The method of growing sweet cherries in the home
Many people love the early sweet cherry. Often, gardeners grow this fruit crop on their personal plots, but it is not always possible to get the desired variety. This article is devoted to how at home to independently grow a cherry seedling from a seed.
Is it possible to grow sweet cherry from a stone at home?
Sweet cherry seed is a very dense seed. In the germination of any seed there is nothing complicated, the main thing is to provide it with moisture and heat. You can sprout a sweet cherry seed using the soil, and without it at all, simply wrapping the seed in a damp cloth or placing it in another suitable medium.
Did you know? Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin developed a method of vaccinating one plant with another and got excellent results. A scientist could grow on one tree up to a dozen different fruit varieties and achieve fruiting.
Advantages and disadvantages of growing from stone
There are undoubted advantages in growing a fruit tree from seed, but there are also some important disadvantages, and the grower needs to take them into account.
- the ability to propagate a rare or valuable variety;
- the gardener does not bear the financial costs of acquiring a seedling.
- significant time costs;
- sterility of the grown seedling;
- the need for planting pollinating trees.
How to choose the sweet cherry pits
A person who wants to get healthy viable seedlings of sweet cherry seeds needs to take seriously the choice of planting material. The seeds are taken directly from fresh fruits.It is recommended to choose large berries with excellent taste and, preferably, originating from local varieties of cherries or cherries.
Adaptation to local growing conditions is very important for the fruit tree. In agronomy, this is called zoning, that is, a plant's predisposition to a particular climate.
It is advisable to plant not one seed, but not less than 10-15 pieces, since approximately 80% of them will grow. The seeds for planting are taken from fresh berries: the easiest way is to eat them, and the seeds to use for the procedure.
Important! It must be remembered that only fresh sweet cherry seeds sprout well — dried and overwintered seeds hardly germinate. To avoid this obstacle, plant growers use artificial stratification of seeds and begin growing immediately after extracting seeds from the fruit.
Bone preparation and hardening before planting
Before germinating the sweet cherry, it is recommended to stratify it. Stratification - This is the period that the seeds spend in cold conditions. In nature, the stratification period for seeds is a time period from autumn to spring, and artificial stratification of seeds can be carried out in a domestic refrigerator.
Video: how to stratify bones at home
Before stratification, the seeds are briefly soaked in water or a solution containing growth stimulants. After soaking the bones, the cherries are placed in a humid environment: wet sawdust or wool. Seed should be covered with wet sawdust on all sides. A container with sawdust is placed in a plastic bag, tightly tied and installed in a refrigerator or (if it happens in the cold season) on an open balcony.
Experienced growers recommend that before starting stratification of stone fruits, in addition to soaking in a growth stimulator, they should also be processed in any preparation containing fungicides.For this, the fungicide is diluted with water, according to the instructions attached to the drug, after which the cherry seeds are soaked for 15-30 minutes. Such treatment is the prevention of the development of fungal diseases and mold on seeds or young plants.
The stratification period can take from 7 to 14 days., after which the seeds are removed from the cold and planted in the prepared soil. The longer the seeds are stratified, the faster they will germinate.
Rules for planting sweet cherry pits
Growing fruit seedlings from seeds is practically no different from growing any other crop, vegetable or berry. Seedlings require primarily heat, lighting and irrigation, as well as attention and care on the part of the grower.
Planting of cherry bones:
- For growing sweet cherry seedlings from seeds, a pot with a volume of 0.5–0.7 l is enough. Drain from broken ceramic fragments or fragments of thick branches of fruit trees is laid at the bottom of the pot. It is needed so that excess moisture does not stagnate in the root zone of the seedling and does not contribute to the development of rot. At the bottom of the landing tank, a special hole must be provided for the drainage of water.
- The soil is poured into the pot - it is best to use a mixture of sand and fertile soil (1: 1) for these purposes. Planting soil should not be mixed with fertilizer, as this will provoke the rapid growth of the aerial parts of the plant to the detriment of the root system. If necessary, the seedling growing in the pot will not be difficult to feed using root or foliar top dressing. The soil in the planting pot is poured so that it does not reach the edge of the tank by 2 cm. This gap between the edge of the pot and the soil is necessary so that water remains in the planting tank when watering.
- 3-5 potted stratification of berry seeds are planted in each pot. Planting depth - 2–2.5 cm. Planted seeds are covered with soil and moderately watered. Pots are covered with plastic bags and put away in a warm place for 20–25 days, until sprouts appear on the surface of the soil.
- Pots with sprouts appear rearrange closer to the light source. This can be either a window sill of a window facing south, or a place on a seedling table under a phytolamp.
- When the aboveground part of the seedlings grows a little (up to 3-5 cm), the gardener chooses one of the most developed plants for further vegetation. All other seedlings located in the planting tank are removed. When removing, it is undesirable to pull out the sprouts from the ground, as this can damage the roots of the remaining plant. Extra sprouts are cut out at the place of contact with the soil with a garden pruner or sharp scissors - only one cherry seedling should remain in the pot.
