Prima apple tree: features of cultivation and care
Among the early autumn varieties, the Prima apple tree stands out. Tasty and sweet fruits, unpretentiousness in leaving and high rates of fruiting make it a welcome addition to every garden or vegetable garden. How this variety appeared, how to care for it, and also about the characteristics of planting - later in the article.
The apple tree was bred in America. It was obtained by crossing several varieties: Floribunda 821, Wesley, Melba, Rum Beauty, Golden Delishes. The result is a rather high-quality taste grade, resistant to scab and undemanding in care.
It is widespread in warm places, in the south and in the middle lane. Now it is actively landing throughout Ukraine.
Did you know? If a person eats one apple a day, he will be able to try all sorts of apples only after twenty years. Now there are about 7-odd thousand varieties.
The tree grows of medium size, usually tall, with a thick oval or inverse pyramidal crown shape. The main fruit-bearing shoots extend at an acute angle. The upper branches grow vertically, but after some time they begin to be distributed to the sides (usually after two years). Often overgrown with ringlets or small twigs.The shoots are medium in size, light brown in color, sometimes with a red tint. Leaves can be small or medium, depending on the age of the tree. The surface is corrugated, the tips of the leaves are pointed in shape, the base is round. The edges of the leaves are even, sometimes slightly wavy with small notches.
Petioles grow short and at an acute angle. The flowers are medium sized, light pinkish. The buds are usually red. The best pollinators can be quite a few other varieties: the Wellsi apple tree, the Kuban spur, Alenushkino, Priam and Delichiya, Alkmene and Golden Delishes.
Trees begin to bear fruit normally for 3-4 years of cultivation. Fruiting itself can be periodic. Plants are not particularly winter hardy and more like a warm climate. They are particularly resistant to scab, so the variety in question is often crossed with others to obtain this feature and the immunity gene.
The fruits are medium, often rounded asymmetric in shape. The skin is smooth and shiny. When removed, the color of the fruit may be pale yellow or slightly greenish, but always with a blush of dark red or carmine color, which can cover almost the entire fruit.
The weight of an apple on average ranges from 150-180 grams. The flesh is light cream in color, very juicy and tender. The taste is usually sour-sweet, gets 4.5 points for the assessment of taste characteristics.
Apples are used both for fresh consumption and for the preparation of compotes, juices, mashed potatoes and harvesting dried fruits for the winter - due to the fact that they have a pleasant taste and aroma.
Important! Fruits, when the time of harvest comes, may fall off from the wind if there is not enough moisture or the irrigation deadlines are missed. For this reason, during harvesting, it is recommended to closely monitor the irrigation regime and remove ripened fruits on time.
To obtain the maximum yield during the fruiting period, the Prim apple must be planted correctly. It is recommended to approach this responsibly by preparing the hole in advance and choosing the right place on the site.
For planting seedlings, it is better to choose sunny areas. Prima loves the sun and needs enough of it to grow. Groundwater should lie no closer than 1.5 meters from the surface.When planting this variety, it should also be borne in mind that trees very poorly tolerate the cold wind of the north (especially in winter).
Since Prima’s resistance to cold is average, it is better to place seedlings in places protected from the north winds - this will additionally warm the roots for the period of cold weather.The landing process is as follows:
- A landing pit of sufficient depth and width is prepared (so that the roots are completely covered with soil and lie freely).
- Land before planting is well watered and fertilized. Peat, manure or other organic fertilizers are suitable for feeding.
- The seedling is placed in the hole only vertically, when planting, you should hold the tree and sprinkle the roots with earth.
- If necessary, a support stake is placed near the hole, to which the seedling is tied with soft ropes.
- After planting, the tree is watered with a sufficient amount of water (at least 2-3 buckets).
- After that, mulching is also carried out, fertilizers or sawdust with straw can be used.
Important! For good fruiting and growth, you can leave 3 or 4 of the strongest shoots on the tree - the remaining ones are best removed, as they will interfere with further growth. It is necessary to ensure that the shoots do not cross and interfere with each other.
The best time to plant Prima is considered the beginning of spring - preferably even before the leaves begin to bloom. It is optimal to conduct it in late March or early April. It is possible to plant a seedling in the fall, after the leaves fall, but before the onset of frost - around the end of October.
Seedlings are best picked healthy and strong, with 1-2 small shoots. When choosing, be sure to pay attention to the roots - they must be intact, without signs of disease. It is also advisable to ensure that there are no dry branches or roots, as this may indicate the presence of a disease.
It is recommended to adhere to an optimum distance of several meters for apple trees. For Prima variety, it is desirable to allocate a square of 4 meters.
Since the crown of the tree is quite lush and thick, if you plant the seedlings too close, they can interfere with each other after a few years - especially if you do not remove large shoots and do not regularly prune, which is very important for the variety.If the trees are too close, then this will directly affect the fruiting, significantly reducing performance.
