Yaroslavna is one of the best varieties that even a novice gardener can grow on their own. To collect a generous crop of large and sweet berries, it is necessary to follow the recommendations listed in the article for planting and care, as well as to eliminate diseases and pests in time.