Cordia sweet cherry variety: description, planting and care
Cordia sweet cherry is popular and well known both to large agricultural complexes and amateur gardeners, due to its high taste and technological qualities, keeping quality and portability. In addition, due to the late flowering period, the fruits rarely suffer from late spring frosts. This variety of this fruit tree will be discussed in our today's material.
History of selection of Cordia cultivar
Czech breeders, thanks to which the variety appeared, gave it the name Kordit. In many respects, Kordit owes its appearance not even to specialists in the field of selection, but to the free pollination of a random seedling. The result of such a happy event was the emergence of the most popular variety in Europe. They also know him in North America, but under the name Attica.
Important! The most abundant crop of Cordia can be expected from a tree grafted on a medium or weak shoot.
Description of fruits and tree
A tree is grown in most regions where this species of Pinks generally grows, which, as you know, is thermophilic. Thus, the southern regions are preferable for him, although in the middle zone the variety is very popular in the northwest and in the central regions.
The sapling is characterized by intensive growth: a one-year-old tree reaches a height of 160–170 cm. When a tree grows and begins to bear fruit, the growth of wood mass decreases. Strong volumetric roots are located close to the surface of the earth. The crown is not compact, can have a spherical or pyramidal shape.Large leaves of a typical oval shape are distinguished by sufficient density, under which a certain number of fruits are hidden under fruiting. Strong stalks reach a length of 4.5–5 cm. The berry itself is large: up to 2.6–2.8 cm in diameter and 9–12 g in weight, resembles a heart in shape. The skin is a beautiful maroon color, dense structure. The pulp is very juicy, ruby color, dense and fleshy. A large bone is easily separated from the pulp. The palatability of the fruit is high (experts rated 4.8 points on a five-point scale).
The taste is characteristic of the culture, sweet, very pleasant, with a typical smell. The tree begins to bear fruit in the 4th – 5th season. Fruits are formed on bouquet branches and on annual shoots. The yield of the variety is average: the abundance is influenced by weather conditions, care, as well as the presence of good pollination. Depending on these factors, the yield can be in the range of 24–48 kg per tree. Like most later varieties, the tree is self-infertile; pollinators are necessary for it.
Did you know? Late cherries can act as a pollinator for early cherries. But for the tree itself, the neighborhood with cherries gives nothing.
In order to get a plentiful harvest, varieties with a close flowering period should grow nearby:
Depending on the region and weather conditions, the variety may bloom in the third decade of April or the first half of May. In the southern regions, you can enjoy ripe cherries at the end of June. A nice feature of the variety is the fact that the ripe berry keeps well and for a long time on the branch, not crumbling, that is, you can harvest in several stages. Cordia loves moisture and reacts poorly to drought.
Watering the tree is necessary, quite plentiful and regular. This circumstance is especially true for young trees during budding and ovary formation. Winter hardiness is not a strong feature of the variety. Young trees can suffer greatly from winter frosts, adults suffer short-term frosts up to -25 ° C, especially with a well-insulated trunk and a mulched trunk tree.Severe frosts usually lead to freezing of the tree.
In addition, spring return frosts during the flowering period can harm the future crop. The culture has a fairly high resistance to most diseases characteristic of it, but a monilial burn is dangerous for a tree. In order to avoid the risk of infection, treatment with fungicides should be applied, preventive measures should be taken and fertilizing should be applied to increase immunity.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- The following advantages of Cordia are the most attractive for growing varieties:
- excellent taste and commercial quality;
- storage and transportability;
- even the most ripe cherries are resistant to cracking, almost do not rot (within a reasonable time frame), and normally tolerate increased humidity;
- pretty good stable yield;
- the tree grows fast;
- the versatility of berries;
- late ripening, and therefore flowering, virtually eliminate the likelihood of falling under return frosts;
- due to the fact that a large number of fruits grow directly on the shoots and branches, they are easy to collect;
- good immunity to most diseases, excellent cancer resistance.
- Of the minuses of the variety should be said about the following:
- poor winter hardiness;
- For a good, stable crop, suitable pollinators are required.
Did you know? From the fruits of cherries, a food coloring is prepared, which, oddly enough, has a green color.