Important! Seed germination time may be slightly shorter or longer — depending on the air temperature in the room where the pots with crops are located.
Cherry seedlings are watered sparingly, avoiding an excess of moisture in the soil, so as not to cause the appearance of a black leg or root rot. To correctly determine the time of watering, check the soil in the pot. If the soil has dried up at a depth of 2–2.5 cm, the plant needs irrigation.
If sweet cherry seedlings are grown in the summer-autumn period, pots with plants can be exposed to the open air. It is there that the plants receive good lighting, which is important for the harmonious development of the aerial and root parts of the seedling. The street location of pots with crops is chosen on the basis that the plants should be well lit by the sun, but it is not advisable for them to be in direct sunlight. The best location would be a placeIf the cultivation of fruit seedlings occurs in the autumn-winter period, then the plant, of course, needs artificial illumination.
Even sitting on the windowsill of the south window, the plant will lack light, especially in the winter months.Therefore, next to the pots you need to install a fluorescent lamp. The best solution would be to purchase a special phytolamp for plants. From November to the end of December, seedlings are lightened twice a day, morning and evening. Morning time for additional lighting lasts from 8:00 to 10:00. Evening illumination is carried out from 16:00 to 18:00. From January to the end of February, seedlings are highlighted almost the whole day - from 8:00 to 18:00.In summer, seedlings growing on the street do not have much difficulty with the ambient temperature.. Temperature problems begin during indoor cultivation.During the growing season, the temperature in the room should be in the range +18 ... + 22 ° C.
A significant increase in these indicators will cause rapid growth of the above-ground system, which is especially dangerous in the winter period, since with a lack of lighting the plants will stretch.
Periodically, seedlings are fed. The need for top dressing is evidenced by the pale leaves and stalk of seedlings. In winter, it is undesirable to overfeed plants with nitrogen, so as not to cause rapid growth of the aerial parts of seedlings. Fertilizers must be balanced, so it is best to purchase ready-made mineral complexes.
Did you know? Yellow cherry is the first to ripen — it contains more iodine, followed by pink — the richest in vitamin C. Later all the darkest red berry ripens, in which the largest amount of nutrients.
Tree grafting rules
Cherries and cherries are close relatives of the same family. The main difference is that the cherry does not have frost resistance to cherries. To give the cold-blooded cherries proper winter hardiness and achieve fruiting in the northern regions, breeders crossed both fruit crops. So many excellent cherry varieties were created, combining productivity, relative frost resistance and excellent taste of berries. But the payment for the acquired qualities was the loss of self-fertility. For this reason, it’s not enough just to grow a seedling from a bone, it is also necessary to carry out the procedure of grafting this seedling on a good stock.
Usually zoned cherries are used as stock. This will give the properties of cherries grown, such as frost resistance and unpretentiousness to climatic conditions. If a seedling grown from seed is planted in the soil, it is possible that after some time large varietal berries will become small in size and lose their sweetness.Gradually, the seedling in the pot grows and after about 5 years begins to bear fruit, that is, it blooms and forms the first fruits.
But the gardener should not wait for this time, but at the age of three the seedling should be vaccinated. The procedure is to connect the grown seedling with the root system of one of the local fruit varieties.
How to vaccinate:
- If the donor seedling has a trunk diameter of no more than 3-5 cm, then the grafting is carried out using the split method.
- To do this, choose a plant that does not have signs of any disease and with a well-developed root system. On it, with a sharp garden knife, they trim the top of the trunk so that a cut is obtained at an angle of 45 °. After that, only the roots and about 15–20 cm of the trunk in the lower part remain on the rootstock.
- For a successful vaccination result, use only sterile instruments. Alcohol or alcohol-containing liquids are used as a disinfectant. In no case should dust or earth be present on wood cuts.
- A gardener with a knife splits in the center of the short trunk of a stock plant. A splitting depth of up to 4 cm is recommended. This will create a reliable coupling of two plants, which will have a good effect on survival.
- The gardener also cuts the plant from the pot - the cut should be identical to the cut on the rootstock, that is, produced at an angle of 45 ° and have smooth wood on the cut.
- A section of a cherry seedling from a pot is inserted into a split in a stock plant. When inserted, the wood sections of both plants are tightly aligned, after which they are fixed in this position.
- For fastening use a conventional insulation tape, but with the sticky side out. On top of the screed fixing the vaccine, a garden var is imposed.
- You can find out whether the vaccine has taken root on the stock, by the appearance of the blossoming leaves on the grafted graft. Further, it is advisable for the gardener to observe how the harness is stretched at the vaccination site, and gradually weaken it, accustoming the young tree to vegetation in the open air. The grafted sweet cherry is transplanted to a permanent place in autumn or spring, at the request of the gardener.
Any, even a beginner gardener will be able to grow a cherry tree from a fruit seed. To do this, you need to have a little knowledge, a pot of soil, fresh sweet cherry, accuracy and patience.