Features cherries varieties Iput
Cherry Yput - a variety that is suitable for cultivation in a temperate climate. It is considered winter-hardy and pest resistant. Read about the characteristics of the variety and its agricultural technology further in the review.
Description and characteristics of Iput
The selection of frost-resistant varieties began with the famous breeder I. Michurin. However, the bred cherries were not tasty enough and were not widely used. It was the first swallow and Kozlovskaya, then - Leningrad yellow, Red dense. These works were successfully continued by M. Kanshina, a specialist at the Lupin Research Institute in Bryansk, and her colleagues, who received good and tasty varieties of cherries.
Did you know? Flowers at cherry trees appear faster than leaves, so cherry in the East symbolizes the life of a person who comes to the naked world, and his life is as fleeting as flowering.
Variety early ripening Iput was bred in the 80s of the last century. Parent varieties are breeding forms 8–14 and 3–36. Marina Vladimirovna gave the name to the variety in honor of the Iput River, which flows in the Bryansk region. The variety was introduced to the State Register in 1993. Applicant - Federal Research Center of Higher Vic. Williams, whose branch today is the Bryansk Institute. Iput is zoned for the Central and Central Black Earth region.
Tree and fruits
Iput is an early dessert variety. Fruiting begins at 4–5 years. The variety is frost-resistant - tolerates frosts up to –30 ° C and is partially self-fertile, therefore it needs a pollinator companion. It can be Tyutchevka, Veda, Bryanochka.The variety is characterized by high frost resistance, resistance to fungal diseases.
- sweet cherries are tall-growing: the height of an adult tree depends on the stock, but usually about 3-5 m;
- crown of medium density, wide pyramidal shape;
- fruit formations are placed on bouquet branches and growth of the first year;
- shoots are large, straight, olive-gray, not pubescent;
- large foliage;
- leaf plate: smooth, dark green, ovoid;
- fruits: uniform, round, medium;
- color: dark red, to almost black, depending on the degree of maturity;
- weight: 5–6 g;
- flesh: dark red, juicy, medium density;
- stone: small, poorly detachable;
- taste: sweet;
- tasting score: 4 points out of 5;
- sugar content: 11.7%;
- acidity: weak - 0.7%;
- productivity: 105 c / ha.
Productivity and ripening dates
Flowering tree occurs in mid-May. Ripening occurs in late June. Fruiting is fairly regular. Productivity varieties can be considered above average. From one tree you can collect up to 30 kg of fruit. The yield per hectare is 105 c.
Did you know? Among the varieties of cherries, 2 main types are distinguished. With thick pulp and intensely colored juice — varieties of the bigarro group (Iput also belongs to them), another group — these are trees with yellowish tender pulp and clear sap — gini.
The tree is considered winter hardy. At an air temperature of –30 ° C, it does not receive damage. But thaws, which are replaced by frost, are considered fatal to them.
A pollinator may be a variety whose flowering occurs in mid-May. Among these varieties, bred at the same Lupin Institute, are Tyutchevka, Veda, Bryanochka, Revna, Ovstuzhenka.By purchasing a tree in the nursery, you can ask them for the presence of other varieties, the flowering of which coincides with the Iput
Advantages and disadvantages
- Grade advantages:
- stable yield;
- early ripening;
- good organoleptic properties;
- high winter hardiness;
- moderate resistance to cracking;
- high resistance to fungal diseases.
We can assume that the variety does not have pronounced disadvantages. Commercial properties - storage and transportability, are considered good. Partial self-fertility is also not a disadvantage, rather a feature of the variety, since this property is characteristic of most sweet cherries.
The selection of quality seedlings for planting
The quality of planting material has a significant impact on yield. So, a seedling is selected well developed, without signs of disease or traces of their treatment. Roots and branches should be proportionately developed.
Important! You can not use a tree of the same variety as a pollinator.
A good seedling has the following characteristics:
- age: 2-3 years;
- bark: elastic, even, brown;
- trunk: no damage, smooth;
- roots: 3 roots of 0.2 m, on the cut white, fibrous;
- branches: with closed buds.
Rules for planting cherries
Landing is carried out on a cool day with an air temperature of about +5 ... + 10 ° C. If frost is expected, then postpone landing the next day. Do not expose the roots to low temperatures.