Choosing the best seedlings for planting
The type of crown that forms on an adult tree depends on what rootstock the tree is grafted on. Experienced gardeners, however, like professional breeders, pay attention to plants grafted on VLS-2 (a hybrid of plums and cherries).On such trees, the crown begins to develop at an altitude of 0.7–0.8 m, subsequently forming a large amount of fruit wood. Seedlings grafted on Bird Cherry and F12 / 1 grow quickly and, accordingly, bring an early harvest. For seedlings, it is better to go to the nursery, so you will have guarantees that you have purchased quality material.
When choosing seedlings, try to pay attention to such qualities:
- buy an annual seedling - it most easily takes root in a new place;
- the seedling should not have damage, signs of dryness or breakage;
- carefully inspect the roots - they should be quite developed, moist, almost white in color, without broken ends;
- the kidneys should not have the slightest signs of dryness, be alive and slightly swollen;
- do not forget that Cordia needs a pollinator (you can buy it in the same nursery).
Features of planting cherries
The following are details about the key points associated with planting a tree.
In the central regions, cherries with open roots are planted in the spring, before the buds swell. If you will plant seedlings in containers, some foliage is permissible on them. In the southern regions, cherries are planted in the fall.
When choosing a place for planting sweet cherries in your garden, you should proceed from the following factors:
- sweet cherry is a heat-loving culture, that is, it needs a place open to the sun, but closed from drafts (fence, buildings, tall shrubs);
- occurrence of groundwater - no closer than 2 m from the surface of the earth;
- the distance to the nearest tree or tall shrub is at least 4–5 m.
In addition, it is desirable to find a site with light, loose and fertile soil with a neutral or slightly acidic pH (6.0–7.0). If your site does not have such a soil, you should not grieve, then it will be described how the soil can be brought to the desired condition.
Check out such late cherries as:
Landing site preparation
In the event that the earth has a high clay content, during the autumn digging, the following is added (per 1 m²):
- humus - 1 bucket;
- Mullein - 1 bucket;
- ash - 1 shovel;
- superphosphate - 5 tbsp. l .;
- potassium sulfate - 3 tbsp. l
For sandy soil, the same procedure is carried out, only the composition of the ingredients is slightly changed:
- clay substrate - 2 buckets;
- peat - 1 bucket;
- Mullein - 1 bucket;
- ash - 1 shovel;
- superphosphate - 5 tbsp. l
In the event that in the place you choose, groundwater comes high to the surface, it will be necessary to fill the hill, because the cherry does not like moisture located close to the roots of the moisture.
The scheme of planting seedlings
For a traditional spring planting, it is better to dig a hole in the fall (however, as for the autumn planting practiced in the south). They do this after the garden soil has already been dug up, and fertilizers have been applied. After 2-3 weeks after that, when the earth settles a little, they dig a hole according to the scheme 100 × 80 × 80 cm. Dimensions are approximate, some fluctuation is permissible.
When you dig a hole, separate and remove the top layer of the substrate to the side, it will be needed to prepare a fertile mixture:
- substrate (top layer) and humus - 1–1.5 buckets each;
- potassium sulfate - 3 tbsp. l;
- superphosphate - 8 tbsp. l
You can prepare such a mixture:
- humus, peat and sand - 3 buckets each;
- wood ash - 3 glasses;
- superphosphate - 1 glass.
It will be useful to put 10-12 cm of drainage at the bottom of the pit (pebbles, gravel, broken brick, a mixture of sand with gravel, etc.), especially for sandy and clay soil, as well as in places with a high level of groundwater. Prepared mixture is poured on the drainage or on the bottom of the ditch so that the top of the hill reaches almost ground level, and its slopes are connected to the walls about 30–40 cm below the edge of the pit.
25-30 cm from the center of the pit and at about the same distance from the top of the hill, a stake of a tree of such height is driven into the bottom so that it rises 1 m above the ground. The pit is left for 15-18 days, so that the ground she qualitatively settled. After the specified time, you can proceed directly to planting a tree.
Do it as follows:
- Prepare a clay coating based on a solution of a growth stimulator (“Heteroauxin”, “Kornerost”, “Radifarm”, “Epin”, etc.). Treat the roots of the seedling and leave it for 2 hours.
