TOP 10 best varieties of cherries for planting in the suburbs
Growing cherries in the suburbs does not surprise anyone. But her sweet relative - cherries - is a rarer guest. Everything is explained by its thermophilicity. But, thanks to the efforts of breeders, more cold-resistant specimens are deduced, which will be discussed in the article.
Varieties of cherries for the suburbs
There are already a lot of such varieties, the most popular are listed below.
- The variety is characterized by such features:
- sweet cherry variety Bryanskaya pink reaches a height of 2.5 m, a pyramidal crown with branches of medium density;
- berries appear on the 4th year;
- small (4–5 g) fruits are pink in color, the flesh is yellow, the taste is sweet, with a small bitterness;
- pollinators are required, for which cherries of such varieties as Tyutchevka, Iput or Revna are well suited;
- blooms in early to mid-May, and berry ripening begins in late July and lasts until early August;
- when frozen to -5 ° C, up to 60% of the color is retained;
- low productivity, about 20 kg, and in very productive years - about 30–40 kg per tree;
- good resistance to cold;
- practically not affected by rot, moniliosis, coccomycosis and kleasterosporiosis;
- berries are well transported;
- the crop has universal application both in fresh form and for the preparation of compotes and other preparations.
- Along with a large number of advantages, there are several disadvantages:
- small fruit size;
- bitter taste of pulp;
- the need for pollinators (not a self-pollinated variety).
- This cherries captivates with the stability of the crop and its volumes. In addition, it is characteristic of:
- the first fruiting of sweet cherry - in 4–5 years after planting;
- early ripe plant (mid-June), tall (up to 4 m);
- from one tree you can collect up to 30-40 kg of crop;
- berries of rich burgundy color, the flesh is dense, dark in color, excellent taste and aroma;
- fruit weight - about 6 g, small stone;
- good winter hardiness and resistance to fungal diseases;
- as a pollinator, the Fatezh variety is used.
- Perhaps the only drawback of this cherry is the tendency of the berries to crack from an excess of moisture.
Did you know? Sweet cherries — good melliferous plants. Bees collect up to 35 kg of pollen from 1 ha of cherry plantations.
- Characteristic features of this variety are the absence of stipules and a concave leaf blade. It also has the following properties:
- bears fruit in the 3-4th year;
- late-ripening cold-resistant culture;
- medium-sized plant with an oval crown;
- yield indicator - from 20 to 25 kg per tree;
- large fruits (up to 8 g), dark red in color;
- the pulp is juicy and dense, with a slight acidity, is well separated from a small bone;
- has immunity to diseases characteristic of cherries, such as moniliosis and kleasterosporiosis;
- for pollination, cherries Tyutchevka, Ovstuzhenka or Revna are planted.
- The compactness of the crown and good resistance to cold (withstands up to -40 ° C) are the distinctive advantages of this grade. In addition, it has other features:
- Harvesting the first Ovstuzhenka crop — for the 4th or 5th year;
- early ripening of products (in the second half of June);
- average productivity - from 15 to 25 kg per one specimen;
- berries are large (up to 7 g), painted dark red, sweet, well transported;
- possesses resistance to coccomycosis and moniliosis;
- the fruits practically do not crack;
- the best pollinators are Raditsa, Iput, or Tyutchevka.
- The distinctive features of the cherries Odrinka include:
- medium-sized tree with a sparse crown;
- productivity - up to 30–35 kg per tree;
- the mass of berries is about 6 g, the color is dark red;
- the pulp is sweet, dense and tender;
- the fruits reach technical maturity in late July;
- It has good cold resistance and immunity to diseases.
- In the description of cherries of this variety there are such characteristics:
- medium-sized tree (up to 3 m);
- the first fruiting of this cherry is in the 4th – 5th year;
- in early May - the flowering period, and ripening - the second half of June;
- berries of bright ruby color, weighing up to 4-5 g, have an excellent sweet delicate taste and universal application;
- from 1 ha of plantings you can get up to 60 centners of the crop;
- for pollination, Hyput or Revna are planted;
- moderate frost resistance;
- It has 100% immunity to moniliosis and coccomycosis and 50% to kleasterosporiosis.
