Treatment of fusarium wilt of cucumbers with folk and medicinal products
One of the most common fungal diseases affecting cucumber culture is fusariosis. What measures to take to prevent and treat it in greenhouses or open ground, read below.
What is the disease dangerous for cucumbers?
Infection with fungal pathogens often occurs through the soil. Fusariosis affects the vessels inside the shoots, which leads to a slowdown in growth. The younger the plants, the more harm it does to them.
Did you know? The Slavs used alkali as soap - wood ash steamed in boiling water.
With timely treatment, the problem can be eliminated, but, unfortunately, it becomes noticeable not at the seedling stage, but when the plants enter the flowering phase. The main danger is that infected specimens begin to massively wither and die by the fruiting stage.
In infected specimens, immunity is reduced, as a result of which they become more susceptible to other infections and bacteria. In this state, cucumbers are often affected by bacterial wilting.
This disease manifests itself in plants with reduced immunity and is not treated. In addition, weakened cucumbers are more often attacked by pests. As a result of such difficulties, losses can be up to 70%.
Causes and symptoms of occurrence
The causative agents of the disease are the fungi of the strain Fusarium. The disease is widespread everywhere. It mainly affects crops grown in the greenhouse. In open ground is less common. The fungus is transferred through the soil, where it gets along with the remains of vegetation or with water from reservoirs (if it is irrigated).
Spores are able to maintain viability at sub-zero temperatures. The main reason for the defeat of cucumbers by Fusarium is the failure to comply with the rules of agricultural technology when growing crops. Spores can also spread in the wind.
In addition, the reasons that contribute to the propagation of harmful microorganisms are:
- crop rotation failure;
- the acquisition of low-quality seed material from the hands already infected with Fusarium infection;
- acidification or alkalization of the soil;
- the presence of microcracks on the root system or the terrestrial part of plants;
- nutritional deficiencies;
- fluctuations in temperature and humidity of the environment and soil;
- parasite attack - they are able to tolerate spores of the fungus on their body.
Did you know? The botanical classification of cucumber is pumpkin.
Spores of the fungus begin to sharply increase their numbers at temperatures from +18 to + 25 ° C and relative humidity of air and soil over 70%.
Symptomatic picture of infection with Fusarium infection:
- When affected by fungal spores at the stage of seed germination, rotting of the sprouts is observed, germination is reduced.
- At the seedling stage, signs of root rot may appear. However, in most cases, at this stage, the disease does not manifest itself.
- Adult plants after transplantation wither in the daytime, restore turgor at night and look normal by morning. Only the upper part of the bush begins to fade.
- The older the plant becomes, the stronger it dies. Vegetation ends much earlier.
- With a strong infection, cucumbers suddenly turn yellow and dry.
- Fruits that have formed on infected specimens have a strong bitterness.
Ways to fight
Fusariosis is treated with drugs of biological and chemical origin or alternative methods. Therapy is selected depending on the intensity of the damage to the plants and their response to the funds.
Often, chemical protection is combined with folk remedies in order to increase the effectiveness of exposure to harmful microorganisms and enrich plants with nutrients.
This group of drugs is safe for the environment and humans, but is not always effective at the stages of severe damage.
Important! Biological products can be used not only at the stage of infection, but also to prevent the disease. It is advisable to carry out spraying throughout the growing season, starting from the stage of sowing and seed germination.
The most effective among these tools:
|Drug name||Dosage and administration|
|Bactofit||20 ml / 10 l of water for spraying on a leaf (to process on both sides), only 7-8 treatments every 7 days, does not cause resistance|
|Fitosporin||10 g / 5 l of water for spraying on a sheet, the multiplicity of treatments - 3, with an interval of 10 days|
|Trichodermin||20 g / 5 l of water for spraying throughout the entire growing season with an interval of 7 days, stop processing 21 days before harvesting|
The listed preparations are not compatible with chemical fungicides.
Video: cucumber fusarium
Of the chemicals used to treat fusarium, "Fundazole" is used. On 10 l of water add 10 g of the product. The solution is sufficient for spraying on a sheet and soil per 100 m². In total, 2 treatments are carried out with an interval of 20 days. The last spraying should be carried out no later than 1 month before harvesting.
When using a fungicide, you must strictly follow the instructions and observe your own safety measures. Chemical protection is advisable to use only until the formation of the ovary. At a later date, the risk of poisoning when consuming products increases.
To remove the foci of the disease, cucumbers are watered with 0.2% Topsin-M fungicide solution. It is recommended to treat the plants when the first signs of the disease appear during the growing season. The protection period lasts about 12-15 days. It is recommended to moisten the soil with a 0.15% solution of PrevikurEnergy. To prepare the working solution, dilute 3 ml of Previkur Energy into 2 liters of water, or 15 ml to 10 liters of water. The flow rate of the working fluid is 2 liters per 1 square. m of soil.At the initial manifestations of the disease, it is recommended to treat plants with drugs:
- "Acrobat MC";
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An effective tool is wood ash. All plants and the soil around them are dusted with ashes. Such treatments can be carried out throughout the season.
They not only contribute to the elimination of harmful microflora, but also enrich the plant tissues, as well as the soil with potassium and phosphorus. This helps to increase immunity and improve the quality of the fruit.
Fusarium spreads very quickly, so the main forces should be directed to its prevention.
Preventive measures primarily imply the implementation of all the rules of agricultural technology:
- Compliance with crop rotation - do not plant cucumbers for several years in a row at the same place, as well as after potatoes, tomatoes, peppers and eggplants.
- The plot in the garden and in the greenhouse needs to be prepared in the fall - the main task is to destroy the microflora in which the fungus lives. This can be done through deep cultivation of the soil (20-30 cm). It must be carried out at least 2 times. Between the digs, one of the biological preparations or a 3% solution of copper sulfate, as well as nitrogen-containing fertilizers (6 tbsp. L. Nitrophoski or 20 kg of fresh manure per 1 m²) are introduced into the soil.
- If there was an outbreak of fusarium in the greenhouse, then the top 20 cm of soil should be replaced with a mixture of peat, sand and humus (1: 1: 1). In such cases, all walls and roof are treated with copper sulfate.
- Soil acidity control is an optimal indicator of 5–7 pH. At higher rates, for every 1 m² in the autumn, instead of nitrogenous fertilizers, 600 g of wood ash or 400 g of dolomite flour are applied.
- Plantings of cucumbers, especially those cultivated in greenhouse conditions, should not be thickened. Between the rows a distance of at least 60 cm should be maintained, between plants - 50 cm.
- Compliance with watering regime.
- Timely application of fertilizers in accordance with the phases of plant vegetation.
- Weeding and loosening the soil after each wetting.
- Timely eating fruits.
Important! With frequent outbreaks of fusarium in neighboring areas, it is advisable to carry out the soil treatment with Fundazol before planting seedlings. Its components disintegrate in the soil within 3-6 months, so the plants will be well protected.
Fusarium infection refers to a disease caused by a fungus. Most often manifests itself with high humidity in conjunction with temperature fluctuations. Due to the ability of the spores to spread rapidly, all the forces of the gardener should be aimed at preventing such a problem.