Homemade sweet cherries: description, features of planting and care
The Homestead sweet cherry variety is excellent for cultivation in regions with a warm and temperate climate, and is also famous among gardeners for abundant fruiting. About the characteristic features of the variety, the rules of agricultural technology and care, read below.
History of Breeding Varieties of Homestead
Variety of homestead cherries is a hybrid of Ukrainian selection. The plant was bred at the Ukrainian Institute of Horticulture of the UAAS by pollination of the Denissen variety with yellow pollen of Zhabule. The cultivation of sweet homestead cherries can be done in the steppe and forest-steppe zones of Ukraine.
Description of fruits and tree
Homemade sweet cherry belongs to early ripening varieties, the berries of which ripen by the 10th of June. The hybrid is self-fertile, but for the best indicators of productivity you need to plant near pollinating trees. Such varieties as Skorospelka, Vinka are suitable for pollinating crops.
Did you know? The inhabitants of Asia Minor began to cultivate cherries for another 8 thousand years BC.
The tree is of medium height, up to 4 m in height. The top is of medium density, has a pyramidal shape. The leaf plates are oval in shape, with a sharp point at the end, their color is dark green with a glossy sheen. Flower ovaries of white color, collected in inflorescences of 3 pieces.The fruiting of the Home Garden sweet cherry begins at 3 years of growth, up to 50 kg of products can be collected from one tree during the ripening period of the berries. Berries are large, have a spherical shape, slightly flattened laterally. The color of the fruit is yellow, there is a noticeable pink blush that is distributed over the entire surface of the berry.
The mass is 6 g. The soft part of the fruit is sweet, creamy, delicate, juicy. The stone is medium in size, poorly separable from the pulp. The tree is able to tolerate frosts down to -20 ° C, so it is not recommended to grow plants in regions with harsh climates.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Positive qualities of the variety:
- The early maturity of the variety allows you to harvest as soon as possible.
- High fruiting rates.
- Average frost resistance.
- Berries are not prone to cracking in wet weather conditions.
- It has high immunity to scab and kleasterosporiosis diseases.
The disadvantage of the culture is the low transportability of the fruits, the short shelf life of the products.
The selection of quality seedlings for planting
Following the advice of experienced gardeners, quality seedlings must be sent to the nursery. The plant must contain a trace of vaccination, which will guarantee the authenticity of the variety. Gardening experts also recommend choosing 1-2 year old seedlings that should be without diaper rash. The roots should be strong, their length is up to 40 cm, the upper part of the plant is up to 1 m.
Features of planting cherries
In order to grow a healthy, strong tree, first of all, you need to choose the right site on which the cherry will grow. It is important to take into account all the subtleties of the choice of seedlings and the scheme of their planting.
In regions with moderate climatic features, planting is best done in the spring, when the air temperature warms up to + 17 ° C. The best period of spring planting is from April 15 to May 10. Seedlings that plant in the spring are stronger and more durable, because during the summer they manage to stock up with nutrients for the period of harsh winters.In regions with a southern climate, fruit tree planting can be done in the fall, so that the crop quickly grows in the spring. The optimal time for planting sweet cherries in autumn is the end of September - the beginning of October.
Choosing a landing place
The landing area should be well lit by the sun.You should not plant a fruit tree in an area with a draft - this is fraught with the invasion of insects and fungal spores that move in the wind. The occurrence of groundwater is at least 1.5 m in depth, otherwise the rhizome of the plant will become wet and fester. The soil on the site should be neutral acidity. For planting sweet cherry seedlings, clay and loamy soil is most suitable.
Important! The area for growing a fruit tree should be spacious so that taller plants do not cast a shadow on it.
Landing and material preparation
A place for planting a fruit tree begins to be prepared 6 months before the planting procedure. Soil needs to be loosened to a depth of 30 cm. For each 1 m² of land, 5 kg of manure and 400 g of dolomite flour are applied to fertilize and eliminate soil acidity. If the soil is heavy, then it becomes necessary to apply 10 kg of river sand and peat per 1 m².Preparation of planting material consists in trimming rotten, broken off roots. For better rooting, the rhizome is left for 6 hours in a solution of the Kornevin preparation (1 g per 1 liter of water).
The scheme of planting seedlings
Cherry trees need to be planted according to a 3 m pattern between plants and 2.5 m between rows. They dig a hole for planting 10-15 days before the start of the planting process, its width is 60 cm and its depth is 70 cm. The upper fertile layer is laid separately to mix with a fertilizer consisting of 10 kg of manure, 300 g of superphosphate and 400 g of wood ash.
The resulting substrate is poured into the pit to the middle and watered with 10 l of water, covered with polyethylene and left until planting.
Planting a seedling in a hole:
- The soil in the pit must be loosened and formed in the form of a hill.
- Drive a stake, 2 m long, in the middle to further tie the plant.
- Introduce planting material into the pit, carefully spreading the roots along the earthen hill.
- Fill the hole to the top with soil.
- Tie a seedling to a peg.
- Form a trunk circle in the shape of an embankment.
- Water the plant with 15 liters of water.
- Mulch the soil near the trunk with peat.
Aftercare for the tree
It is not difficult to take care of the cherry, it is only necessary to follow some rules and keep the site clean. Every 7-10 days you need to clean the weed grass and collect fallen leaves, which will help prevent the invasion of harmful insects and the spread of fungal spores.
