Features planting and care for cherries Franz Joseph
It is difficult to find a person who does not like cherries, so many gardeners grow these fruit trees in their plots. This article is devoted to the sweet cherry variety Franz Joseph, it will describe and characterize this variety, recommendations for planting a fruit seedling and describe further care for the tree.
The originator of the sweet cherry variety Franz Joseph was the Swedish biologist Prohe I. E. The variety was named after the Austrian emperor Franz Joseph, who came from the Habsburg dynasty.
Did you know? In Italy, you can see the old Roman roads bordered by cherry blossoms. Nobody planted these trees on purpose, just Roman warriors, moving in columns along the roads, eating berries and throwing cherry bones to the sidelines.
Description and characteristics of the variety
Variety of cherries Franz Joseph is characterized by good resistance to frost, unlike other varieties that can not tolerate low sub-zero temperatures. Also, the variety is resistant to prolonged droughts and pathogens of fungal diseases.
This variety of cherries lacks self-fertility, so it needs pollinating trees. The tree of this variety of cherries is characterized by strong growth, therefore, it needs constant pruning in spring and autumn.
The height of the tree Franz Joseph reaches 4 m, the crown is not too thick, usually has a spherical shape. The trunk and branches are covered with a gray-brown smooth bark, the buds are large, located on the branches at an angle of 45 °. The leaf blade has a green color, a smooth surface and an oval shape with a sharp tip. The foliage of the tree is good.
Typically, ripening berries of Franz Joseph cherries occur in the middle or end of June, but the harvesting time may vary, depending on the ambient temperature and weather conditions.
Typically, flowering varieties occur in early May, in the northern regions, the flowering period is shifted by several weeks and occurs later. Cherry blossoms with large white flowers, collected in groups of 3 to 5 pieces.Franz Joseph berries are large (8–10 g), yellow with a pink blush. Berries are attached to the cherry branches with long (up to 7 cm) petioles. The taste of the fruit is sweet, without the presence of acid. The pulp of the berries is dense, without wateriness, perfectly transported. The fruits are used for fresh consumption, preservation, cooking jam, and even for freezing.
Fruits the variety annually, but for high productivity it needs trees that contribute to pollination. In the same garden with Franz Josef cherries, it is worth planting such cherries: Zhabule, Yellow Drogana, Black Dyber, Biggaro Gaucher, Melitopol.
Did you know? The method of grafting fruit trees, developed by I.V. Michurin, allows you to grow cherries and cherries on one tree. Moreover, the harvest of cherries and cherries will not ripen at the same time, but in the periods inherent in the characteristics of each variety.
Frost and drought resistance
This sweet cherry variety was created for the Western European climate, and winter frosts up to -25 ° C sometimes occur there. In fact, this variety is the most winter-hardy sweet cherry variety.
In central Russia, Franz Joseph cherry can do without artificial irrigation, getting moisture from natural rainfall. But the gardener should remember that a lack of moisture during flowering and during the formation of berries can adversely affect the crop, its quantity and quality.
Productivity and Transportability
The first fruits from a young tree can be tasted about the third or fourth year after planting, and the tree gives a full crop in the sixth year of growth.Productivity in an adult tree, under the age of 10 years, reaches 25-30 kg.
After 10 years of vegetation, the yield of Franz Joseph cherry is increased, and can reach 50 kg per plant. Thanks to the dense pulp, the berries of this variety transfer the transportation over long distances almost without loss.
The selection of quality seedlings for planting
It is best to purchase seedlings in special nurseries of fruit crops. Since the tree will be grown on the site for more than a dozen years, you should not risk it, and purchase fruit seedlings in natural markets.
Appearance of a healthy seedling:
- The roots The root system is well developed and branched. Sapling roots consist of a pair of thick roots and a large number of thin roots. The root wood when scraping the upper layer of the bark has a pink or white-greenish hue, any other color indicates the unhealthy seedling. The roots are elastic, healthy, capable of wrapping thin roots around the finger of the gardener, while in no case do they break. The roots should not be dry or windy.
- Elevated part. The seedling height does not exceed 1.5 mm, and the trunk thickness is 4 cm. On one-year-old seedlings there are well-developed buds, on two-year-old seedlings there are 2 or 3 lateral branches. The sapwood (a thin layer between the pulp of the wood and the bark) is juicy and fresh, when touched it leaves a moist, slightly sticky mark on the fingers.
Preparatory work and choosing the right place
It is important to properly prepare for the planting of cherries. This will provide the young tree with a favorable start for rapid growth and development.
When planting cherries, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that large trees that can obscure it, for example, a nut or a pear, are not planted at too close a distance from the seedling.
Good lighting is very important for this culture, since fruiting begins early, regular sunlight is needed for early soil warming in the root system, early flowering and subsequent bud development.
