Golden Semko onion: description and features of cultivation
Based on the Dutch hybrid Red Semko, domestic breeders have developed the Golden Semko variety, which is more adapted to our latitudes and has high quality characteristics. For more information about the variety, as well as the rules for growing it, read below.
Description and characteristic
The variety under consideration was developed by the Moscow company SEMKO-JUNIOR LLC. The culture has been included in the state registry since 2000. It is grown everywhere. It is cultivated as an annual plant by direct sowing in the southern latitudes, by seedlings in the northern regions. As a two-year-old culture, it is grown everywhere in the north.
Did you know? Onion is a globally used food product. It is part of the popularly preferred dishes of more than 175 countries.
Planting material is characterized by a high degree of maturation: at the time of harvest, 99% matures. The variety is distinguished by ecological plasticity (adaptability), which makes it possible to cultivate it in a variety of climatic zones. The only caveat is that when grown in the northern regions, it takes a little longer from planting to full ripening than when planting in other regions.
The culture is resistant to many diseases and is rarely affected by pests. However, this quality must be maintained through preventive measures and basic agricultural practices. Golden Onion Harvest is characterized by good performance indicators. For 7 months of storage, spoilage lends itself to only 5% of its main mass.
Onion Golden - a two-year vegetable crop that forms a pronounced onion with poorly developed roots. The ground part of the plant is represented by long leaves, which are called feathers. At the end of the vegetation of the ground part (lodging and drying of the pen), the root system also dies.Seed bulbs at the end of feather formation throw arrows, at the ends of which a multifloral umbrella with inflorescences is formed. After flowering, in their place boxes with seed material are formed.
The main feature of the culture in question is the formation of one-dimensional single (small-nail) bulbs. Because of the lack of snow, growing Golden Onions for greens is not advisable. The weight of one instance is 70-100 g.The neck of the bulb is thin. Cover flakes are presented in a small amount (2-3 pcs.), Painted in golden color. Juicy scales are colored white, dense in structure.
They have a characteristic onion aroma and a semi-sharp, piquant taste. When cleaning this variety practically does not cause tearing.
The ground part of the plant is represented by feathers with a hollow inside. On one copy about 40 sheets are formed. They are painted in intense green; the length does not exceed 35 cm. The taste is slightly sharp.
Onion sets of the Golden variety are small fruits 3 cm in size, with a narrow neck. The shape of the bulbs is oval elongated. The integumentary scales are colored golden, the surface is dense.
Ripening dates and productivity
Golden onion refers to early ripening crops. Ripens on average in 75–83 days. From 1 m², you can collect from 3.3 to 5 kg of bulbs with excellent commodity indicators.
Plus qualities and possible disadvantages of the variety
- The positive qualities of culture include:
- unpretentiousness in leaving;
- environmental plasticity;
- high commercial quality of the crop;
- a good degree of maturation and durability;
- high productivity;
- resistance to various diseases and pests;
- mild taste - allows you to use fresh products in most dishes;
- good tolerance of drought and temperature fluctuations.
Possible disadvantages of the variety include an increase in the growing season in the northern regions. This nuance can be corrected by propagation by seedlings. With this approach, the bulbs will grow larger than with the seed planting method.Another disadvantage is the short vegetation period of the terrestrial part, which makes it inappropriate to grow crops to produce greenery. The variety under consideration has good taste, allowing it to be used more widely than sharp varieties in fresh form. This feature makes the culture as useful as possible for humans, because fresh onions, unlike thermally treated ones, do not lose their vitamin-mineral value.
- Useful properties of onions Golden:
- optimization of the protective functions of the body;
- improved metabolism;
- enrichment with vitamins and minerals, which are the main building blocks of most organs and systems;
- acceleration of the elimination of toxins from the body in a natural way;
- antibacterial effect on the intestinal microflora;
- reduced risk of oncology.
Features of growing onions
The main conditions for obtaining a full crop:
- good lighting;
- moderate soil moisture (50-60%);
- well-fertilized soil with high aeration characteristics.
Important! All varieties of onions are demanding of light. In this indicator, the culture is superior to cabbage and root crops.
Choosing a place and preparing the garden
Terrain for planting onions must be selected taking into account its needs. The best option would be a southern or southeastern site, with a high occurrence of groundwater (1–1.5 m), a thick fertile layer and high-quality protection against draft.Due to the fact that onions are distinguished by the ability to accumulate nitrates and pesticides in their heads, it is necessary to fertilize the site in advance so that less fertilizing is introduced during the period of active development of the culture.
Preparation of a landing site is carried out in the fall, immediately after harvesting. This event includes the following steps:
- deep aeration of the soil (20-30 cm);
- soil disinfection with 3% solution of copper sulfate;
- a week later - the application of 3 kg of peat, 3 kg of humus, 30 g of superphosphate, 10 g of ammonium nitrate, 15 g of potassium salt, 15 g of wood ash for every 1 m²
- re-aeration of the soil to a depth of 30 cm.
