Features of the cultivation of a columnar apple tree cultivar Medoc
Many gardeners want to grow the Medoc apple tree. To do this, it is recommended that you familiarize yourself with its description and basic characteristics, the characteristics of planting and further care of the tree, as well as possible difficulties in growing.
Description and characteristics of the variety
Medok is a columnar type of apple tree with a fruit ripening period in early autumn. The variety was bred by the Moscow Institute of Horticulture in 1987. The official name of the plant was assigned in 1999. The participants in the apple selection were professors V.V. Kichin and N.G. Morozov.
Did you know? The largest apple was grown in 2005 by the Japanese Chisato Iwasaki. Its weight was 1.85 kg.
The plant begins to bear fruit in the 3rd year of planting, has large and medium-sized fruits. The crown is small, up to 2.2 m high and 20–25 cm wide.
The root system of the plant is dense and powerful, thanks to this apple tree can be transplanted both in the spring and in the autumn. The tree has round-shaped fruits with a dense peel of a white-yellow texture. They have a juicy flesh with a sweet taste.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The Medoc variety has the following advantages:
- high yield dynamics;
- in conditions of a stable temperature regime, good keeping quality;
- the first crop is harvested already in the 3-4th year of growth;
- good frost and drought resistance;
- good taste;
- Perfect for baking.
Among the shortcomings of the variety, there is an insignificant shelf life and high cost of planting material. Commercial quality is retained only for one month.
Apple tree Medok is a self-fertile plant. Next to it should grow ordinary branched trees or columnar, but of other varieties.
It can be apples and pears of 2-3 different varieties, which will serve as pollinators for them. The main thing is that the timing of flowering trees coincide.
Subject to agricultural cultivation techniques from one tree, you can get a crop of up to 20 kg of apples. The fruiting peak occurs on the 5th year of growth, while many gardeners collect up to 9 kg of apples.
Intensive tree care leads to an increase in yield. From 1 ha, you can collect up to 100 kg of apple crop.
Due to its excellent frost resistance, young seedlings can be planted in spring or autumn. In this case, it is necessary to prepare a place in the garden, choose the best seedlings and determine the planting scheme.
The best place for laying a young garden is the lowlands, where the necessary amount of snow accumulates, which protects the root system from freezing and death.
Before planting seedlings in the soil, the hole should be preliminarily prepared; for this, it is necessary to add humus, superphosphate, potassium and urea in equal proportions to it.
Important! If the planting will be carried out in heavy soils, it is necessary to add river sand or gravel.
The landing site must be well-lit. A tree can grow on the windy side of the garden.
Choosing the best seedlings for planting
To buy seedlings is necessary only in special nurseries that are engaged in the cultivation of plants adapted to specific climatic conditions. To get a good annual growth, you should choose an annual plant.
For planting, it is recommended to choose seedlings with a powerful root system and those with fresh leaves. Before the procedure, use drugs such as "Kornevin" or "Heteroauxin."
Planting an apple tree of this variety must be carried out according to this scheme:
- observe the interval between young seedlings of 40-60 cm;
- the depth of the landing pit should be about 50 cm;
- the spacing between the rows is 50 cm.
How to care for the colony-shaped apple trees of the Medoc variety?
The tree needs regular maintenance, which consists in watering, loosening the soil, fertilizing with fertilizers and controlling pests and diseases.
Features of feeding and watering
For good apple growth in spring, organic fertilizers should be applied to the soil. The best way to do this is chicken droppings or cow humus.
Important! During fruiting, plants are fed with potash and organic fertilizers. As organics, you can use mixtures prepared on the basis of water and chicken droppings, in the proportion of 1:30 or rotted manure in the proportion of 1:10.
During flowering, the tree is fed with fertilizers based on potassium and phosphorus. You can also carry out foliar top dressing. For this, the plant is sprayed over the blossoming leaves with a urea solution (30 g is dissolved in a bucket of water).
Young plants in the early years of growth need regular maintenance. The minimum amount of watering is 2 times a week, 2 buckets of warm water are brought under each tree. For industrial cultivation, it is better to use drip irrigation.