It is advisable that the sun illuminates the tree throughout the day. If this is not possible, then it is enough to find a place for planting, where the plant will be provided with sunlight for at least 5-6 hours during daylight hours.
To plant sweet cherry, you need to choose a place with fertile black earth or a mixture of black soil and sand. The main thing is that the water does not stagnate in the chosen place, which can lead to diseases of the root system and the development of rot. That is why it is not recommended to plant cherries on heavy clay soils and in lowlands.
Since cherries are a heat-loving tree that does not benefit from frost, it would be nice if the location is covered from the north by any structure, for example, a barn, garage, house or a high impenetrable fence. Such a location in winter will save heat-loving cherries from icy frosty winds.
Step-by-step landing pattern
So that for many years the tree bears fruit annually, it is necessary to initially carry out the correct planting of a seedling in a permanent place. Before the start of the cherry planting, a landing pit is prepared in advance. Experts recommend making the planting pit spacious and deep enough so that the roots of the seedling feel free, not compressed.
The depth of the pit should be such that about a bucket of fertilizer fits on the bottom, and so that after installing a seedling in it, the root neck of the tree is above the ground. The recommended depth of the landing pit is 0.6–0.8 m, width - 0.5 m.The depth and width of the planting pit are not mandatory, the gardener should focus on the age of the seedling (one or two years) and focus on the volume of the root system of the tree.
Important! Gardeners recommend preparing a pit for planting fruit trees ahead of time, for example, preparation for spring planting is carried out in October of the previous year. The time interval between the preparation of the planting pit and the direct planting of the tree is necessary for shrinkage of the soil and partial decomposition of fertilizers.
In practice, it looks like this: after preparing the landing pit, a seedling is placed in it for “fitting”, and if the width or depth of the recess is not enough, these shortcomings are corrected. When the deepening in the soil is ready, fertilizers are introduced into the planting pit, which will serve as food for the plant for several years. The best organic fertilizer for cherries is horse or cow dung.
It is not advisable to take fresh manure, its age should be from 3 to 4 years, and the structure should be partially decomposed (rotted). For planting an annual seedling, 0.5 buckets of manure are enough; for a two-year-old seedling, they take about a bucket of organic matter.
Fertilizers are poured to the bottom of the planting pit, 100 g of superphosphate and potassium, as well as 0.5 buckets of fertile garden soil are added there. All the ingredients at the bottom of the planting pit are thoroughly mixed with a bayonet spade and formed in the center in the form of a hill 20 cm high. The planting pit is ready to plant sweet cherry.
Cherry seedlings can be planted both in autumn and in spring. In the fall, the most suitable months are the second half of October and the beginning of November, since at this time the air temperature is already quite low, but there are no frosts yet.
It is also very important for a young tree that this period is rich in natural rainfall. Spring planting of sweet cherries can be carried out as soon as the soil in the garden is free from snow, and the air temperature warms up sufficiently (+8 ... + 15 ° C).
If the gardener does not plant a lonely fruit tree, but plans to plant a cherry garden, he needs to remember that the distance between the trees should not be less than 5-6 m. This distance is due to the fact that the cherry is very demanding on good sunlight, and a closer planting helps future interweaving of branches of neighboring trees, and as a result, the occurrence of shading. This interval is recommended not only for trees in one row, but also for observing row spacing in the cherry garden.
Important! Immediately after acquiring a seedling, it is necessary to wrap its root system in a damp cloth to protect it from drying out.
If a few more days remain before planting the purchased seedling, it is advisable to dig the tree into the ground at an angle of 45 °
Sweet cherry planting:
- The day before the planting, the root system of the cherry is immersed in water, so it can restore the loss of moisture transferred after digging the plant in the nursery and during delivery. Immediately before planting, the roots of a seedling are immersed in a special solution of clay, horse manure and water. The solution should be thick, the density of fresh honey is recommended. For cooking, 2 kg of clay, 0.5 kg of manure and water are taken, as needed. Processed in a clay mash, the roots of a seedling will retain moisture for a long time.
- The plant is set in the center of the landing pit, so that just below it was the top of the bottom hill. It is more convenient to plant a tree together, since during the planting process you will need to hold a seedling. Sapling roots evenly spread down the side walls of the hill. In the pit, next to the cherry, a support peg is installed with a height of at least 1.5 m.
- While the assistant holds the seedling with one hand on the upper part of the branches, and with the other hand the upright peg, the gardener begins to fill the soil with sweet cherry roots.The assistant periodically, while falling asleep, shakes the seedling at the top. This agricultural technique allows the soil to settle more evenly and densely on the roots of the seedling.
- After the landing pit is half filled with soil, about 5 liters of water are poured into it, and they wait until moisture is absorbed into the soil, after which they continue to backfill the roots.
- Around the planted tree form a small depression for irrigation in the near-trunk zone. The ground around the trunk of the cherry is tightly trampled.