Landing is carried out in early spring or autumn, until the end of September. But most often it is planned for April. This will give the tree the opportunity to prepare well for the winter and take root.
Important! The leaves of the Rosaceae, to which the cherry also belongs, are moderately poisonous, therefore they can not be consumed in large quantities.
Choosing a place to land
The landing site should be sunny, with well-drained soil. It is advisable that the sun illuminates it at least 6 hours a day. This is important, since both the sweetness of the fruit and the volume of the crop depend on the sun. Drainage is mandatory, as tree roots cannot absorb nutrients when in constant contact with water. If the area is clay, the soil is diluted with sand.Some gardeners also practice planting on elevated beds - this is planting in a box without a bottom, which is made of wood or other sheet material. It prevents soil erosion and shedding of such beds. On sandy soils, the tree will suffer from drought. This soil can be improved by applying clay. Preferred soil acidity is from 6.0 to 7.0 pH. When inspecting the site, make sure that you have enough space for planting 2 trees, and also that the tree will not be hindered by obstacles from above or below in the form of various communications, irrigation systems and other objects.
Landing site preparation
It is believed that landing pits can be prepared in the fall, and in the spring to land. Humus (10 kg) or other organic matter is poured into the autumn pit and left until spring. But this approach also has opponents who believe that over the course of winter, organics manages to release nutrients into the soil that will be washed away by melting snow into the lower layers of the soil and not absorbed by the tree. Also, potash (about 60 g) and phosphate fertilizers (about 100 g) are added to the pit. Potassium is necessary for the organization of intracellular metabolism, and phosphorus - for the development of the root system and fruiting.
The seedling obtained from the nursery is usually with empty roots, so they are soaked in water for 1-2 hours before planting. Then the roots are dipped in a clay mash to protect against contact with soil fungi.Clay clatter for root system
- Dig a site and prepare landing pits. Depth - about 0.5-0.6 m. Width - 2 times the depth. But at the same time try to focus on the size of the root system - the pit should be slightly larger than it.
- Mix 1 bucket of rotted manure with soil in the following ratio - 1/3 of organic matter and 2/3 of soil.
- Place the cherry in the center, straightening the roots.
- Install a peg next to a tree to tie it up - this will give it stability.
- Fill the pit, moving from the edges to the center. Tamp it as you fall asleep.
- Pour in 1-2 buckets of water when you add soil to the middle.
- Make sure that the connection point of the scion and stock is 5–7 cm above the ground.
- Spread the soil evenly around the cherry.
Video: instructions for planting cherry seedlings
Cherry Care Features
Gardener care for cherries consists of the following activities:
- regular watering;
- spraying from pests;
- trimming and shaping the crown;
- fertilizer application;
- Autumn preparation of the garden for winter.
- make sure the pruner is sharpened well;
- sterilize the instrument with alcohol to prevent the transfer of microorganisms from one tree to another;
- cut to the correct cutting angle - 45 °;
- in the first 2 years of growth, pruning is not carried out;
- for 3 years the central trunk is shortened - this stimulates the development of side shoots;
- for 4 years, 4 main shoots are left from the side shoots - the form that they form resembles a bowl;
- in subsequent years, pruning dry or damaged branches, remove intersecting and those that create thickening.
The variety is undemanding to growing conditions. It is almost not susceptible to disease, is quite resistant to frost, can grow in almost any climate. But if the conditions are optimal, then you can count on a large yield.
Did you know? Not only do people like the fruits of the tree - the birds are also delighted with them, so the cherry has another name - “bird cherry”.
Watering a plant
Productivity always depends on how much water a tree receives. Summer residents recommend watering the seedlings 2 times a week - just 2-3 buckets of water for each are enough. Seedlings can experience stress from drought, so it is important to follow the watering schedule. But for adult trees, 1 watering per month is enough. The humidification depth is up to 1 m. It begins in spring, along with the beginning of the growing season, and ends in August.
If fertilizers were applied during planting, then it is not necessary to feed the seedling for 2-3 years. In the future, before applying fertilizers, always check the soil for the level of various minerals. You can do this with a special tester, but you can also visually inspect the tree: if the growth of branches is less than 25 cm per year, then fertilizers should be applied.
