Features of planting and further care for cherries Bryanochka
For a long time, cherries were grown only in the southern regions, where winters are mild and not frosty. But through the efforts of breeders over many years, winter-hardy hybrids have been bred that easily tolerate the cool climate of the central and northern regions. The Bryanochka variety also belongs to them, the features of which you will learn from this article.
Botanical description and characterization of the variety
Bryansk scientists from the Lupine Research Institute worked on the creation of a late variety of cherries. They crossed the Red Dense and CH 8-14. As a result, a frost-resistant and late-ripening variety Bryanochka appeared, which in 2006 was included in the State Register of the Russian Federation.
Did you know? Cherry is used to make food coloring, but not red, but green.
Bryanochka trees grow medium height, the maximum height is 4 m. Fertile age begins 3-4 years after planting. Spreading branches form a rounded oval crown. The leaves are large, oval in shape with pointed tips and jagged edges.Inflorescences are formed from three buds that bloom in white or with a pink hue.
Thin foliage, which is an advantage. The unfrozen crown is well ventilated, and each berry receives enough sunlight, which contributes to better ripening of the fruits.
Description of Bryanochka berries:
- weight - 4–7 g;
- diameter - 2 cm;
- wide heart-shaped with a flat base;
- the skin is dense, saturated red;
- the pulp is red, dense, juicy;
- the bone is small, well separated from the pulp;
- the taste is sweet, the rating is 4.7 points (according to a 5-point system);
- perfectly tolerate transportation;
- they are eaten fresh, and are also used for the preparation of desserts, juices, compotes, jams, jams and preserves for the winter.
- sugar - 11.7%;
- acids - 0.24%;
- Vitamin C - 15.6 mg / 100 g;
- solids - 17.8%.
Bryanochka, like most other cherry varieties, is a self-infertile plant. So, for normal fruiting, it needs pollinating neighbors. For this purpose, any other variety that blooms at the same time as Bryanochka at the end of May is suitable. Varieties Tyutchevka, Iput and Veda will best cope with the role of a pollinator.Gardeners recommend planting the desired variety at the same time as the pollinator.Simultaneous flowering contributes to uniform pollination, and, accordingly, to better fruiting.
The first berries on the seedling will appear in the 4th year after planting. Full fruiting begins from the 5th year. Ripening of fruits later, in late July - early August. This is a plus, because You can enjoy juicy sweet berries when other varieties have already departed.A young tree brings 20–25 kg of berries, annually increasing productivity.
In the absence of spring frosts from one adult tree, you can collect 40-50 kg of sweet cherry. On an industrial scale, Bryanochka shows an average yield of 90–300 c / ha.
A significant advantage of Bryanochka is frost resistance. The tree withstands frosts down to -30 ° C with minimal losses. It also easily tolerates sudden changes in temperature.
Important! Spring frosts from -3 ° C during flowering pose a serious danger. Under such conditions, you can lose up to 75% of the crop.
Advantages and disadvantages
Although the variety is quite young, it has already managed to get a lot of positive reviews from both private gardeners and large farmers.
- The advantages of Bryanochka they rank:
- resistance to frost and drought;
- late ripening of fruits;
- excellent taste;
- widespread use;
- good presentation;
- excellent transportability;
- immunity to diseases (coccomycosis, moniliosis, kleasterosporiosis);
- unpretentiousness in leaving.
- There are, of course, a few disadvantages. These include:
- the need for pollinators;
- beginning of fruiting only from the 4th year.
Preparation for landing
Cherry cultivation - a long-term project. Therefore, you need to carefully prepare for its landing: choose the right place and the best planting material, as well as determine the correct landing dates.
Choosing the best seedlings for planting
When choosing a seedling, you need to pay attention not only to the beautiful appearance. Only a quality tree in the future will bring a good harvest of delicious berries.
Criterias of choice:
- on the trunk, the site of vaccination is clearly visible (sign of variety);
- many branches;
- one conductor, not branched, strong, without damage;
- if there are leaves, they must be healthy, without signs of illness, then they must be removed;
- the root system is intact, strong, not dry, but moist.
In order for the tree to tolerate transportation well, it is recommended to wrap the root with a damp cloth, and on top with a plastic bag.
Choosing the right place on the site
Sweet cherry is a sun-loving and drought-tolerant plant. Therefore, the landing site must be carefully selected. The plot is suitable if:
- it is sunny and closed from cold winds;
- flat place, hill, gentle slope, where rainwater does not stagnate and there is no groundwater;
- the soil is not peaty, clayey or sandy, but fertile loamy and sandy loamy.
15–20 days before planting, the land needs to be prepared. For spring planting, it is advisable to prepare in the fall. Preparation includes deep digging with the simultaneous introduction of organics (humus or compost) and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers (superphosphate and potassium salt). You can use a special top dressing for cherries and cherries.Acidic soil must be liming, as cherries may not take root at all.
High acidity can be determined by abundantly growing sorrel and plantain. Lime is not added with fertilizers, but later. You can not make it during planting, so as not to burn the roots of the plant. It is best to liming the week before planting.
In different regions, sweet cherries are planted at different times. Timing depends on climate and weather conditions. In southern regions with mild winters, it is better to plant seedlings in the fall a month before the soil freezes. Plants have time to take root and calmly tolerate winter temperature drops. And in the central and northern regions, it is advisable to engage in planting in early spring, when the land is already warming up. It is important to plant a seedling before the buds swell on it. During the spring-summer period, the tree will grow stronger and gain strength for the upcoming harsh wintering.
