Features cherries varieties Lyubimitsa Astakhova
It is difficult to meet a person who would be indifferent to sweet and juicy cherries. For a long time, this fruit tree could produce crops only in growing conditions in the southern warm climate. But, fortunately, with the development of breeding, many varieties were bred that, thanks to their winter hardiness and unpretentiousness, calmly take root in the middle lane regions, while the quality of the crop is no different from the southern relatives. One of the brightest representatives of such varieties is the sweet cherry of Astakhov.
Description and characteristics of the variety Lyubimitsa Astakhova
Cherries Lyubimitsa Astakhova was bred due to the fruitful work of a selection specialist M.V. Kanshina, who was an employee of the All-Russian Research Institute of Bryansk. The variety acquired its name as a tribute to the famous breeder Astakhov A.I., the wife of Kanshina. Zoning in the Central region was received by the variety in 2011 and, due to its high characteristics, has spread widely not only in the Non-Chernozem regions, but even in the Urals.
Did you know? The first mention of cherries is found in the records of the Greek writer Theophrastus, who lived in the 4th century. BC e.
Tree and fruits
Fruit trees of this variety are classified as medium-tall and reach a height of 4–4.5 m. The crown is sprawling, oval-round in shape, moderately thick. The bark of the tree has a dark gray shade and light peeling. The foliage is dark green, medium in size, elliptical in shape, with small notches along the edges. Inflorescences are white, saucer-shaped, each of them contains 3 flowers.Cherries Lyubimitsa Astakhova - a highly productive winter-hardy variety. Berries are large in size, with dark red, delicate skin. The pulp is juicy, fleshy and sweet, with an easily detachable bone. The fruits are attached to a short, not thick stalk. The weight of cherry berries is 6–8 g. Taste characteristics are high - 4.8 points out of a possible 5. The fruits are universal and can be used both fresh or processed (squeezing juice, preservation, etc.).
Productivity and ripening dates
Sweet cherry Astakhov’s favorite is a medium-late variety: the flowering period begins in May, and the berries can be harvested in early to mid-July. Fruiting begins in the fifth year of the plant's life. Productivity is about 10 kg per tree (productivity in industrial gardens reaches 70 kg / ha).
High resistance to low temperatures is perhaps the most striking characteristic of this variety. When compiling a description of the variety, the fourth frost resistance zone was indicated, which corresponds to a temperature regime of -34 ° C - a phenomenon quite rare for similar fruit trees.However, in spite of its capabilities, cherries, especially in the first years of life, are still recommended to be covered for the winter and during freezing frosts, as well as grown in places protected from northern winds
Variety Lyubimitsa Astakhova is partially self-fertile, therefore, it needs to be adjacent to pollinating trees. The best varieties will be the cherries Iput, Revna, Tyutchevka, Ovstuzhenka, located 7-10 m from Lyubimitsa Astakhov. At the same time, the use of two or more different varieties positively affects the yield. Cherry fruit trees (the flowering period of which coincides with the flowering of the variety of Lyubimitsa Astakhova) are also good for these purposes, but nearby apple trees, pears or plums can interfere with cross-pollination.
Important! To save space on the site, many gardeners inoculate pollinating cherry cuttings.
Advantages and disadvantages of other varieties
- Among the main advantages of this variety are noted:
- high level of winter hardiness;
- excellent taste;
- high yield;
- stable immunity to various diseases.
- Varieties have not so many disadvantages, but the main ones are:
- the need for planting nearby pollinating trees;
- the vulnerability of cherries to spring frosts.
The selection of quality seedlings for planting
When proceeding with the selection of seedlings, one should know that annual plants whose root system is not sufficiently developed will be the most suitable option - such a tree tolerates injuries when transplanting and takes root more quickly. It is also necessary to pay attention to the following factors:
- The place of budding (usually located at a distance of 7-15 cm from the root neck of the seedling and looks like a certain curvature of the trunk) - the absence of this sign indicates that you have a seedling that will not have varietal characters in the future.
- The one-year-old cherry seedling has a height of about 1.5 m and is characterized by the presence of 2–4 branches, while their complete absence is also considered within the normal range.
- According to GOST, leaf cover should be completely absent on purchased seedlings.
Important! It is recommended to lay out the poison bait for rodents along the edges of the ditch with dug seedlings, and also to cover the seedlings with snow in the winter.
Despite the fact that it is recommended to plant young cherry trees in the spring, experienced gardeners know that the largest selection of planting material is presented in the fall. In order for the seedling to survive until spring, they are dug, which allows them to protect the seedlings from the cold and the attacks of rodents. It consists of several stages:
- Dig a ditch 40-50 cm deep, with an east-west location.
- The seedlings are laid in a recess, while the crown remains above the ground and is directed to the south (this arrangement allows you to protect the young bark from sunburn).
- The root system of plants is covered with soil and watered abundantly.