- If the hill you prepared at the bottom of the pit is a little donkey, add it in such a way that the root neck of the tree is 4–6 cm above ground level.
- Fill the pit with the prepared soil mixture, periodically tamping it. Tie a tree trunk to a stake.
- Form a circle with a diameter of 40–50 cm around the trunk region, with a side height of 12–15 cm. Water each tree with 2–3 buckets of water.
- When water is absorbed, mulch the circle with sawdust or peat. Cut the seedling branches to 2/3 of the original length, this contributes to a better development of side shoots.
Did you know? Cherry trees growing on 1 ha can be a source of 35 kg of pollen for bees.
Aftercare for the tree
Care for Cordia cherry has some features characteristic of this particular variety, but they are associated primarily with relatively late ripening. In the main points, care for Cordia is similar to similar activities that must be carried out in relation to this type of tree in general.
Watering a plant
Although the cherry does not like stagnation of water near the roots, it needs regular watering. The first watering, as already mentioned, is carried out immediately after planting. In the future, the frequency and volume of watering depend on how dry the summer was. During this period, weekly watering is required in the amount of 2-3 water buckets per 1 m² of the trunk circle.With the growth of the tree, the diameter of the circle increases, therefore, the required volume of water.In addition to watering, which is done immediately after planting the sweet cherry, in the event that a normal amount of rainfall occurs in spring and summer, additional watering may be required only at such stages of tree growth:
- 2 weeks after flowering.
- During the formation of ovaries.
- After the crop is harvested.
- In the winter, after leaf fall, but no later than 3 weeks before the onset of frost.
Important! To avoid cracking berries, for 15–20 days before harvesting they stop watering the tree.
The first autumn after planting is not worth fertilizing the tree (if you applied fertilizer when digging the soil and planting, as described above). The first spring foliar top dressing should be carried out during flowering. For this, a solution of urea or nitrate nitrate is used (2 tbsp. L / 1 l of water). The resulting solution is sprayed with leaves.
For foliar top dressing during this period, a solution of bird droppings is also used. To spray one sweet cherry, dissolve and insist 3 days in 1/2 bucket of water 100 g of poultry excrement. After flowering, the green mass is treated with a solution of nitroammofoski (30 g / 5 l of water).
During the autumn work (second fall, if the tree was planted in the spring), the following set of fertilizers is introduced into the trunk circle:
- humus - 1/2 bucket;
- ash - 1 tbsp .;
- superphosphate - 3 tbsp. l .;
- potassium sulfate - 2 tbsp. l
Important! In the second half of spring, nitrogen fertilizing is applied (1–1.5 tbsp. l / 1 m²) You should not use them later, since the mineral weakens the frost resistance of the tree due to the intensive growth of young shoots that do not have time to get stronger before frost.
Preparing for winter and whitewashing a tree
Young cherries are especially vulnerable to frost, although mature trees should be taken into account for winter warming. In autumn, when the whole garden is being prepared for wintering, dried bark and dry branches should be removed from the cherry. Fallen leaves and berries, which must be burned outside the garden, should be removed from the surrounding land. Then they dig a circle, make fertilizers and carry out pre-winter watering. And only before the onset of the first frosts they start directly to warm the trunk.First of all, it must be whitened to the level of the beginning of skeletal branches. Whitewashing of the stem has two functions: protection from pests and from bright sunlight reflected from snow. If you live in the southern regions, the trunk is insulated only in the first 2–4 years of the tree’s life, then whitewashing is enough. A whitewash is prepared from a proportional mixture of clay with hydrated lime, to which copper sulfate is added. The resulting talker is whitened by a standard.
In the first 2–4 years of a tree’s life, and further in the more northern latitudes, the trunk can be additionally insulated and protected from rodents:
- Drive in a near-stem circle, at a distance of 20–25 cm from the trunk, 5–6 stakes, the height of which would reach skeletal tree branches.
- Wrap the stakes on the outside with a layer of roofing material, secure it with wire. Pour straw inside the resulting “reservoir”.
- Mulch the trunk circle with peat, straw or sawdust (you can mix these components). Lay the spruce on the mulch.