Seed preparation and set
Special preparation of seed does not require. In the southern latitudes, the Golden Onion is propagated by seed, in the north and central regions only the north is used.Planting material is prepared immediately before planting:
- onion sets are incubated for 20 minutes in a solution of copper sulfate 1% concentration;
- the seeds are soaked in a solution of manganese (1 g of substance is added to 100 ml of water).
Did you know? In ancient Greece, the bow head was considered a symbol of the universe. Her scales were compared with celestial spheres.
It is also possible to process planting material (sowing and seeds) with growth accelerators. They have two effects at the same time: stimulating development and disinfecting. For this purpose, you can use:
- "Epinom" - 1 ml per 2 liters of water, soaking for 2 hours;
- “Fitosporin” - for seeds 1.5 g (0.5 tsp.) Per 100 ml of water, soak for 2 hours, for bulbs - 10 g per 0.5 l of water to spray sevka (enough for processing 20 kg).
Technology and terms of disembarkation
Onion sets are located in furrows at a depth of 5 cm.A step of 20 cm is made between them, 10 cm between the bulbs in the furrow. Planting material needs to be deepened so that a tail 5 mm long remains above the soil surface. As soon as the planting phase is completed, the beds are sprinkled with a 5 mm layer of sand mixed with peat 1: 1, and the site is leveled using a rake.
Seeds are also placed in furrows, but to a depth of 2 cm. A 10 cm step is left between the rows, 2 cm between seeds. After placing the seeds in the furrows, they are covered with a loose substrate and watered.Planting dates are completely dependent on the climate. Seeds are sown only when the soil is warmed up to + 5 ° C.
Onion sets are planted in winter or early spring, when the average daily air temperature is at least + 10 ° С. During winter planting, the entire area of the beds and row-spacing is necessarily mulched with a layer of compost 5 cm high, and when the first frosts strike, they cover it with lapnik. With the advent of spring and the establishment of a positive temperature, the spruce branches are immediately removed.
All main care for Golden Onions is carried out in the first 8 weeks after planting. 3 weeks before harvesting, all manipulations cease.
Watering and fertilizing
Focus should be on watering. During the first 2 months from the moment of planting, they are carried out once a week. Watering begins with the appearance of the first sprouts. Apply the method of moistening under the root and sprinkling. The soil should be moderately moist, but not swampy; Also, overdrying of the soil and the appearance of a crust should not be allowed.3 weeks before the end of the growing season, watering is stopped completely.
The main dressings are applied at the time of preparing the site in the fall and spring. During the growing season, fertilizers are applied 1 time, 14 days after the germination of the sprouts. At this stage, it is best to use compost-ash infusion: 1 kg of compost and 400 g of wood ash are added to 10 liters of water. The liquid is insisted for 5 days, then filtered and diluted with water 1: 1. On 1 m² of plantations leaves 10 liters of finished working composition.
Important! You should not feed onions with fresh manure, otherwise the heads will get an unpleasant taste.
Loosening of soil and weeding from weeds
An important agrotechnical measure is loosening the soil and removing weeds - this is necessary to ensure oxygen access to the heads and increase the feeding area.In addition, loosening and removing weeds can avoid uneven distribution of water in the deeper layers of the soil and protect the plantings from the development of fungal infections.
Such manipulations are carried out after irrigation or rain the next day, when moisture is absorbed into the soil. After the termination of soil moisture, 3 weeks before harvesting, cultivation continues to be carried out at intervals of 5-7 days.
Plant pests and diseases
Failure to comply with agricultural regulations leads to the development of diseases such as:
- root rot rot;
When they appear, you can use 1% concentrate of copper sulfate. The composition is sprayed on the plants themselves and the soil beneath them. 10 days after the treatment, dusting with wood ash is carried out on the ground part and the soil.
To prevent such diseases, you should carefully monitor the soil moisture and carry out loosening on time. In addition, an important measure to prevent the spread of infection is the selection of high-quality planting material and timely enrichment of the soil with nutrients.
Of the pests for culture are dangerous:
- onion fly;
- various caterpillars.
When parasites appear, their elimination should immediately begin. To do this, you can use "Aktara" (breed according to the instructions).
Harvesting and storage
They begin to harvest when the tops are crawling and begin to dry out. All manipulations are carried out in dry, windy weather. Bulbs are pulled out of the soil and laid out on the beds, leaving them in this state for 2-3 hours.Then the crop is moved to a dry, well-ventilated area for 2 weeks to dry.After 2 weeks, the tops are cut off, leaving tails of 5 cm each. They are stored in nets or wooden crates in dry rooms at a relative temperature of +2 to + 10 ° C.
So, Golden Onion has remarkable quality indicators, is unpretentious in leaving and is well adapted in any climatic zones. It was these characteristics that made him so popular among the agrarians of our country.