The main features of growing cherry pits
Most often, farmers use cherry plants obtained from seed for rootstock of their favorite variety - this is a great way to grow a zoned plant without spending a lot of money on expensive seedlings from the nursery. Pitted cherries can be grown at home in a pot. How to do this, read below.
Is it possible to grow cherries from seed and whether it will bear fruit
Cherry from the seed will bring the crop, subject to certain rules of agricultural technology and if the planting material has been correctly selected. Otherwise, most likely it will turn out a wild game producing a poor harvest, with mediocre taste characteristics.
For breeding by seeds, varieties related to the species are most suitable:
- Sour (Treelike).
Preparatory work for landing at home
The process of cultivating cherries from seed is a painstaking work that takes a lot of time. First you need to prepare planting material, and engage in its germination.
A full-fledged cherry that will bring a good harvest can not germinate from every seed. It is better to take material for planting from varieties already adapted to a specific area. To select high-quality seeds, you need to sort the fully ripened berries, not eaten by worms.
Important! Refuse to take the seed from a berry purchased in a bazaar or supermarket. Usually, a crop intended for commerce is removed from the tree before it reaches technical maturity, so it will not be possible to get a full-fledged seedling from it.
In a suitable cherry, the seed easily leaves the pulp. You can even get seedlings from cherries that showered from a tree. You need to take at least 10 seeds, because some of them will not sprout, while others can give very weak sprouts that can not develop normally.
Seed germination is carried out in several stages:
- sowing in soil.
The collected seeds, peeled from the pulp, are washed under running water. Then immerse them in water for 3-5 days. Change the fluid every day. On the first day, potassium permanganate is added to the water for soaking at the rate of 1 g per 100 ml.
The next step is stratification.. The agrarian is faced with the task of creating conditions as close to natural conditions for the sowing material as possible, that is, when the seed has entered wet, cold soil and is in it until spring, under snow. For this, the seeds are kept in perlite or peat, mixed with sand 1: 1, for 2–5 weeks at a temperature of 0 ... + 6 ° С.
The substrate for stratification must be constantly moistened, therefore, if necessary, it is moistened from the spray gun. This approach allows you to immerse the seeds in embryonic sleep. With an increase in the temperature regime at the time of sowing seeds in the soil, growth processes are activated in them.
After stratification, cracks appear on the hard shell, and some produce sprouts. In this state, they are placed in the ground. It is best to immediately take individual peat tanks with a height and diameter of 10 cm. Thus, it will be possible to track the growth processes of each instance separately.
After planting, the seeds need to create a greenhouse effect so that they germinate faster. For this, all containers are covered with film or glass, and then placed in a dark place where the air temperature is maintained at + 25 ° C. After placement in the soil, germination takes 25-30 days.
Throughout this time, you should daily remove the shelter from the pots for ventilation (for 20-30 minutes), if necessary, moisten the soil from the spray. As soon as the sprouts appear, the shelter is removed and put on a well-lit window sill.
Important! All manipulations on the preparation of seeds and stratification must be done in such a way as to put them in the ground for germination in the autumn. In this regard, they begin to be carried out immediately after the collection of planting material.
For seed germination, a loose, fertile substrate should be prepared.
To do this, in equal proportions mix:
- coarse sand;
- garden soil;
- leaf humus.
The resulting mixture is shed with a hot solution of wood ash. 600 g of ash are added to 10 liters of water and boiled for 20 minutes. After removing the liquid from the fire, it pours the soil. When it cools down to + 30 ° C, you can plant. Expanded clay must be placed in pots before laying the soil with a layer of 1 cm. This is necessary to ensure drainage.
Growing and caring for seeds
After the appearance of the sprouts, and the movement of the pots with them to a well-lit place, the air temperature is gradually reduced to +20 ... + 18 ° C. Next, you should regularly moisten and loosen the substrate.
Organic and mineral complexes are used as top dressing. They begin to make water from the moment of full disclosure of 1-2 real leaves. Fertilizing should be given to plants under the root, 1 time per month. Use liquid mullein. It is bred in a proportion of 1:10 with water. 200 ml are added under each plant.
Organics alternate with mineral complexes. Use nitrophosphate (1 tablespoon per 3 liters of water - 200 ml flow rate) and superphosphate (10 g per 10 liters of water - 300 ml flow rate). Nitrofosku used throughout the warm period, alternating with mullein, superphosphates are introduced in August. Since September, feeding is completely canceled. In the second year of the seedling's life, recharge is made every 2 months.
Watering is carried out on demand, when the soil dries to a depth of 2 cm. Check this with a wooden stick. It is immersed in the ground, and then taken out and inspected. If dirt remains, watering is not required.
Did you know? Before the advent of special drugs, the fruits of cherries were used to stop attacks of epilepsy.
At first, it is better to add water and fertilizer using a spray bottle. In winter, the flow of water is reduced to a minimum. If necessary, water is added every 2 months - the main thing is to prevent strong drying of the soil. After each watering and fertilizing, the soil must be thoroughly loosened. This will improve the oxygen access to the roots and evenly distribute the liquid in the soil.
With the advent of 4 real sheets, they pick.
When using peat tanks this process will be quite simple.
You need to take the pot 2 cm wider and higher, lay 1 cm expanded clay on the bottom, move the container with the plant into it, and fill the voids between the walls with soil.
After this, a transplant into a large container is carried out as necessary - when the roots grow out through the drainage holes.