- From above everything is covered with spruce branches, which will save the seedlings from the invasion of rodents and protect them from winter cold.
Rules for planting cherries
The process of further preparation of seedlings for planting is one of the fundamental stages in the cultivation of cherries, as well as a factor that is directly related to indicators of future productivity. That is why it is so important to carefully read the basic rules of this procedure and take care of the conditions for healthy growth and development of cherries in the garden in advance.
Determining the timing of planting, you should take into account the climatic and weather conditions of the region in which there is a plot with a garden. In a temperate climate of the middle zone, the optimal time for planting seedlings to a permanent place will be the end of March or the beginning of April - when the soil has already thawed, but the process of swelling of the buds has not yet begun. During this period, the plants are still at a dormant stage and easily tolerate the stress associated with the transplant.
But the autumn period is not suitable for planting cherries - there is a high probability of freezing in the winter. If necessary, the place of growth of seedlings can be changed before the onset of summer heat, but only if the root system is closed.
Choosing a place to land
The decision in choosing a place for the future growth of cherry seedlings should be made based on such signs:
- the plot of land on which the tree will grow should ideally be on a small elevation, which will ensure that sufficient sunlight is obtained and excludes the possibility of near groundwater (at least 2 m);
- the place must be reliably protected from drafts and the north wind.
Landing site preparation
The preparation of the plot for seedlings begins in the autumn period: the soil must be dug to a depth of 30 cm, and organic fertilizing (manure, rotted compost) and complex mineral fertilizers should be added. Lime is added to acidified soils.
At the same time, a landing pit is being prepared under the seedling - the time before planting will allow the ground to sag and evenly moisten. The depth of the pit is 60–80 cm, and the diameter is 80–90 cm (these figures may vary somewhat, depending on the size of the root system of the plant).
The landing procedure consists of several stages:
- When digging a planting pit, the top layer, more fertile, is mixed with fertilizers, which are well suited for humus, superphosphate, wood ash or potassium chloride - this will allow the seedling to take root more easily and grow faster.
- The root system of the seedling is carefully examined: damaged areas or fragments with putrefactive formations are removed. In case the root is somewhat dried up, it is immersed in water for several hours. Immediately before planting, the root is lowered into a clay or manure solution.
- A peg is driven into the bottom of the pit, then the whole pit is covered with a mixture of the top layer of soil and fertilizer, and then with the bottom layer of soil, until a low mound is formed.
- The root neck of the seedling should be 6–7 cm above ground level.
- The seedlings are carefully spread out by shaking, and then placed on a mound, sprinkling the roots with half the ground.
- Under the root of the plant, pour 1 bucket of water and completely cover the soil.
- The earth is gently tamped, the seedling is tied to a peg, and a near-trunk hole is formed around.
- The planted plant is watered with another bucket of water, and the trunk shaft is mulched with sawdust.
Video: instructions for planting cherries
Cherry Care Features
As in the case of planting, adhering to the basic rules of agricultural activities refers to the basic principles of healthy plant growth and development, which is guaranteed to lead to the possibility of obtaining a rich and high-quality crop.
Watering a plant
When introducing water into the soil, one should adhere to the golden mean - the soil of the trunk circle should be moistened to a depth of about 50 cm, but it should not sour. A young tree, recently planted in a permanent place, requires frequent watering - every 2-3 weeks. In conditions of prolonged heat more often - every 7-10 days. Adult trees are watered only 3 times throughout the year:
- the first watering is carried out immediately after the flowering period;
- the second time water is introduced during the formation and ripening of berries;
- the third time the soil is moistened in the fall, after the leaves fall.
Important! It is not recommended to use coniferous sawdust as mulch, as they increase the acidity of the soil.
At the same time, in the spring-summer period one cherry tree will require from 3 to 6 buckets of water (the volume may vary slightly depending on weather conditions and the frequency of rains), and before the onset of cold weather the soil is moistened more intensively - to a depth of at least 70 cm Such watering will significantly increase the winter hardiness of trees and slow down the freezing of the soil.To increase gas exchange in the upper soil layer and the long-term preservation of moisture in the soil, as well as to get rid of weed grass, it is recommended to loosen the earth in the near-stem circle before each irrigation. Complete the procedure is best done by feeding and mulching.
Fertilizing is an important part of tree care procedures. Usually, at least 3 top dressings are carried out throughout the year:
- The tree is fertilized for the first time in late spring - 150–200 g of urea, 300–400 g of superphosphate and 100–120 g of potassium sulfate are added.
- The second top dressing is introduced in the middle of summer, immediately after the harvest. In this case, potash and phosphorus fertilizers are used.
- The third time fertilizers are applied to the soil in late summer and early autumn and organic matter is used (a solution of mullein or chicken droppings is suitable).