Did you know? About 4000 sweet cherry varieties are grown in the world today. But only 10% of them have sufficient productivity for industrial cultivation.
Spring dressing provides the basis for the start of a new season. Before budding, the tree is sprayed with a 3% solution of Bordeaux fluid from diseases, and then root dressing of 20 g of ammonium nitrate or 30 g of urea per 1 m² of soil is applied. Both types of fertilizer are a source of nitrogen, which provides the growth of branches and deciduous mass.During the flowering period, organic matter is introduced. The composition is prepared from 10 glasses of ash and 5 kg of rotted manure, diluted in 50 liters of water. Under each tree, it is enough to pour 1 bucket of the mixture. In early summer, the trees are fertilized with nitroammophos (30 g per 10 l of water). You can add 30 g of potash fertilizers or 1 cup of ash. Top dressing must be combined with watering.
Whitewashing is a way to protect the trunk from pests and temperature changes in winter. Carry it from 1 to 3 times. The main one is autumn, which is carried out after the leaves fall: it is designed to protect the tree from overheating of the trunk in winter. Wood does not allow heat to pass through well, so when the sun heats it during the day, it does not have time to cool down. And the temperature difference in the evening causes frost on the trunk.White color reflects the sun's rays, not allowing the tree to overheat. Spring whitewashing is carried out in March. It protects the future crop from pests that winter in the ground and will rise to the crown. To protect against insects, hunting belts are also used. The thickness of the whitewash layer should not be more than 2 mm. Application height - along the trunk to the skeletal branches.
Trimming branches and crowns
The natural way to grow a tree is not always the best for fruiting and maintenance - this is the first reason for crown formation and pruning. In addition, good air circulation and branch lighting prevent pests and infestation of insect pests on the tree.
Diseases and Pests
To better understand what pests you need to process the tree from, read the information from garden communities about the distribution of their specific species in your region. The spraying time should precede the beginning of the reproduction of the pest.
Cherry pests are insects that infect roots, skeletal branches, buds, buds, leaves and fruits. Pests of the roots - the bear, goldfish, grubbers; and woods are wood-borers and bark beetles. Protection against both categories of insects - the application of phosphorus fertilizers.
Did you know? Red cherries contain melatonin, which helps remove toxins from the body. They also have a higher level of antioxidants than yellow varieties.
Kidneys and ovaries affect butterflies and their larvae, as well as weevils, leafworms. “Fufanon-Expert” and “Barguzin 600” are used against them. You can always choose a complex type insecticide or acting against a specific group of insects.
Diseases of fruit trees can be of fungal, bacterial and viral nature. Variety Iput is different in that it is resistant to the main diseases of sweet cherry. As a prophylaxis of fungal diseases, a 3% solution of Bordeaux fluid is sprayed before the kidneys open.In advanced cases, another spray is carried out 2 weeks after the first, only 1% solution. It is important not to burn the leaves with a chemical, so the concentration of the solution decreases
Harvesting and storage
Fruiting begins 4–5 years after planting. In the described variety, it is quite stable. A sign of crop maturity is the acquisition of dark red in color, which occurs in the second half of June. Harvest on a dry sunny day, but do not forget to wait for the sweetest taste.
All varieties acquire the highest sugar content in the last week of ripening. You can store the fruits in the refrigerator for 7 days. Since these are very juicy berries, they must be consumed during this time or processed, otherwise they begin to deteriorate. Do not wash fruits until you are ready to use them.Grade Iput is undemanding in care. Disease resistance and frost resistance are its main advantages: they allow you to grow cherries even where the climate is not too favorable for these southern trees. Provide trees with comfortable conditions for growth, and they will please you with high yields.
Good grade. At my site the earliest. Flowering and ripening is 2-3 weeks long, which is very good when there are children in the family who enjoy high every day and pinch berries from a tree. Fertility is not bad, the middle position is between Br.rozova and Fatezh. The berry is dense, the taste is a typical cherry. You can’t distinguish it from the south. It clings to cherries and skeletal perfectly. As it turned out, it is resistant to moniliosis. Sort happy. I can safely recommend it.