- The seedling is watered again, using 5-10 liters of water. After the seedling is watered, the soil in the near-stem circle can settle, and it will need to be added.
- A planted tree is connected to a support peg. For this, a non-rigid garter material is used. It is not recommended to use a sharp wire or a metal string for the garter, since during the growth of a tree, a rigid bundle can cut into and grow into the tree bark. It is best to choose soft but durable materials such as a leather belt or dense fabric for a garter. A bunch of plants and a supporting peg will give the young tree additional stability and will not break under a strong wind.
- In the first month after planting, the tree is watered weekly, using at least 10 liters of water under the root for each watering. Starting from the second month of the growing season, the seedling is watered less often, twice a month with a water consumption of 10–12 l for one irrigation. Upon reaching the age of 3 months, the frequency of irrigation is reduced to 1 time per month with the same water consumption.
Sweet cherry will bear fruit well only when the gardener provides her with good care and the tree is watered, fertilized, treated from pests and diseases, covered in winter from frost.
Video: cherry care tips
For an adult cherry tree, water-loading irrigation is important, which is carried out in spring and autumn, before the onset of cold weather. During charging irrigation, at least 100 liters of water are poured under a tree older than 5 years. So that moisture does not flow, but gets exactly to the roots of the cherry, water can be supplied with a thin stream from the hose.
To do this, it is enough to lay the hose in the near-stem circle of cherries and turn on a weak, almost drip, water supply for 10-12 hours. In spring, water-charging irrigation is carried out in April, and in autumn in the middle or end of October.
We recommend that you familiarize yourself
Digging the soil under a tree in the fall is often combined with fertilizing under the cherry. Also, autumn digging contributes to the death of larvae of harmful insects, in particular the cherry fly, the larvae of which winter in the soil under the trees in the garden.
Fertilizers introduced when planting a seedling in a planting pit feed a young tree during the first 3-5 years of life. Further, adult trees require top dressing, which the gardener makes every two years in the soil. It is preferable to feed the cherries with organics (cattle manure).
Top dressing must be applied to the soil under the tree. To do this, the manure is laid out in the near-stem circle of cherries, based on the calculation of one bucket per m², and it is embedded in the soil.
In this case, a deep digging of the soil is carried out, with a turnover of the reservoir, performing work with a bayonet shovel. Most often, gardeners combine the usual autumn digging of the soil with the introduction of organic fertilizers.
Pruning fruit trees is carried out in the garden twice a year, with the onset of spring and at the end of the picking season, usually in autumn. Pruning the crown of cherries is sanitary and formative. Forming pruning is carried out for a young seedling to form a crown of the correct shape and density.
Sanitary pruning is necessary for the crown of the tree to clean from excess growth that occurs every year, and old, broken or just diseased branches. Cherry is especially in need of sanitary pruning in the spring, since in winter the tree branches often break due to snow load.
Did you know? Archaeologists found cherry pits in prehistoric caves in Europe and Asia, which proves the use of these fruits by primitive people.
The formation of young cherries:
- First year. After the tree is planted, the gardener conducts the initial forming crown pruning. The upper part of the central shoot is truncated with the help of secateurs so that the seedling does not exceed 0.6–0.8 m. If the seedling is two-year-old and the side branches are well developed on it, then the gardener leaves only 3 of the most powerful ones, all the rest are cut . These lateral branches are hereinafter referred to as first-order fruit-bearing branches.
- Second year. The length of the 1st order branches is cut by 10-15 cm, after which 2-3 well-developed annual shoots are left on each of them. In the future, these will be fruiting branches of the 2nd order. All excess young growth on a tree is cut.
- Third year. The length of the fruiting branches of the 1st and 2nd order is cut off by 10-15 cm. The top of the central stem is also slightly cut, but so that it is 10-15 cm higher than the lateral branches of the 1st and 2nd orders. On the branches of the second order, 3 well-developed shoots of this year are left, of which in the future fruiting branches of the third order will develop. All excess shoots on the cherry are cut out by secateurs.
The formation of young cherries is over, from the gardener in the future it will only be necessary to maintain the cleanliness of the crown by cutting. Also, periodically, at least once a year, the gardener needs to destroy the root shoots of cherries. This operation is carried out both by a garden pruner and a conventional sharpened bayonet shovel. The root shoots of a tree are cut at the very border with the soil.
1 - trunk; 2 - branches; 3 - roots; 3/1 - horizontal root; 4 - root offspring; 4/1 - the underground part of the root offspring; 5 - an influx on horizontal roots at the base of root offspring; 6 - subordinate roots of root offspring; 7 - soil level.
Despite relative frost resistance, Franz Joseph cherries are afraid of prolonged frosts. Therefore, it is necessary to protect the tree from exposure to low temperatures. Gardeners practice wrapping a tree trunk with warm, but breathable materials.
