How to grow garlic in a greenhouse
Being a perennial herb, garlic has gained great popularity in the world, so many gardeners would like to grow it in their greenhouse. To do this, you need to choose a variety, get acquainted with the advantages and disadvantages of its cultivation, prepare seeds and a place for planting, and also study the nuances of cultivation and subsequent care, harvesting and storage of the crop.
For planting in a greenhouse, it is recommended to choose among these varieties:
- Komsomolets. It has a large bulb with a dense structure and tolerates a decrease in temperature.
- Boguslavsky. It is characterized by resistance to cold.
- Alcor. It has a large bulb ripening in greenhouse conditions in 3 months.
- Gafurian. It has a long shelf life and has 16-18 cloves.
Advantages and disadvantages of growing garlic in greenhouses
To get a good harvest of garlic planted in the open ground, many factors must be taken into account, including: weather conditions, susceptibility to disease.
- An alternative method is to grow garlic in a greenhouse, which has the following advantages:
- control of climatic conditions of plant growth;
- minimize the formation of arrows;
- planting any type of plant in accordance with the technical condition of the greenhouse.
The choice of material for planting is an individual decision of each gardener. To increase the yield should use varieties cultivated for a particular area.
Garlic for planting should choose local grown in a particular region.Particular attention should be paid to purple varieties with stripes, since they are not fastidious in cultivation and have excellent frost resistance.
Important! Do not use as a planting material heads, in which only 3–4 cloves, even if they are large. This indicates the degeneration of the plant.
Landing heads should be large, without mechanical damage. The teeth should ideally be the same size.
Before planting, the plant should be disinfected with a solution of copper sulfate at the rate of 15 g per 10 l of water. In the garden, the distance between the garlic cloves is 8–10 cm, and between the rows - 25 cm. The clove of spices should be deepened by 3 cm from its top to the surface.It should be remembered that the depth of planting affects the size of the future crop: the deeper the garlic is planted in the ground, the smaller the young heads of the plant will be.
After the appearance of the first seedlings, it is necessary to loosen the earth, which will allow to maintain the necessary moisture for plant growth. Arrows are removed only in arrowed varieties. To do this, pinch them at a distance of 10 cm from the ground level.
The soil for the future planting of garlic is prepared in a month by adding nutrients. For this it is necessary to add at least 5 kg of humus or compost, 20 g of superphosphate and 200 g of wood ash per 1 m². During this time, the soil will shrink.
If there is no time to wait, then they are pressed artificially. Before landing, the ground must be mulched. For winter, plant tops, sawdust, straw, humus or manure are introduced into the soil.
Did you know? The largest garlic was grown in 1985 by California resident Robert Kirkpatrick. Its weight was 1.19 kg.
Land for planting greenery should be:
- moderately hydrated;
- rich in minerals necessary for plant growth.
Cultivation and care
Basic plant care comes down to loosening the soil and controlling weeds. The plant is whimsical to lighting, bright light leads to rapid growth and the formation of large bulbs.
Ripening dates depend on the variety:
- Komsomolets - 120 days.
- Alcor - 87–98 days.
- Gafuri - 83–122 days.
Gardeners can use the following feeding schemes for spring and winter garlic:
- Under winter garlic - 10 days after sowing seeds in the ground, under spring - after the formation of 2-3 leaves. For this, 1 tbsp. l urea is dissolved in a bucket of water.
- It is made 12 days after the first, by making nitroammophoska at the rate of 2 tbsp. on a bucket of water.
- It is carried out in the last decade of June. For this, a superphosphate solution is added to the ground per 1 m² at the rate of 2 tbsp. on a bucket of water.
Garlic is considered a moisture-loving crop. In the first two weeks after sowing the plants into the ground and after the appearance of the first sprouts, the greens are watered every 4-6 days. This recommendation should be followed if the summer is hot and dry, in the opposite case, additional irrigation is not required.Soil moisture should be at least 75–80%. In dry weather, the rate of application of water to the soil is 10-12 liters per m². Watering the crop is stopped 20 days before the start of the harvest.
Winter garlic is fertilized with pre-prepared infusion of humus, which is diluted in water in a ratio of 1 to 10. If the plant has light leaves, then you can feed it with potassium.
Did you know? In the UK in 1996, a bunch of garlic was woven at the Cheshire Trade Council, which was 45.7 m long.
To do this, sprinkle the soil with wood ash. To form large heads in the last decade of June, the plant is fertilized with mineral fertilizers. To do this, dissolve 10 g of urea and potassium chloride in a bucket of water. This solution irrigate the soil before the main watering.
In order to avoid the appearance of mold and other diseases, it is recommended to regularly ventilate the greenhouse, so you should equip the room in advance accordingly, setting up automatic ventilation.
Diseases and Pests
To protect the plant from pests and diseases, it is necessary to apply regular preventive measures, namely:
- constantly inspect the plant;
- plant only healthy seeds in the ground;
- observe the rotation of garlic;
- Be sure to disinfect the room.
Infectious diseases of garlic can be divided into three groups depending on the type of pathogen: fungal, bacterial and viral.
Garlic can be affected by such diseases:
- fungal: fusarium, white rot, pink rot, black and blue mold, downy mildew;
- viral: yellow dwarf virus, latent ordinary virus;
- bacterial: soft rot.
The first place in terms of danger and harmfulness is taken by the stem nematode, which can lead to the death of the plant. The pest is very tenacious: it can live up to 5 years in dry soil, and 1 year without food. The most important rule in the fight against the nematode is to sow healthy seeds in the soil.
Important! If the site is infected with a nematode, then the soil becomes unsuitable for growing vegetable crops for ten years.
To obtain high-quality planting material, seeds should be warmed for 10 hours at a temperature of + 45 ° С.
From the root tick, fumigation of the room with sulfur dioxide or chloropicrin will help, that is, disinfect the room. It is also necessary to change the place of planting of seeds annually and carefully inspect the planting material.
Harvesting and storage
When the lower leaves of the plant begin to acquire a yellowish tint, and the arrow straightens out, it is time to start harvesting. If you miss this moment, the garlic will break down into cloves.
If you grow garlic on greens, then it will be possible to cut it already in 20-30 days after you planted it. At the same time, yellowing of the leaves is not necessary.During preparation for storage, it is recommended to prune the roots and tops. However, some gardeners do not resort to such measures in order to ensure saturation of the plant head with nutrients during this period due to their movement from the leaves.
Important! At room temperature (not higher than + 20 °), garlic can be stored for 4 months. In the refrigerator - 8 months.
After harvesting, it is recommended to dry the heads by placing them in the air for 7 days. In this case, they should be protected from rain.
For storage, it is necessary to prepare the appropriate room:
- cool (+ 2 ... + 5 ° C).
Such a room can be a basement, cellar, balcony, refrigerator.
You can use the following containers:
- wooden box;
- Plastic container;
- glass jar.
- You can store it by weaving a braid or wreath from its fruits with stems and then hanging it on the wall. In this way, it can be stored until winter.
- You can put peeled garlic cloves of garlic in a sterilized glass bowl (in a jar, for example), pour them with vegetable oil and close the lid. Then send for storage in a refrigerator or other cool place.
- You can put it without peeling it in a jar and fill it with large crystals of salt. Then, covered with a lid, send for storage.
- You can chop the garlic and store it, turning it into a dry seasoning.
Did you know? In 1720, the inhabitants of France escaped from the plague by eating a mixture of vinegar and garlic.
Many gardeners would like to get a good harvest of garlic at any time of the year. So, picking up a variety intended for growing in a greenhouse, planting it and observing the rules of cultivation, you can achieve the desired result.