Features sweet cherries
One of the first berries that appear on the shelves of our country in early summer are cherries. These fruits are successfully grown by Russian gardeners in orchards and in household plots. The article is devoted to the Ovstuzhenka sweet cherry variety, it will describe and characterize the variety, as well as recommendations for planting seedlings and further care for trees.
Cherry Ovstuzhenka is a novelty in gardening; 20 years have not passed since the appearance of the variety. During the work, the Leningradskaya black and Compact Veniaminovy varieties of cherries were crossed. The authorship of this hybrid belongs to M. Kanshina, a breeder of the Russian Research Institute named after Lupin. The Ovstuzhenka variety was included in the Russian State Register at the beginning of the 2000s. The highest yield of cherries Ovstuzhenka showed when grown in the Southern Non-chernozem region.
The variety is recommended by originators for cultivation in the Moscow region and other regions of Central Russia. When cultivating varieties in the southern regions, the yield increases by almost half, the quality and taste of the berries improve
Description and characteristics of fruits and tree
Early cherries Ovstuzhenka is popular among gardeners in Russia and often planted in home gardens. The wide popularity of the new variety is explained by its unpretentiousness in growing and the fact that cherries already in early summer delight the owner with an early harvest of delicious berries. Mass fruiting of young trees usually begins in the fifth year, but the first berries can be tasted already in the third year of vegetation.
The oysterwoman shows good resistance to diseases caused by fungal spores (coccomycosis and moniliosis), and is relatively resistant to clastosporiosis and the formation of sunburn on the cortex in winter.
Did you know? In Japan, during the flowering of cherry orchards, the Hanami nationwide holiday is celebrated. For Japanese youth, this holiday is a symbol of the transition to a new stage in life: graduation from a university or school, the search for a first job.
Crown Height and Density
Cherry tree is small, compact, grows quickly. Has a sparse crown shaped in the shape of a ball. Cherry branches are spreading and raised up. The thickness of young shoots of the current year does not exceed 1 cm, adult branches have an average thickness (from 5 to 8 cm). The four-meter trunk and branches are covered with a smooth dark brown bark.
The buds on the shoots are large, oval, with a pointed top, located on branches at an acute angle. The buds begin to swell in the spring, in March, they bloom as soon as the temperature in the street rises to +10 ... + 12 ° C. The leaves of Ovstuzhenka cherries are large, oval, with a sharp tip. The green leaf plate is smooth, with small teeth along the edges of the leaf. The leaf is attached to the branch with a short petiole.Flowering of this variety is magnificent, elegant, but not long. Cherry blossoms from 7 to 10 days, depending on air temperature. Flowering occurs around mid-May, but for different climatic zones, the onset of this period may be different. Cherry blossoms have snow-white, large, round petals. Each flower has five petals. Flowers are collected in groups of 3 to 5 pieces.
During flowering, in the range of 10 m from the growing cherries, the air is saturated with a sweet aroma that attracts insects for pollination
Taste qualities of fruits
The berries of the cherries Ovstuzhenka are round-oval, large. The color of the skin and pulp of berries has a deep shade of red wine. The pulp is juicy, not watery, dense, has a sweet taste and rich aroma. Berries can have a weight of 4.2 to 7 g. But it should be recognized that the more berries are tied in a tree, the smaller they will be.Abundant watering and timely fertilizer application also have a positive effect on the mass of berries.
The berry comes off the long stalk without injury to the fetus (dry separation), which makes the cultivation of berries of this variety commercially profitable. There is a stone inside each berry, its weight occupies about 6% of the mass of the whole berry. Variety unusual cracking of the fruit, even in very rainy periods.
Did you know? A cheerful literary hero, a liar and an inventor, Baron Munchausen surprised incredulous listeners with an incredible story about a cherry tree growing on a deer's forehead after being shot with a cherry bone from a gun.