Polypropylene bags (made from sugar) can be used as a trunk insulation for cherries, which are fixed on the trunk in several layers and tightly fixed with twine or synthetic rope. The crown of young seedlings is also wrapped whenever possible.
If a tree has recently been planted and its crown has not been formed, simply put a paper or polypropylene bag (like a hat) on top of the plant and fix it so that it does not get ripped off by the wind.
It’s almost impossible to wrap the crown of adult sweet cherry, so the only salvation is the right place for planting the plant and the nearby protection in the form of a wall of a house or a fence.
Also, the soil is insulated in the near-stem circle. This rule applies to both young seedlings and adult trees. As a heater, a thick layer of organic matter is laid on the soil: straw, leaves or sawdust. The upper layer of insulation is recommended to be completed with fir spruce branches, laid so that the wind does not blow off the lower layer of the coating.
If the cherry garden is located in an area adjacent to the fields and the forest, then in the winter a raid of hungry rodents is possible. In winter, hares and mice love to enjoy the delicate bark of fruit trees. Therefore, gardeners are forced to protect tree trunks by wrapping them with materials inaccessible to rodent teeth.
As a trunk protection, a fine-mesh metal mesh is used, which the tree is wrapped around, protecting the trunk to a height of 1 m. Some craftsmen adapt thick automobile rubber or plastic linings for these purposes.
Also, before the start of winter or already in the snow, whitewashing of the tree trunk is carried out. Whitewashing is needed not for beauty, but to protect the plant from sunburn, which can cause tearing of the tree bark. To whitewash, pre-prepare a solution consisting of water, lime and horse manure.
At the beginning of preparation, 10 l of water and 1 kg of lime are mixed, after which they wait for the end of the quenching reaction that has arisen. Horse manure is added to the quenched lime mortar, just one shovel of organic matter is enough. Manure is added to the solution for the appearance of viscosity, as well as an additional foliar feeding of cherries.
The tree trunk is whitened with a wide brush, you can use a regular paint brush. It is recommended to whiten the tree trunk twice a year, therefore, whitewashing is repeated in the spring, at the end of March or April.
Pest and Disease Control
Cherry trees, like other fruit plants, are periodically susceptible to attack by pests or an outbreak of disease.
Common pests and sweet cherry diseases:
- Weevil or cherry blossom beetle - the adult pest has a golden-green oval body and a long nose, the larva looks like a white caterpillar. It feeds on the flowers, fruits and buds of cherries. The result of his life is the fall of fruits and ovaries.The beetle lays larvae in the flesh of the berry. They destroy the beetle by treating the tree crown with preparations containing insecticides, and also hang glue traps on the tree branches. Also, cherry weevil can be assembled by hand, previously spreading a plastic cloth under the tree and shaking off the beetles from the branches.
- Cherry aphid - usually has a black or gray color, the pest has a tiny body not exceeding a few millimeters. Pests live in large colonies, being in symbiosis with garden ants. The pest feeds on the cells and juice of young cherry leaves and shoots. The leaves and shoots infected with aphids are shrunk, they stop in growth, and when they are heavily populated by the pest, they die. It is important, destroying the cherry aphid, at the same time destroy all the anthills in the garden. Aphids can be washed off the tree with water pressure from a hose or treated with insecticide.
- Moniliosis - This is a fungal disease, otherwise called a bacterial burn. The disease is common to all stone fruit crops. Outwardly, it looks as if the tree was damaged by open fire. Entire branches along with flowers, leaves and fruits dry out on the affected tree. Spores of the disease are carried by wind, rain and insects. The development of fungal spores provokes long periods of rainy and at the same time warm weather. On the reverse side of the leaves of diseased trees, white cushions of mycelium can be seen, rot appears in the form of concentric circles on diseased fruits. Sick fruits after decay mummify and remain on the cherry branches. As prophylaxis and treatment, fungicides are used: Yamato, Horus, Topsin-M.
Important! The gardener should not use insecticides or other preparations containing active chemicals on fruit trees if for 7–10 days planned to start harvesting.
Harvesting and storage
Harvest time comes when at least 80% of the berries acquire the color and size characteristic of the variety.
Berries are collected in containers with smooth walls, so as not to cause mechanical damage to the berries, which will result in rotting.
The layer of fruits in one box does not exceed 10 cm, so that the lower berries do not crumple under the weight of the upper fruits.
Cherries can be stored in a room with a cool air temperature (+8 ... + 12 ° C) for up to 10 days. Berries can also be stored in the refrigerator, for this it is better to use a special compartment for storing fruits.
Franz Joseph winter-hardy cherries will be an excellent acquisition for a garden of summer residents living in temperate climatic zones. Even one fruit tree will be able to provide a small family of 3-5 people with cherry berries.