The best varieties of eggplant for polycarbonate greenhouses
Growing eggplant in a summer cottage is not an easy task. This is one of the most capricious vegetable plants, requiring high-quality and regular care. It somewhat simplifies the process of growing "little blue ones" - planting them in a greenhouse. The article discusses the varieties most suitable for cultivation in protected ground conditions.
The best varieties of eggplant for the greenhouse
The choice of eggplant varieties for growing in greenhouse constructions is large. As a rule, tall plants are not cultivated in them, varietal specimens with medium and low growth are selected. Below you will find the ten most productive varieties of different ripening periods.
Did you know? Eggplant cultivation began about 1.5 thousand years ago in the countries of the Middle East, South Asia and India. This process is described in ancient Sanskrit texts.
The plant bears fruit in the early stages - from planting seedlings to the fruiting phase, 120 days pass. Bushes in eggplant Romantic are medium in height, reach 1.2–1.7 m. They are sprawling, have an average number of leaves.
The fruits are elongated-oval. The mass of one instance is 180–280 g, length - 18 cm. Their skin is purple with a pink tint. The inside is soft, white.
- The main characteristics of the variety:
- stably brings a large number of fruits;
- eggplant with high taste and attractive presentation;
- has a high rate of regrowth of shoots.
A distinctive feature of this variety is that the fruits are formed on the hands. From 3 to 7 eggplants in the form of an ellipse of bright purple color may appear on one brush. Each “blue” weighs 50–130 g and has a length of 10–17 cm. Their skin is thin, the pulp is dense, white.
Plants bear fruit 85–100 days after the appearance of the sprouts. The bushes extend in length to 0.8–1.3 m. They are well resistant to tobacco mosaics and are not prone to showers of inflorescences.
Hybrid mid-early ripening. Fruits appear after 90-105 days from germination. The plant is characterized by stable and high productivity. The fruits are oval-cylindrical, very large, weighing 250-300 g, up to 20 cm long. Their skin is thin, dark purple, shiny. The inside is light, it tastes tender, without bitterness. The seeds in it are small.
Among the advantages of this variety, early fruiting (after 95–110 days), high and stable productivity, resistance to falling flowers, resistance to infection by tobacco mosaic, good adaptation to the environment, and friendly ripening are distinguished. The average yield of a variety is 9.8–12.2 kg per 1 m².
Bushes are medium in size - 1.2–2.2 m in height, depending on growing conditions. Fruits are elliptical in shape, weighing 450-500 g, and a length of 20 cm. Their skin is smooth, dense, and purple. The inside is bright and tasty.
Variety with a medium early ripening period - the fruits appear after 120–125 days. The bushes of the plant are medium in height (0.8–1.4 m), sprawling, have a small number of leaves.
Did you know? Eggplant hit Europe in the middle of the 15th century. But Europeans learned to cook them only 4 centuries later.
Fruits in the form of ovals. They reach a mass of 500–900 g and a length of 13–16 cm. The skin is colored purple and pink. The inner part is dense, bright.
The namesake eggplant can be stored for a long time and well transported. They are characterized by excellent taste and are suitable for any purpose in cooking
Like the previous variety, this hybrid belongs to medium-early eggplant. Fruit harvesting is carried out 120-130 days after emergence. The bushes are characterized by strong growth (1.8–3 m), a large number of leaves, and a powerful crown.
Eggplants are shaped like cylinders. They are large and heavy - with a length of 30 cm and a weight of 400-500 g.The skin is dark purple. There are rare spikes on it. The interior is light with a green tint.
- Advantages of the hybrid are:
- stable and high productivity;
- prolonged fruiting;
- large, smooth and tasty fruits;
- density of pulp and peel, which allows transporting eggplant over long distances;
- good adaptive qualities;
- resistance to tobacco mosaic.
From the Fabin hybrid, you can get fruits in the early stages - in just 2.5-3 months. The variety is great for growing in the north, northwest.
Its bushes are not high - up to 45–60 cm. From one bush at a time, 6 to 8 “blue” ones may appear in the form of elongated cylinders 20–23 cm long and weighing 350–400 g. Their rind is thin. The inside is white-green, characterized by density. The fruits are tasty, without bitterness.
The advantages of the hybrid include stable yield of 6 kg / 1 m², long-term fruiting, which can last until November, stable immunity to verticillous withering and spider mites.
The variety is considered to be high-yielding: on the average, 3 kg of fruits are harvested from one bush 110–150 days after germination, and 12 kg from one hundredth.The fruits of the variety resemble pears in shape. The mass of each is from 110 to 200 g, the length is 17–18 cm. Their peel is thin, with gloss, painted in dark purple or brown-purple. The inside is light yellow or light green. It is distinguished by density, excellent taste. There is no bitterness in it. A little seed.
Bushes of the handsome Black grow medium in height - about 65–70 cm
Robin Hood eggplant ripening occurs 3–3.5 months after the seedlings have sprouted. On one bush, a lot of large fruits are tied, weighing 200–300 g, 16–20 cm long. They are pear-shaped in shape. The color is lilac. There are thorns on the skin.
Bushes of the Robin Hood variety are low, with a small amount of foliage. They are ideal for growing in greenhouse conditions. Plants are characterized by good adaptive abilities. Their productivity is 7-12 kg / 1 m². Eggplant of this variety is universal in application.