Frost and drought resistance
Sweet cherries are very sensitive to subzero temperatures, but this variety has good frost resistance and can withstand (for short periods) temperatures up to -18 ...- 20 ° C. During flowering, the Ovstuzhenka variety reacts very painfully to low temperatures, the fall of flowers begins already at an air temperature of + 2 ° C.
The berries of this variety are large, they are easy to collect, but if the crown is not thinned out due to the abundance of pagons, the collection will still be complicated
Pollinators and productivity
Gardeners evaluate Ovstuzhenka cherries as a variety with a high yield potential. With good care, a ten-year-old adult tree gives up to 30 kg of juicy berries. Trees under the age of 10 years bear fruit in the amount of 15-16 kg from one tree.
The variety is not self-fertile, therefore, it needs nearby pollinating trees. Such cherry trees are suitable for pollination: Tyutchevka, Pink pearls, Iput, Bryansk pink, Revna. Pollinators are planted from this variety at a distance of 30 to 40 m.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Cherry grade Ovstuzhenka is characterized by both positive and negative traits.
- Grade advantages:
- annual fruiting;
- delicious berries;
- early ripening;
- good qualities of berries;
- resistance to certain diseases of the culture;
- Cons of the variety:
- the need for other trees for pollination;
- peduncles are afraid of low temperatures.
Features of planting cherries
Trees are planted in the cherry garden at a distance of 5-6 m from each other. Such a great distance is required by plants because of a spreading wide crown. If the interval is not respected, there will be little room for tree branches to develop, the branches of one tree will be obscured by the branches of another, and there will be a deficit of lighting.
Video: Cherry planting instructions
Recommended pick-up dates
Cherry seedlings can be planted in early spring and autumn. According to experienced gardeners, planting seedlings in autumn gives better results. The time of spring planting is chosen so that by this time the snow in the garden has already disappeared, and the soil has warmed up well. Usually this period falls in mid-April, but, depending on the weather, it can shift significantly in one direction or another.
October is usually chosen for autumn planting, because this month the air temperature is no longer high, and there is plenty of moisture. For the autumn planting, the best time would be the middle of the month or the last days of October.
Selection and preparation of a site for landing
For planting, choose a terrain with no near groundwater. If the water in the ground lies near the roots of the tree, after some time this will cause decay of the tree roots and, as a result, a decrease in yield, and after some time the death of the tree. The soil must be permeable to moisture and air, the combination of chernozem and sand will be optimal.
Cherry grows poorly on clay, kaolin soils. The fact that the soil is not suitable for a given crop will be seen by the appearance of curves twisted (sometimes in loops) of tree branches
Gardeners advise preparing the planting pit long before the seedlings are directly planted, for example, for planting in April - from October. This will allow the earth to settle down and decompose the introduced organic matter.
Before planting a seedling, the gardener needs to dig a spacious landing pit with a bayonet spade. The recommended depth of the pit for planting is 0.5 m, and the width is up to 0.6 m. The specified parameters of the planting pit are not a strict condition, the depth and width vary depending on the age of the seedling and the volume of its root system. It is important that when planting the vaccination site remains not buried in the soil, and also that the roots feel free and not cramped (both in depth and in breadth).
Important! When digging a hole, the upper fertile soil layer is carefully removed and set aside. When the landing recess is ready, the fertile layer must be filled up at the bottom of the pit.
The landing pit must also be filled with fertilizer.. As a top dressing, you can use organics, for example, three-year-old cattle manure. Usually, such an organics has already been quite overtaken and partially decomposed. You can also use compost or humus. It is enough to make 5-7 kg of organic fertilizers per one planting pit for a two-year-old seedling.
100 g of triple superphosphate and ammonium sulfate are added there. Next, chernozem, previously removed from the surface of the soil, is poured into the pit. All components are thoroughly mixed, after which a small hill 15–20 cm high is formed from them at the bottom of the pit. The planting pit is ready for planting a seedling.