Step-by-step landing instructions for beginners
It is advised to cook the pit in advance, 2 weeks before planting. It is necessary to dig a recess with a diameter of 80 cm and a depth of 60 cm. The excavated earth must be mixed with fertilizers (compost, ash, superphosphate and sulfuric potassium). This is especially important if the soil has not been fertilized since autumn. The prepared earth mixture must again be returned to the pit.
Before planting, you need to inspect the roots of the seedling and trim dry, weak and damaged processes. Then they need to be soaked for a couple of hours in water, dry roots - for 10-12 hours. If the earth was lime, then the root system must be immersed in clay or earth slurry to protect against burns.
Next, you must act in the following order:
- Dig the ground out of the prepared pit again.
- Drive a peg whose height above the ground will be 50 cm in order to attach a tree trunk to it.
- At the bottom of the pit pour a mound of fertilized earth.
- Lower the seedling inward, spreading the roots from above on the knoll. The root neck should rise 5 cm above the ground.
- Cover the rest with earth, tamping well so that there are no air chambers.
- A roundabout circle with a radius of 30 cm is delineated by a moat for the upcoming irrigation.
- Pour a bucket of water and cover the ground with peat mulch.
Important! Bryanochka sweet cherry is a rather tall tree and needs a lot of sunlight. Therefore, the seedling must be planted at a distance of 5 m from other trees.
Features of seasonal care
Correct and timely agricultural practices when caring for cherry trees contribute to the full development of the tree, strengthening its immunity and obtaining a plentiful harvest. Such mandatory techniques include watering, loosening, top dressing, pruning, preventative treatment and shelter for the winter. The technique of their implementation may vary depending on the season and age of the tree.
Bryanochka does not like too much moisture. Therefore, do not water it often. And in the rainy season, you can completely do without watering. In dry times, you will need to water the plant 4-5 times. It is important to ensure that the tree receives enough moisture during critical periods of vegetation:
- in the spring during swelling of the kidneys;
- at the beginning of flowering;
- with the formation of ovaries;
- Autumn before wintering.
At the same time, weed grass with roots should be removed. This will protect the tree from fungal infections and insects that damage the root system. It is also important to mulch the root zone with a layer of peat, sawdust or dry grass.
If enough nutrients were introduced into the pit before planting, then they will last for the first 3 years. Starting from the 4th year, top dressing is applied 3 times per season together with watering:
- at the beginning of the growing season - nitrogen fertilizer, for example, urea;
- when the fruits are tied - humus with phosphorus-potassium supplements;
- in the fall - a complex fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
Do not wait until the tree becomes sick or begins to suffer from pests. It is better to take care of his protection in advance. Preventive treatment is carried out twice a season:
- in the spring after warming the air to +15 ... + 18 ° С - spraying with a solution of copper sulfate or urea and whitewashing the trunk with skeletal branches;
- in late autumn - whitewashing of the stem and the base of the branches, as well as the treatment of the pericarpus with special insecticides that will protect the root in winter from pests.
Pruning is necessary for all fruit trees, including cherries. The plant is cut for sanitary purposes and to form the correct crown. Formative pruning is carried out in the spring before buds open in several stages:
- when landing, the central conductor is shortened by 60 cm, in the future, you can also control its height;
- the first 4 years leave the strongest skeletal branches, which form 3-4 tiers of 4 branches each, and the rest are cut off;
- in subsequent years, they simply remove new shoots, leaving only skeletal and semi-skeletal branches.
All sections should be immediately treated with garden varnish to protect against infections.A necessary measure is also the removal of shoots, as it takes nutrients from the mother tree, which reduces yield. Pruning the aerial parts of the pruner will not give the desired result. It is best to dig a spade with a shovel to the junction with the mother horizontal root and cut it completely, without leaving a hemp, a shovel or an ax. The resulting cut should be greased with garden varieties and the foundation should be covered with earth.
Bryanochka is frost-resistant. Therefore, an adult tree does not need insulation for the winter.For him, the preparatory measures described above will suffice: autumn whitewashing of the trunk, abundant winter irrigation and complex top dressing. Young trees, especially younger than 3 years old, are preferably insulated. For this, burlap and coniferous spruce, which wrap the stem, are perfect. They will serve as reliable protection against frost and rodents.
Important! It is advisable to use not synthetic, but natural materials for insulation. Otherwise, the bark will start to rot and rot.
Pest and Disease Control
Bryanochka has strong immunity and does not suffer from many diseases characteristic of cherries. But with inadequate care or bad weather, the tree weakens and can be affected by coccomycosis, kleasterosporiosis, moniliosis or scab. At the first signs of the disease, therapeutic spraying should be carried out in 2-3 stages of the tree itself and the trunk circle. For this, solutions of copper or iron sulfate, Bordeaux fluid, and special preparations (Hom, Kaptan, Nitrafen) are used.
Cherry aphids and cherry moths, sapwood, weevil, hawthorn and mucous sawfly are harmful pests. Urea solution is used for prophylactic treatment, and spraying with special insecticides is used for control.
Harvesting and storage
Sweet cherry Bryanochka ripen in late July - early August. This makes it possible to feast on sweet berries when the early and medium grades have already departed. Thanks to the dense skin, intact berries easily tolerate long transport and long storage. Also, cherries make blanks in the form of jam, compotes, juices, which can be stored until the next harvest and longer.To keep the berries fresh all winter, they are frozen.
Sweet Bryanochka - A good choice for both a small and a large garden. It will complement the collection of early and medium varieties and provide delicious berries in late summer.