Did you know? Apple often uses a character such as John Appleseed in its displays and demonstrations of new products and new products. They say that he went around many states in America barefoot and, where he was, always planted apple trees and preached.
Caring for an apple tree is quite simple. The main thing that you should pay attention to is the regularity of watering, fertilizing and the right timely pruning. If all these conditions are met, Prima will not only grow well, but also give more and more crops every year.
Watering and loosening
All young plants require regular plentiful watering. As mentioned above, after planting, the hole must be watered with 2-3 buckets of water. For good rooting, it is necessary that the soil is moist not only from above, but also from below, where the roots lie: it is about 35-40 centimeters deep into the hole.
To achieve this effect, watering is carried out at least one bucket of water twice a week for the first month. In hot periods, the amount of water doubles. In summer, it is recommended to water the plants at least three times a week.Apple tree is shown and regular loosening. But it must be carried out not very deep, so as not to damage the root system.Weeds should be weeded in the near-stem circle of the apple tree.
In addition to weeding, regular fertilizing is necessary for successful rooting. In the first year after planting, you do not need to fertilize the soil, as this was done in the process of planting a seedling. Starting regular feeding is in the second year of life.
In order for the young tree to have enough nutrition, it is recommended to add phosphate, nitrogen or potassium fertilizers along with watering (the quantity and mode are indicated on the package). After the tree has taken root and began to produce regular crops (after about five years), you can add potassium humate and urea to the list.
Prima needs pruning annually and constantly - it helps increase fruiting and improves the appearance of the tree.
It is better to prune old apple trees in the spring - so the wounds on the bark will heal faster. Dry and damaged shoots must be removed.It is also better to trim fatlipping shoots, as they can interfere with the tree. Be sure to form the crown and thinning in early spring.
Important! The older the apple tree, the more yield it gives. However, at the same time, the frequency of fruiting begins to manifest itself more clearly.
The apple tree is moderately resistant to winter cold. She loves warm places with a lot of sun more, so it is recommended to warm it for the winter. To do this, the hole is covered with a layer of fallen leaves or straw. If possible, cover them with polyethylene on top.
Also, when planting, you need to choose a place where enough snow falls in the winter - it also insulates and protects the plant from frost.
Disease and Pest Prevention
The peculiarity of the described apple tree is that it resists quite a lot of fungal diseases (including scab) quite well. But since the variety is not very resistant to frost and grows mainly in warm places, it can be attacked by powdery mildew.
The disease is determined by the appearance of white deposits on the leaves and fruits. If you do not deal with the first signs of dew immediately, you can lose almost the entire crop of apples and infect the rest of the trees. In addition, the apple tree may die in the winter after the appearance of powdery mildew, if treatment has not been carried out. You can fight the disease in the following ways:
- carry out prophylaxis with fungicidal agents or Bordeaux liquid (three times a year);
- if infected places have been noticed, it is necessary to treat them with a solution of potassium permanganate, copper chloride or other drugs (follow instructions);
- infected branches are best removed immediately, especially if they were seen in the spring before the juice began to move;
- it is recommended to fertilize the plant regularly — this will also help it resist disease.
Often fruit rot may appear on the fruit (usually as a result of powdery mildew), so infected shoots should be removed immediately. Prima can sometimes get sick with apple cancer - large cracks become noticeable on the bark, the tissues of the tree look damaged, and the branches begin to die. If cancer is not treated, the tree will die.
Important! Preventing the occurrence of apple cancer is quite simple. To do this, you must follow the rules of pruning and prevent the appearance of large damage to the tree bark.
The main pests that may appear on Prime are apple flower beetles, moths, moths, and tinnitus. You can fight them using pesticides. The substance should be selected depending on the type of pest, and when processing, follow the instructions.
Harvesting and storage
The beginning of fruit ripening at Prima falls in the second half of August. After collection, they can be consumed raw or used to make desserts, pastries, compotes and other dishes. Apples can lie for two months, sometimes three, depending on storage temperature.But at the same time they have high transportability and marketability (about 90%). Primo is often grown on an industrial scale.This, together with high fruiting rates, makes the variety quite popular among gardeners and gardeners.
While maintaining good conditions for leaving one young tree, about 40 kilograms of fruit are harvested per season. The first crop can be obtained in the second year of life, but it will not be very large - the tree begins to bear fruit well for 3-4 years.
The greater the age, the greater will be the fruiting: in the tenth year of life, the tree is capable of producing already 120 kilograms of fruit per year.
Did you know? During the introduction of Prohibition in the United States, almost all apple trees were cut. The fact is that alcoholic beverages, especially cider, were prepared from their fruits.
The apple-tree Prima belongs to high-yielding varieties and differs in good flavoring indicators of fruits. However, to get the maximum yield, trees need regular watering, pruning, and fertilizing. And resistance to scab allows you to simplify care and makes the apple tree a really useful and welcome addition to the garden.