To plant Ovstuzhenka cherries, you can create a hill on your own if it is not in the landscape of the site
The process of planting a cherry seedling is as follows:
- The day before planting, the seedling is installed in a container with water, so that the root system nourishes moisture. Immediately before planting, the roots of the tree are lowered into a thick liquid consisting of clay, mullein and water. The thickness of the clay talker should have the consistency of homemade sour cream.
- The tree is set in the center of the planting pit on an artificially created hill so that the roots are neatly and evenly straightened on the sides of the hill and directed down. Near the seedling, at a distance of 20-30 cm, establish a support peg of wood. Its height should correspond to the height of the seedling.
- Further, the gardener will need the help of another person who will hold the tree and the supporting peg in the installed position and periodically, during the procedure of falling asleep, the seedling will shake. Gently shaking the tree will cause the soil to evenly settle on the roots, and the contact of the roots and soil will be more dense.
- When the landing pit with the tree is filled up to half, half a bucket of water is poured into it. After the moisture is absorbed, they continue to fill the landing hole with soil. When planting cherries, you need to pay attention not to accidentally fill the grafting site with soil. Finishing the planting, the gardener forms a wide depression from the soil around the tree trunk. In the future, such a formation of the trunk circle will help to water the seedling without any problems, moisture will get exactly to the roots of the plant. The soil in the trunk circle is trampled to a dense state.
- Young cherries are tied together with a support peg. For ligaments, they use soft strong fabric or a leather belt, connecting them with a sapling and a peg “eight”. The peg will remain next to the young tree for several years, it will not allow the fragile plant to break under strong winds.
- After planting, the seedling is watered again using half a bucket of water, and they are expected to absorb moisture into the soil. Further, if necessary, add additional soil in places of subsidence of the soil.
- In the first month after planting, the seedling is watered weekly, pouring up to 10 liters of water under the root. Breaks in watering are done only in the winter and with prolonged summer rains. Next, the young tree is watered every 2 weeks for the next two months, gradually changing the watering regime to 1 time per week.
It is not recommended to keep the tree in the sun before planting, otherwise it will dry out, which will affect the crop
Further tree care
In order for the tree to bear fruit annually, the gardener must provide the cherries with proper and timely care. The plant needs to be watered, fertilized, protected from insects and diseases, form a crown, carry out sanitary pruning and cleaning the soil under the tree from last year's leaves.
In spring and autumn, gardeners dig the soil in the near-stem circle of cherries. Digging should be deep so that loosening of the soil occurs at a depth of 10-12 cm. Such treatment will help in the fight against annual and perennial weeds, simplify the application of fertilizers under mature trees and saturate the soil with oxygen.
In addition, loose soil takes on the role of mulch and protects the basal layer from moisture loss. Spring work with soil is carried out after the soil in the garden is cleared of snow and dries. In autumn, the soil should be cultivated before the onset of winter, in late October or early November. This process is also effective in controlling the wintering larvae of the cherry fly.
Video: How to properly plant and care for cherries
In summer, adult sweet cherries are watered once a month, but abundantly, using at least 20-30 liters of water. Especially important for cherries is spring water-charging irrigation and a stable flow of moisture during the formation of fruits. A lack of moisture can cause premature shedding of the fruit ovary. Spring watering is carried out in late April, pouring at least 100 liters of water under each adult cherry.
Such irrigation can be carried out without problems if you put an irrigation hose near the trunk area of the plant and adjust the flow of water to the weakest. A hose with flowing water is left next to the tree at night; in the morning, watering can be considered completed. Exactly the same event for carrying out water-loading irrigation is carried out in the fall, in the second half of October. The moisture consumption under each tree is the same as in spring.
Watering the tree is not at the root, but into the furrows, which is done at a distance of 25-30 cm from the trunk
For the first 3-4 years of the vegetation of a young tree after planting, the plant has enough fertilizers applied during the creation of the planting pit. But already in the fifth year of cultivation, it is necessary to fertilize the fruit tree.