Throughout the summer period, it is better to keep the seedlings in the fresh air in the garden or, if this is not possible, on a non-glazed balcony. Dive trees into open soil should be when they reach 2 years. In the second year of life, in the fall, vegetation can be moved to a glazed loggia.
The tree will fall into its natural hibernation, dropping the foliage. The main requirement with this approach is the preliminary warming of the pot. They do this by wrapping the tank itself with agrofibre. So that the soil does not freeze, it should be mulched with humus. This approach will provide an opportunity to abandon the hardening of seedlings before planting in open ground.
Transplanting a sprouted seedling into the ground
Transplant seedlings into open ground when they reach a height of 1–1.5 m and form several skeletal branches (from 3 pcs.) - at the age of two.Before the transplant, you need to prepare the site in advance. This must be done six months before landing.
When and where to plant
The plot needs to be selected sunny, protected from the wind from the north. A good option is landing near the outbuildings, a fence or at home. The main thing is to place the plant on the south side, no closer than 2 meters from the building. Check the depth of groundwater. The optimal distance to them is 2 m.
If there is no suitable place with such conditions throughout the site, plants will have to be planted on an artificially constructed mound. It is best to carry out a transplant into the ground in the spring, before the buds open on the seedling. This will make it possible to observe the adaptation of the plant throughout the warm season.
Did you know? 10 cherries at night - and a good healthy sleep is guaranteed if you suffer from insomnia. And all thanks to melatonin, which is part of the fruit, which calms the nervous system and improves the quality of sleep.
Landing pit requirements
The soil on the site should be well-fertilized, loose, with a neutral pH level (5–7). Cherries are best developed and bear fruit on loams. Soil preparation is carried out in the fall. The plot is cleared of weeds. Then they dig it to a depth of 30 cm, disinfect it with a solution of copper sulfate of 3% concentration.
A week later, under repeated digging, make for each square meter:
- 10 kg of sand;
- 20 kg of manure;
- 30 g of superphosphate.
In the spring, digging is again carried out and 20 kg of compost per square meter is introduced. A landing pit is made a month before landing. Its size is 0.6 × 0.8 m. When planting several plants, it is optimal to leave a distance of 3-4 m between them. A similar step is done in rows.
The upper 30 cm of soil is mixed with 20 kg of compost and 30 g of superphosphate. With this mixture, fill the pit 1/3, establish a supporting stake and pour 20 liters of water.
Before transplanting, for a week, the plants are not watered. On the day of planting in the hole form a mound in the form of a cone. A pot of seedlings is placed on it (if the peat variant was chosen) and leveled so that the plant does not turn out to be too deeply immersed in the ground.
If the seedlings were grown in plastic pots (buckets), they are transplanted using the transshipment method while preserving the earthen coma. After filling the wells with soil, the trunk circle is compacted, 20 liters of water are poured. As soon as the liquid is absorbed, around the trunk the soil is mulched with peat and sawdust to a height of 5 cm.
Planting scheme of fruit tree seedlings
Features of further seedling care
During the first year of life on the plot, the trees are watered 1 time per month, introducing 10 l of water. From the second year, the amount of water is increased to 20 liters per month. In the third year, watering is carried out every 2-3 months, adding 30 liters of water.
Further hydration is carried out:
- in the stage of kidney swelling;
- after flowering;
- after harvesting, after 2 weeks;
- in September.
Did you know? Cherry since 1997 is the official symbol of Utah in the United States.
Fertilizers are applied from the second year of plant life in the area 2 times a season. In the spring, before the swelling of the kidneys, use 6 tbsp. urea (nitrophosphate) per 30 liters of water, in September in parallel with the last watering for each square meter of the trunk circle, under digging, add 30 g of superphosphate or 400 g of wood ash.
Cherry Care Rules:
Throughout the season - after rain, watering and fertilizing, the soil must be loosened, then mulched with compost. As a prophylaxis against diseases and pests in the spring, a wood ash solution is treated.
1 kg of ash is added to 10 liters of water, boiled for 20 minutes. The liquid is cooled, filtered and 3 l of pure water are added to it. After this, spraying is carried out on branches and soil. In the fall, the trunk is surely whitened to a height of 1 m. The soil is mulched on the eve of winter to a height of at least 10 cm.
In the first year after planting, they immediately begin to form a crown.The most acceptable option is a sparse-tiered formation. In the first year, 3 strong branches are left on the plant, located evenly around the circumference of the trunk, all the rest are cut into a ring. Left shoots are shortened to 30 cm. The first skeletal branch should be located at least 50 cm from the soil level.
The central conductor is shortened so that it is 20 cm longer than the skeletal shoots - in subsequent years, the cropping parameters must be observed. In the second year, 2-year-old growth is left on each skeletal branch, the rest are cut off. The branches of the second order are shortened by 10 cm. In the third year, 2 strong growths are left on the shoots of the second order.
In the future, only sanitary pruning is carried out, which involves the removal of a thickening crown, competitive main and damaged branches. All pruning manipulations are carried out in the spring, before the kidneys swell. In the autumn period, branches that were mechanically damaged during the season, as well as diseases or pests, are eliminated.
After how many years will cherry fruit from the seed
With proper care, cherries grown from seed will begin to bear fruit in 5-6 years. It is worth considering that the daughter plant may not coincide in its characteristics with the mother if it has not been grafted.
It is quite possible to grow a fruiting cherry from a seed. The main thing is to approach the process of choosing planting material correctly and observe agricultural cultivation techniques. It is also important to understand that this process will take much longer than cultivating a seedling purchased in a nursery, so be patient.