Cropping and shaping the crown
Like all columnar trees, the Medoc variety consists of one trunk without lateral branches, and therefore the plant does not need pruning. The newly formed lateral processes should immediately be removed, without leading to their numbness.
To maintain the colony shape of the plant, it is necessary to leave one apical bud.
Did you know? Due to the fact that the fruit of the apple tree consists of 1/4 of the air, it does not sink in water.
The plant can tolerate frosts down to –42 ° C, therefore it does not require special care in the winter. Therefore, you can not worry about sheltering the trunk circle.
In this regard, it is advisable to grow a fruit tree near the Middle Strip, in the Moscow Region and in all regions of Siberia.
In order to protect the plant in the winter from the invasion of rodents, the trunk of the apple tree and its low branches should be wrapped with dense, durable material.
Possible growing difficulties
The apple tree, despite its resistance to diseases, needs regular preventive measures. To reduce the risk of getting sick with fungal diseases and from the invasion of harmful insects, it is recommended to treat it with fungicides and insecticides.
Common pests and methods of controlling them:
- Aphid. The twisted leaves of the tree testify to its appearance. To fight, it is recommended to treat the plant with a solution of "Karbofos" 3% every spring on sleeping buds every spring. If the kidneys have already begun to bloom, then the solution should be 2%.
- Scab. Its appearance can be triggered by frequent heavy fogs and precipitation, as well as excessive watering. A symptom is the formation of light green spots on the surface of leaves. To preserve the fruit, it is recommended to spray the tree with one of such preparations as Zircon, Vectra, or Skor.
- Apple moth. Laying eggs on young branches, eats leaves and buds. Leaves a web and lives in colonies. To combat it, it is necessary to treat the trees with a 3% Nitrafen solution at the onset of spring. In addition, you should spray with a 7% solution of Chlorophos or 2% solution of Zolon after the buds open.
Common apple diseases:
- Proliferation, or “witch's broom”. It provokes the rapid formation of side shoots. This entails a slowdown in fruiting and a lack of ripening. The fruits turn pale. Affected trees uproot.
- Powdery Mildew First, a white spider web forms on the leaves, then they dry out.Small dark dots appear on the fruits. To avoid this, it is recommended to plant trees, observing the interval between them. To combat powdery mildew, a fungicide solution is sprayed 3-5 times. This must be done once every 12-15 days throughout the summer.
- "Rust". The leaves of the tree are covered with a characteristic brown coating. To combat the disease, it is recommended to treat the plant with Bordeaux liquid, sulfur or “Haupsin”.
Most fungal diseases are treated early with fungicides, such as Karbofos, Bordeaux liquid, or Nitrafen.
If the apple tree is infected with a viral disease, then it is better to root out and dispose of it until the virus has spread throughout the garden.
Did you know? In New Zealand, the smallest apple bred. Its dimensions are 40-50 mm.
Harvesting and storage
Commercial maturity of apples occurs in the last decade of August. Its degree is affected by the region of growth and weather conditions.
One of the disadvantages of the plant is the short shelf life of the picked fruits (about 1 month), therefore it is recommended to use them for culinary purposes for the preparation of jams, preservation, stewed fruit, drying and jam.
You can also chop the apple and store it in a vacuum bag in the freezer. This will make it possible at any time to cook a frozen product and get a healthy drink.
Recommendations from experienced gardeners
Regarding planting and further care for apple trees, experienced gardeners recommend:
- If the garden has sandy soil, you can fill the bottom of the pit for planting with a layer of 10 cm loamy soil. At the same time, it must first be mixed with humus in equal proportions. This will facilitate the penetration of nutrients to the roots of the tree.
- Fresh manure and fertilizers containing nitrogen should not be used during planting so as not to increase the likelihood of seedling rejection.
- Spray the seedlings with a fungicide solution before the buds bloom. This will prevent the appearance of pests and diseases.
Important! Do not plant juniper next to the tree, because this can cause a “rust” disease.
Every gardener would like to get a good harvest of apples. For these purposes, many choose the Medoc variety. Observing the rules of planting and further care for the tree, you can get the desired result.