- The disadvantage of this cherry is its poor resistance to drought. The tree requires regular watering, but does not tolerate an excess of moisture, which causes cracking of berries.
Did you know? In the XVII century. there was a hybrid of cherries with cherries, which was called "duke." I.V. Michurin brought out in 1888 the first Russian duke, dubbed Krasa Severa.
- This culture loved by many gardeners is characterized by the following differences:
- a tree with a pyramidal crown has compact dimensions up to 3–3.5 m;
- the fruiting period, as in most sweet cherries, is 4–5th year after planting;
- ripening occurs in the last decade of June and the first decade of July;
- annual stable yield, reaching 25-30 kg per tree;
- the berries are small (4-5 g), but have a sweet and pleasant aroma, the skin is dark red;
- products are stored for a long time without loss of presentation and are well transported;
- tolerates spring cooling to -5 ° C;
- the variety is not affected by hole blotch and other characteristic diseases;
- yields increase when pollinators such as Iput, Tyutchevka, Kompaktnaya or Venyaminova are available.
- For this mid-season sweet cherry, the following symptoms are characteristic:
- medium-sized plant (up to 3–3.5 m) with a pyramidal crown;
- the first crop can be harvested after 5 years;
- blooms in the second half of May, and ripening occurs on the border of June-July;
- the amount of production from one tree is about 30 kg;
- berries weighing 5-6 g have a rich dark red color and a sweet dessert flavor, the oval bone is well separated from the pulp;
- good winter hardiness (freezing of wood up to 0.2 points is possible);
- plantations of cherries of the varieties Ovstuzhenka, Teremoshka, Poetry, and some others are used as pollinators;
- fruits are well transported and stored.
- The variety is characterized by short stature (2–2.5 m), as well as the following characteristics:
- wide-rounded crown;
- fruiting begins in the 4th year;
- berries (5-6 g) have a dark red color and a very sweet taste, almost do not crack with an excess of moisture;
- the flowering period falls on the second decade of May, and ripening - in mid-July;
- average productivity indicators - about 50-60 kg / ha;
- dense pulp and dry separation of fruits provide a long shelf life and good transportation;
- drought tolerance and frost resistance are average;
- It has good resistance to moniliosis and coccomycosis, as well as medium resistance to clasterosporiosis.
- This new and unusual variety has the following characteristics:
- medium-sized tree has a spherical lush crown;
- enters the fruiting period on the 4th – 5th year;
- harvesting falls on the first days of July;
- has a good yield - about 40 kg per instance;
- dark red berries (weighing up to 7 g) with dark subcutaneous points are considered the best in terms of taste, the bone separates well from the pulp, the fruits do not sprinkle from the branches;
- the tree is considered to be self-fertile, but, like most sweet cherries, it better forms a crop in the presence of pollinators (Raditsa or Ovstuzhenka);
- the tree is frost-resistant and is immune to hole blotch.
Basic landing rules
Proper planting will be the key to good tree growth and a plentiful harvest. At the same time, the choice of high-quality planting material is not the last one:
- sweet cherry seedlings must be purchased either in nurseries or in garden centers;
- it is necessary to verify the presence of the vaccination site, which will indicate that the plant is a varietal;
- the seedling must have a tag with information about the variety;
- the easiest to take root are annual plants with a height of about 1 m and a stem diameter of 2–2.5 cm;
- the seedling should not have any damage (wounds, cracks, etc.);
- the roots should be moist, and if they are slightly dried, then they should be kept in water before planting;
- during transportation, the roots are wrapped in a damp cloth.
When choosing a place for growing cherries, the following points are taken into account:
- it is necessary to choose areas well lit and protected from wind and draft;
- soil acidity should be moderate (with increased acidity, dolomite flour or lime is added to the soil in the fall and dug up);
- for good development, light fertile loams or sandy loam soils are required;
- sandy soils, peat bogs or marshy areas are not suitable for growing this fruit crop;
- it is undesirable to place plums, pears or other fruit trees nearby, but it is better to plant 2-3 varieties of cherries, which will serve each other as pollinators.
Decide on when it is better to plant cherries, based on the region. So, for such cool areas as the Moscow region, the best time for planting is spring. The best period is when the threat of frost passes, but the kidneys still do not swell. Autumn planting is undesirable due to the possibility of freezing growths, which in young seedlings often grow to 1 m.During spring planting, the pit is prepared from the fall. When digging, you need to make about 10 kg / 1 m² of rotted compost or manure.