- in early spring - 5–10 g of urea / 1 m²;
- during flowering - 15 g of potassium sulfate / 1 m²;
- in the fall - 25 g of superphosphate / 1 m².
In the autumn and spring periods, as a preventive measure, the tree stumps and the lower bases of the branches are treated with whitewash. This procedure avoids cracking of the bark and sunburn. However, the plant should be prepared for such a procedure:
- remove old bark by using a steel brush to clean metal products;
- the entire area for whitewashing is treated with a solution of copper sulfate (at the rate of 100 g of substance per bucket of water);
- after the solution has completely dried, all cracks in the tree are covered with garden varnish.
Trimming branches and crowns
Cherry fruit trees quite easily tolerate any pruning, but subject to proper subsequent care. Otherwise, such a procedure can cause the onset of gum curing. Most often, pruning of trees is carried out in the spring, before the start of sap flow, and in the fall, after the end of the growing season. However, regular spring pruning will be sufficient.For the first time, pruning of the tree is carried out at the age of two years (all spoiled, beaten by frost and other unwanted processes and branches are removed from the plant) and the crown is formed. When carrying out this procedure, you should know that branches located horizontally give the earliest harvest in large quantities. Experienced gardeners also recommend that you cultivate the cut places with garden varieties, which contribute to early overgrowing.
Diseases and Pests
Sweet cherry Astakhov’s sweetheart has a stable immunity to various diseases affecting fruit trees. However, it is recommended for every gardener to know the main signs of the most common diseases and plant damage by pests, treatment rules and methods of prevention:
- Scab - a disease in which green-brown spots appear on the berries. The result of the disease will be cracking of the fruits, their drying and falling off. As a treatment, wood treatment with a Kuprozan solution is used.
- Kleasterosporiosis (perforated spotting) - The main symptom is brown spots, with a diameter of about 5 cm, which appear in different parts of the tree. On the leaves, such spots only dry out and crumble within a few days, which leads to the destruction and death of the leaf cover of the cherry. On berries, hole blotch appears in the form of dark red spots, which lead to the drying of the fruit. Having noticed the first signs of the disease, the affected fragments of the tree are removed from the tree and burned, and the plant is treated with Bordeaux liquid (2 times every 10 days).
- Coccomycosis - It looks like bright red spots that appear on the berries of a cherry and its foliage.The consequences of this disease can be the loss of deciduous tree cover and a general decrease in winter hardiness. As a struggle, treatment with Bordeaux fluid is used, and prevention consists in removing the affected fragments and digging up the soil of the trunk circle in spring and autumn.
- Moniliosis (fruit rot) - at the initial stage of the disease, small spots appear on the surface of the berries, which in just a few days can lead to blackening of the cherry and its drying out. After removing all fruits affected by the disease, the tree should be treated with fungicidal preparations.
- Brown rot - looks like small spots with a maroon border that appear on the outside of the sheet and quickly increase in size. In this case, the back side is covered with black dots. The consequence of the disease is the drying and falling of the leaves. Prevention and treatment consist of treatment with Bordeaux fluid.
- Fruit moth - these are pests that feed on tree foliage and can lead to its complete destruction. As a treatment, alternative methods are used: in 2 liters of water, 2 tbsp. wood ash and insist for 20-24 hours. Next, soap shavings, 40 ml of vinegar are added to the solution and water is added to a full volume of 10 liters. The first time the treatment is carried out in mid-spring, the second time - after the flowering of the tree.
- Leaf aphid - insects that feed on the juice of foliage, which leads to its death. Against the invasion of pests, chemical processing or alternative methods are used (for example, infusion from soap and tobacco).
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting various berries can be done in two ways:
- milking - berries are collected in a waterproof apron, after which they are carefully poured into prepared containers lined with paper;
- haircut - the fruits are cut off with part of the stem, which significantly increases their transportability and shelf life.
Did you know? Cherry berries can be used as a food coloring. However, despite expectations, the color of the dye will be green, not red.
Choosing the time for harvesting, one should take into account the fact that it is very easy to “miss” the cherries - a delay of only a few days can lead to the shedding of berries or spoilage by birds. Almost the only reason you can delay picking berries is rain, because wet berries can easily go bad during storage. But you shouldn’t hurry either, since the ripped sweet cherry does not ripen. The best time to harvest is morning, but after the dew has dried.Lyubimitsa Astakhov’s storage level is low - if stored in a cellar or refrigerator with an air temperature of +1 ... + 5 ° C, the cherries can lie for about two weeks (if the berries were picked by shearing). You can extend the shelf life a bit by using plastic containers or hermetically sealed bags. as the main packaging. In other cases, if you want to save the cherry longer, you can use freezing.
Sweet cherry Astakhova is not in vain widely popular among gardeners - high taste, unpretentious care, regular rich harvest and, most importantly, high frost resistance, make this variety one of the few that are suitable for owners of summer cottages located in different climatic conditions.