You need to water the culture 1 time in 2 weeks, water is specially defended before the procedure for 48 hours. For a young tree, 20 liters of fluid are needed, and for an adult - 40 liters. Watering is carried out in specially dug trenches near the trunk, after which the soil must be loosened and mulched with peat.
Important! Watering the plant must be completed 14 days before harvesting, otherwise the fruits will be too watery.
When planting in the ground, enough mineral and organic substances are laid, therefore, in the first 2 years after planting, the crop does not need fertilizer.
Mineral fertilizing is done annually according to the scheme:
- During the growing season make fertilizer for digging: for 1 m² 20 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium salt will be required.
- After flowering you need to make liquid fertilizer from 60 g of urea dissolved in 10 l of water. One plant will need 30 liters of fertilizing.
After collecting the fruit, the culture needs to restore nutrients - for this, liquid organic fertilizer is introduced, which is made from 2 kg of chicken manure and 10 l of water. One adult tree needs 30 liters of solution.
The whitewashing process should be carried out in dry, calm weather, at an air temperature of + 2 ° C to + 5 ° C.
Whitewashing is made from:
- 2.5 kg of lime;
- 10 liters of water;
- 0.5 kg of copper sulfate.
For cherries, the sparse-tiered form of the top is best suited. Immediately after planting a seedling, it is necessary to determine the zone of the stem on the plant - this is a distance of 50 cm from the soil. At a distance of 30 cm from the zone of the stem, the first tier of branches will be formed, which will consist of 3 shoots. The first shoot should be at a distance of 50 cm from the soil, and the other 2 should be placed on the other side, making sure that there is a distance of 15 cm between them.
All other shoots must be removed. In the second year of tree growth, a second tier of the top is formed, which will consist of 2 branches, they are located at a height of 40 cm from the first tier. Skeletal shoots and the central conductor are shortened by 20 cm.For 3 years of growth, the 3rd tier of the crown is formed, which will consist of 1 branch, it is placed at a distance of 40 cm from the 2nd tier. The skeletal branches and the central conductor are shortened by 20 cm. As in previous years, all branches, except the forming ones, are removed. With 4 years of growth, the shaping pruning stops. Sanitary pruning is carried out annually, which consists in the removal of dried, infected infection, thin shoots.
Diseases and Pests
Fruit trees are most susceptible to fungal diseases, such as moniliosis and brown spotting. Brown spotting refers to fungal infections that occur due to wet weather conditions. Small spots of red color appear on leaf blades, which increase in diameter over time, dry out, and holes remain in their place. Affected leaf plates wither, and then crumble from the shoots.
Combating brown spotting:
- Loosening of soil near the trunk.
- Collection of fallen leaves and its further burning.
- Irrigation with a 3% solution of copper sulfate (300 g per 10 l of water). The spraying procedure is carried out in the period before the buds open, then it is repeated after 2 weeks.
The berries decay, a mosaic pattern of fungal spores appears on them. Fruits affected by moniliosis fall off branches and spread fungal spores into the soil.
Measures to combat moniliosis:
- Harvesting fallen fruits and leaves.
- Timely pruning of wood.
- Irrigation with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid (100 g per 10 liters of water) during the growing season.
The most dangerous pests for the plant are black aphids and fruit mites. Black aphid is a small insect of black color, which reaches a length of 5 mm. Aphids settle on shoots and leaves, feeding on their juice. You can notice the presence of an insect on a tree by twisted sheet plates on which a sticky transparent coating forms.
- Manual cleaning of curled sheets.
- Spraying with the preparation “Karbofos” (90 g per 10 l of water).
- Irrigation with a soap solution (300 g of soap dissolved in 10 l of water).
The fruit tick is up to 1 mm long; it is brown in color. Females lay eggs on a tree trunk, which can be seen by bright red spots between cracks in the bark. The larvae that were born begin to actively move closer to the kidneys and young leaves. Pests suck juices from leaf plates, which leads to their shedding from the tree. The mite invasion can stop the growth of branches, and also greatly affect the frost resistance of the tree. In the fight against ticks use the drug "Karbofos" (90 g per 10 liters of water).Fruit tick.
Prevention against diseases and insect infestations:
- digging soil near the trunk;
- cleaning the site of weed grass and crumbled leaves;
- whitewashing of the trunk and lower tier of skeletal tree branches in spring and autumn;
- sanitary pruning of branches;
- spraying with 1% solution of copper sulfate, which is carried out before the buds open and after flowering.
Did you know? A hybrid of cherries and cherries bred in the XVII century. He was called Duke, which means “duke” in English.
Harvesting, transportability and storage rules
Harvesting is carried out in dry, calm weather. Cherries are collected in wicker baskets or wooden boxes, without tearing the stalks from the berries. The shelf life of fresh berries collected for consumption is 48 hours from the date of collection. If it is necessary to extend the shelf life, the berries are placed in the refrigerator at a temperature of + 3 ° C, or in the basement, where the shelf life is maintained for up to 20 days. Humidity in the room where they store the product should be 90%.Product transportability is low, because cherries are fragile and can be damaged during transportation. Gardeners should take a closer look at the Infield sweet cherry variety, which is characterized by high productivity and brings delicious berries in the shortest possible time. Due to the unpretentiousness in the care, growing a crop does not require much time.