Pruning is the most important technique of agricultural technology. The procedure has a sanitary, anti-aging and stimulating function. In the spring (if the tree was planted the same spring, the procedure is performed shortly after planting), formative pruning is done:
- Leave up to four skeletal branches, which cut to 2/3 of the length.
- The central conductor is cut so that the height difference between it and the longest skeletal branch is about 20 cm.
- The remaining shoots are removed to the base, the places of cuts are treated with garden var.
In the second season, all young branches are cut to half. Pruning is also necessary for the reason that the tree does not branch out very much, and the buds on which the fruits are formed grow more often on the side shoots. Although pruning a large part of the overgrowth reduces yield in the very near future (shorter branches — fewer fruits), in the long run, it leads to an increase in yield and rejuvenation of the tree.Cherry is growing quite quickly. Every summer (late June – early July), young growth must be cut by 35–50 cm.
In addition, completely remove all shoots that:
- dried up, broken, froze;
- grow inside the crown;
- compete in the growth of the central conductor, that is, those branches that deviate from the conductor by less than 45 °.
In other words, branches should be left, the growth of which tends to the horizontal and is directed outward. When the tree has grown enough, make a rejuvenating pruning. Perform the procedure in the spring, before the buds open, in dry sunny weather, otherwise the cherry may become sick.
Important! Regular pruning, in addition to the anti-aging effect and a positive effect on productivity, prevents the development of diseases and the appearance of parasites.
To avoid this, the operation should be performed with a tool treated with an antiseptic, and the places of the cuts should be immediately covered with garden varnish. When performing a rejuvenating pruning, the main rule is to remove all the shoots that have appeared over the past 3-5 seasons.
Diseases and Pests
Cordia sweet cherry has a pretty good immunity to most diseases, but is vulnerable to fungal:
- fruit rot (moniliosis);
- perforated spotting (klyasterosporiosis).
The most dangerous pests for cherries:
- cherry fly;
- weevil cherry;
- cherry slimy sawfly.
With the invasion of a fly or sawfly, it is quite possible to lose half the crop or even a slightly larger volume. Because of the aphids, young growth is unable to develop.To treat diseases and destroy pests, plants are treated with insecticides and fungicides throughout the growing season, except for flowering and harvesting. Processing must be stopped no later than 20 days before harvest.
In addition, to reduce the risk of diseases and pests, preventive measures should be taken:
- regularly remove weeds, rotten and spoiled fruits, dry branches and leaves;
- fight ants that are carriers of aphids;
- Do not forget about the autumn and spring digging of the soil around the trunk;
- after autumn gardening, a bare tree should remain, with completely removed dry bark and branches, with a clean, dug-around tree trunk.
In the fight against pests and diseases of cherries, the method of processing tank mixtures has proven itself well. The method consists in spraying a tree with a mixture of insecticides and fungicides, a kind of universal poison. Prepare a solution before use.As insecticides used drugs such as "Aktara", "Enzhio", "Actellik." Of the fungicides, Horus and Switch switches have proven themselves well. Drugs are used according to the instructions attached to them.
Harvesting and storage rules
The harvest should be collected and stored correctly, otherwise the cherry will not lie with you for any significant time. Cherry, as you know, has a very short shelf life, although Cordia is distinguished by its keeping quality compared to other varieties.
When collecting, try to follow some rules, and then your harvest will have a longer presentation and keep its taste:
- Harvesting should be done in dry sunny weather in the early morning.
- Picking berries is necessary along with the stalks. Leaving them, you avoid causing mechanical damage to the fetus. In addition, the stalks contain a small amount of moisture and nutrients that prevent the fruit from spoiling soon.
- Harvested sweet cherries should be gently scattered on a spread garden film or tarpaulin in one layer so that the fruits do not choke.
- For storage, only the best sweet cherry, slightly immature, of medium size is selected. Large, bursting, overripe should be consumed first.
- Before storing berries, it is necessary to dry them well.
Did you know? Cherry, or bird cherry, was known to mankind as early as 6 millennium BC. e., and, most likely, this happened before people knew about the usual cherry.
The method of storing the fruit depends on how long you want to keep the berry:
- up to 5 days - the main compartment of the refrigerator;
- after harvesting and until spring (8–9 months) - a freezer;
- up to 1 year - thermal drying or preservation.