Every 2 years, adult cherries in the garden must be fed with organic fertilizers.. To do this, in the near-stem circle, on the surface of the soil with a diameter of up to 1 m, well-decomposed horse or cow manure is laid out. The organic layer should be about 8-10 cm. To fertilize an adult tree, you will need about 2 buckets of rotted manure. Next, the soil together with manure is dug up with a turn of the reservoir so that the fertilizer is under a layer of soil. The performed feeding will be enough for the next 2 years of cherry growing, after which the procedure is repeated.
Agronomists recommend whitewashing trunks of fruit trees twice a year: in early spring and late autumn or winter. It must be admitted that whitewashed trunks very decorate the garden and make it solemnly elegant. But whitewashing is not carried out for beauty purposes, but to preserve the health of the tree. It protects plants from sunburn.
Important! Sunburn on tree bark should be immediately treated with garden var. This is important to do immediately after the detection of wounds, since spores of fungi and viruses are activated in the places of damage.
Let's consider how to whitewash sweet cherries:
- Before starting work, the gardener prepares a solution for whitewashing of 10 liters of water, 1 kg of quicklime and 1 shovel of fresh horse manure. Initially, water and lime are mixed in a metal or plastic bucket, after which a drilling reaction occurs. This is the extinguishing of lime. At the end of drilling, horse manure is added to the lime solution and mixed thoroughly. The solution is ready to use.About 100 g of copper sulfate as a fungicide can also be added to it. This composition of the solution will protect the plant from sunburn, serve as additional fertilizer and neutralize spores of fungi and pathogens of bacterial diseases.
- A solution of whitewashing is applied to the stem of the cherry with a wide, long-bristled paint brush. They begin work directly in the place where the wood contacts the soil, whitewash the trunk and the lower part of the skeletal branches, about 50 cm in length.
- Both in spring and winter, a whitewashed dry sunny day is chosen for whitewashing, when nothing foreshadows near precipitation. In winter, these works are carried out in December or January.
In winter, the sun's rays are reflected from the snow, as a result of which their intensity increases several times. This causes burns and cracks on the bark of trees. In spring, the rays of the sun are also very active and can harm the tree bark.
Cropping and shaping
Garden health is provided by regular pruning of the crown. Cherry is cut 2 times a year, in spring and autumn, at the end of the fruiting season. Pruning can be formative and sanitary. Formative pruning is carried out on young cherries until a tree crown is formed.
Sanitary pruning involves cutting old, non-viable or diseased branches, pruning excess shoots drowning the crown. The berry garden also needs spring sanitary pruning after winter, a long period when branches can be damaged on the trees under the weight of snow. Broken branches are subject to full or partial cutting, depending on where the damage is located.
Important! Properly conducted forming pruning ensures early cherry efficiency and shortens the waiting period for the first harvest. The trimming of the crown systematically carried out in subsequent years also improves the quality of the fruit and the yield of the tree.
The formation of the crown of cherries is as follows:
- Immediately after planting a seedling, the gardener with the help of a secateurs carries out the formation and cuts off all unnecessary. The height of the seedling is left up to 60–70 cm from the ground. Only 3-4 lateral branches are left on the tree, all unnecessary branches are removed. Left branches will be first-order fruit branches.
- In the second year after planting, in the spring, the gardener continues to form sweet cherries: cuts off the tips of all skeletal branches by 15–20 cm and the tip of the top of the tree. As a result of the formation, the top of the tree should be slightly longer than the side branches. On each of the lateral branches of the first order, 3 shoots are left, their tips also pinch with a pruner. These will be fruit branches of the second order.
- In the third year after planting, the gardener again truncates the top of the tree, and also cuts the branches of the first and second order by 10-15 cm. Three new shoots are left on the branches of the second order - these will be fruit branches of the third order. After that, the extra shoots of this year are removed on all branches.
- This completes the formation of the crown of sweet cherry, and the tree needs only annual sanitary pruning, during which all sick and old branches, as well as unnecessary shoots of this year, are removed.
Diseases and Pests
Unfortunately, cherries are susceptible to a number of diseases and pests that can affect the quality and size of the crop.