The landing process itself consists of several stages:
- The planting pit corresponds to the size of 60 × 80 cm, and the depth is about 60 cm. The upper, darker layer of soil is laid in one direction, and the lower, lighter, in the other.
- A stake is driven into the bottom and a third hole is filled with a mixture of the upper fertile soil layer, 1 bucket of compost, 50 g of potassium sulfate and 100 g of superphosphate.
- In the center they make a hill and sprinkle with earth without fertilizers.
- The roots of the seedling are placed on a hill and evenly distributed on the surface.
- Pour 2-3 buckets of water.
- The pit is covered with fertile soil to the root neck and trampled.
- From the lower layer of the earth, a root hole is formed in a near-trunk circle.
- A bucket of water is poured into the hole and mulched with straw or mowed grass.
- The tree is tied to a peg.
Important! A root neck buried in the ground can cause a delay in the first appearance of the fruit.
Further care of seedlings
In the early years, a young seedling needs to be provided with competent care. One of the most important points is watering, which, you must remember:
- a lack of moisture causes a decrease in yield, and an oversupply causes cracking and rotting of fruits;
- the first plentiful watering is carried out in May, when the plant intensively builds up green mass;
- the second watering is approximately carried out in June, during the pouring of berries (adult tree): the seedling is watered several times, guided by the weather, so that there is no drying out of the soil;
- the last plentiful watering occurs in the fall (before the cold) to help the sapling favorably overwinter;
- it is undesirable to irrigate during the flowering period, when the crop ripens and in August (it will provoke strong shoot growth and reduce winter hardiness);
- To limit the rapid evaporation of moisture and drying out of the soil, it is recommended to mulch the trunk circle.
- In the first year the growth of sweet cherries is not carried out to enable the young tree to grow stronger.
- In the second year (early spring) in each tier leave 4-5 branches (50 cm long).You need to try to leave branches that are located at the same distance from each other. The main trunk is cut so that its top is 20 cm above the top of the longest side branch.
- In the third year branches of the lower tier are cut to the length of the shortest of them. The second tier is cut 10 cm shorter than the bottom. The main trunk is left 50 cm longer than the branches of the 2nd tier; it should have about 6 buds to form the 3rd tier. At the same time, all branches growing incorrectly are cut (directed inward or vertically).
- For the fourth year carry out the last stage of the forming crop. The main trunk is cut to a constant (appropriate grade) height. The shoots of the 2nd and 3rd tier are shortened to 80 cm, and the first - up to 50 cm. Incorrectly growing shoots are also removed.
Important! If root growth grows from the site of vaccination, then it must be removed at the very base.
- On the 2nd year the trunk circle is fertilized with urea (120 g per 1 specimen), which is closed 10 cm deep. Before top dressing, the plant needs to be watered.
- On the 3rd year use the same fertilizer.
- On the 4th a year around the perimeter of the border of the crown make a circular groove (up to 25 cm deep). In the spring, along with watering, about 150 g of urea is added to it. In autumn, according to the same principle, top dressing with superphosphate (300 g) and potassium sulfate (100 g) is carried out.
- In the spring of the fifth year the cherries are fed with ammophos (30 g / 10 l), and in autumn, 15–20 kg of humus are added.
- In subsequent years 150–200 g of urea are introduced into a circular furrow in the spring, and 35–40 kg of humus in the autumn.
Harvesting, transportability and storage
Gathering the fruits of cherries, you must adhere to certain rules:
- you can not collect unripe or overripe berries, this negatively affects their taste;
- the collection is carried out during the period of technical maturity (it is easiest to determine the stage of ripeness by tasting);
- cherry, collected for sale and storage, unlike the other stone fruits, breaks down with the stalk.
If the fruits immediately after harvest, cool to a temperature of 0 ... + 4 ° C, then they can be stored for up to 1-2 weeks. Storage in perforated polyethylene packaging in which high humidity is maintained also extends the storage period.
Having figured out what kind of sweet cherry to plant and how to grow it correctly, even a novice gardener will have no difficulty getting a good and tasty sweet berry crop.