The bushes of this plant grow medium in height - up to 1.5 m. There is not much foliage on them. Fruits are formed on 120-130 days. They are unusual for spherical eggplants and very heavy. They weigh 600–700 g. In volume, they reach 14 cm, in length - 12 cm.
The peel of them is dark purple, dense, with rare spikes. There are many positive reviews about the taste of these eggplants. The advantages of the variety are also classified as resistance to spider mite attacks and tobacco mosaic damage.
The main rules for sowing seeds for seedlings
Eggplant should be planted in seedlings. Sowing of seeds is carried out from late February to early March. Before placing the seed in the soil, it must be properly prepared: disinfect, germinate and harden.
For disinfection, the seeds are soaked for half an hour in a solution of potassium permanganate, and after washing, for a day in a solution of wood ash (1 tsp / 1 l of water at a temperature of + 25 ... + 28 ° C) or nitrophoska, potassium humate. Previously, they are wrapped in gauze.
Germination is carried out after washing. Seeds are placed in high humidity and a temperature of + 25 ... + 30 ° C.
Hardening is carried out by placing seeds for two days on the lower shelf of the refrigerator and for one day in a room with a temperature of + 25 ... + 30 ° С. This alternation of temperatures is performed twice.
After such a comprehensive preparation, the seeds are sown in containers (boxes, trays, peat or plastic cups, cassettes) filled with soil purchased in the store or mixed from river sand, low peat, compost (1: 4: 3), humus, turf, rotted Mullein (8: 2: 1), humus and peat (2: 1). Self-made soil is subject to mandatory disinfection.
Important! Since eggplant sprouts have brittle roots, it is advisable to sow the seeds in separate containers to prevent picking and possible damage during transplantation.
When planting, 2-3 seeds are planted in each container. Depth of embedding - 2 cm. Crops should be covered with a film and placed in temperature + 25 ... + 30 ° С. Before the shoots appear, they are regularly ventilated and moisturized. After the appearance of seedlings, after about 5-6 days, the shelter is removed. The temperature before moving into the greenhouse is maintained at + 14 ... + 16 ° C during the day and + 10 ... + 12 ° C at night. Daylight hours should last at least 12 hours.
Sprouts need to be fed twice. The first time - when 2 sheets appear, the second - after 2 weeks
Disembarkation and further care
Planting seedlings in closed ground should be done when the soil is warmed up to + 15 ° C, and air - up to + 18 ° C. The soil should be leveled and the holes dug to a depth of 10-15 cm. The recommended planting pattern is on one line, with a distance between plants of 45 cm, between rows - 60 cm.
Landing is as follows:
- 2 hours before moving to the soil, moisten the soil well under the sprouts.
- Sprouts are removed from containers without destroying the earthen lump.
- Install an earthen lump in the hole.
- Empty the voids with soil.
- Produce watering.
Important! At temperatures above + 35 ° C, eggplants die, below + 13 ° C — stop growing.
Eggplants are water-loving plants, so watering is very important for them. It must be produced with strictly warm water at a temperature not lower than + 25 ° C, otherwise the development of fungal diseases or developmental disorders is possible.
The first watering is needed 5 days after planting seedlings. Volumes must be adjusted so that moisture penetrates 20 cm deep. Before fruiting, the recommended amount of watering is 1 time per week. After fruiting - 2 times.
After 12-24 hours after watering, it is necessary to carry out loosening to a depth of 3-5 cm
For greenhouse eggplants, 3-5 feeding is required. The first time fertilizer is applied 15–20 days after planting seedlings. Before fruiting, complex fertilizers are used, for example, “Mortar”, “Kemira station wagon”. After the appearance of the fruit, they switch to a mixture of ammonium nitrate (1 tsp) and superphosphate (1 tbsp.).
Important! In order to prevent a strong increase in humidity, the development of diseases and the invasion of insects, it is necessary to regularly air the greenhouse. In this case, you must ensure that there are no drafts.
Before harvesting, it is recommended to add potassium sulfate (1 tsp). From organics, you can use mullein, fermented grass, wood ash. Plants develop best if they are alternately fertilized with organic and mineral mixtures.
Video: Fertilizing eggplant in a greenhouse
Another obligatory procedure for caring for the “blue ones” in the greenhouse is the garter to the trellis. Only low-growing varieties do not need a garter, from which it is enough to remove excess shoots.
Features of harvesting and storage of crops
Harvesting the "little blue ones", which are planned to be eaten or canned, is carried out at the moment when they reach technical maturity. You can determine it by reading the information from the originator about the variety that you grow. Ready-to-harvest fruits must reach the specified length and color. In addition, they must contain underdeveloped seeds.
Eggplant is cut with a knife or secateurs.
If you plan to store the fruits, then samples are selected that have a dense peel, without spots, damage, scratches, dents, rot. Eggplants should be stored in wooden or plastic boxes by shifting with straw or parchment or wrapping with paper.Long-term storage is carried out in cold and humid conditions - at a temperature of 0 ... + 2 ° C and humidity 80–90%.So, you have familiarized yourself with the most productive eggplant varieties that are suitable for growing in protected ground. In order for the plants to grow well and bring a high-quality crop, it is important to follow the recommendations on their agricultural technology.