The most common diseases and pests of this culture:
- Moniliosis, or bacterial burn - This is one of the most dangerous fungal diseases of cherries. Infected flowers and leaves turn brown, dry and remain on the tree. In severe cases, entire branches die along with leaves and ovary. Brown, soft spots covered with gray mold appear on the fruits, the berries quickly rot, then crumble and remain on the branches in a mummified form.How to deal: remove diseased shoots during spring pruning, spray one of the cherries with one of the preparations: Topsin M 500 SC, Switch 62.5 WG, Miedzian Extra 350 SC, Signum 33 WG.
- Kleasterosporiosis - The cause of the occurrence is a fungus, which initially affects the leaves. In the spring, numerous small red-brown spots appear on them, which quickly cover the entire leaf plate. Infected leaves turn yellow and fall prematurely. The disease leads to a significant weakening of cherries, reduces its frost resistance and affects the size and quality of the crop. One of the preventive methods of treatment is the removal and destruction of all fallen leaves in which spores of the fungus winter. Trees are also sprayed with chemicals, for example: Carpene 65 WP, Kaptan Plus 71.5 WP, Topsin M 500 SC.
- Cherry fly - lays eggs in the berry pulp, larvae hatch from them. Wormy berries rot and fall. The larvae, coming out of the fruit, go into the soil under a tree, where they pupate and winter. In the spring, they become adult insects and begin their life cycle again. In order to reduce the number of pests, in early spring a dense coating is laid on the ground under the tree, which prevents the appearance of overwintered pests from the soil. Cherries from a cherry fly are also treated with a plant protection product, for example, Mospilan 20 SP.
- Cockchafer, or Khrushchev - harms trees both in larval form and in the form of an adult insect. Larvae feed on the ground, nibbling the bark on the roots, while beetles eat leaves. The control of insects is mainly based on prevention consisting in regular digging of the soil. You can also soak the roots of the seedlings before planting in an insecticide ("Antichrush" and others), which makes them inedible for the larva of the Khrushchev during one summer season.
- Weevil beetle, or flower beetle - damages flowers, ovaries and fruits of stone fruits, laying larvae in them. Infected fruits are deformed, rot and dry, remaining on the tree. Sticky traps and hunting belts on tree trunks help in the fight against pests, because currently there are no permitted chemicals that reliably protect cherries during flowering.
- Cherry aphid - insects mainly occupy leaves, flowers and young shoots from which they suck juices. Leaf blades and shoot tips are twisted and deformed, and the fruits and buds are contaminated with sticky dew, on which fungal spores develop. To control pests, various plant protection products can be used, for example, Calypso 480 SC.
Harvesting and storage
Cherry is harvested when the bulk of the berries reach ripeness. This means that the size of the fruit, the color of the skin and the taste of the pulp of the berries will meet the requirements of this variety. Usually, Ovstuzhenka’s cherry berry harvesting begins at the end of June, but the ripening time of the harvest may shift in one direction or another from the expected harvest date, depending on the vagaries of the weather.
Did you know? Residents of Japan specifically set aside free time for walks in the cherry orchards during their lush, but short-lived flowering. This is a time for philosophical reflection on the fragility of beauty and all living things, as well as for composing Japanese quatrains - haiku.
Ripe berries are picked together with long stalks, which eliminates the loss of fruit juice. Sweet cherry has a rather dense, but juicy and tasty pulp, suitable for transportation over long distances. During transportation, it is necessary to observe the temperature regime (+8 ... + 12 ° C), as well as use special trays for berries that do not allow them to get damaged. At home, fresh berries can be stored in the refrigerator, in a special compartment for fruits. The approximate time of possible preservation of sweet cherry berries is from 7 to 10 days.If you find injured fruits in containers, isolate them urgently so that they do not spoil healthy
The popularity of cherries Ovstuzhenka among gardeners is due to its unpretentiousness in cultivation and high productivity. Growing even one sweet cherry tree of this variety in the garden will provide the skilled gardener with an early harvest of sweet and juicy berries.