The main features of the planting and care of cherries Tyutchevka
Variety of cherries Tyutchevka gained popularity among gardeners. To grow this variety at home, you need to know its main characteristics, carefully choose the seedlings, and also observe the rules of planting and further care of the plant. You will learn about these and other details from the article.
Cherry Tyutchevka - a hybrid that was obtained by crossing grades 3–36 and Red Dam at the VNII Lupina. The creator of cherries Tyutchevka is the Russian breeder M.V. Kanshina. When creating a variety, its frost resistance, resistance to diseases, as well as the ability to plant a plant in the middle lane were taken into account.
Description and characteristics of the variety
Trees of this variety are small, with a round, sparse crown. The leaves are dark green, large, oval, the tip is pointed, the base of the leaf is rounded, has pigmentation along the entire length. Begins to bear fruit in the 5th year.Fruits cherries Tyutchevka dark red, round.
The berries weigh 5–7 g. The pulp is dark red, dense, juicy. The stone is oval, light brown. According to the taste scale, the fruits of this variety receive 4.9 points.
Cherry Tyutchevka contains the following substances:
- dry - 18%;
- sugar - 11%;
- ascorbic acid - 13.6 mg per 100 g.
Did you know? Food colors are made from cherries, while their color is not red, but green.
Adult tree height
Medium size adult trees, their height is 4–4.5 m. The small growth of the tree allows you to harvest delicious cherries without additional efforts. For a more convenient harvest and improve yield, sweet cherries should be formed at a young age by regular pruning.
The level of self-pollination in the Tyutchevka cherries is low, while only 6% of the fruits are tied on the tree, so it is necessary to plant pollinating trees nearby. Flowering in this variety begins in May.
To get a good harvest, cherries need to be planted next to such varieties:
- Bryansk pink;
Frost and drought resistance
The claimed variety withstands frosts down to -25 ° С, at -35 ° С open branches freeze slightly. This variety has moderate drought resistance and requires a sufficient amount of water. Lack of moisture leads to dropping of the ovary, which will affect the crop.
The first fruits of cherries Tyutchevka can be harvested for the 5th year after planting in late July. From a tree you can collect 40 kg of sweet cherry. Trees bear fruit for 20 years.
From Tyutchevka you can make jam, fruit drinks, preservation, berries can be frozen and delight yourself with sweet pastries in the winter.
Important! In rainy summer, the fruits of this variety crack.
The selection of quality seedlings for planting
When buying seedlings, you must carefully approach their choice and take into account the following points:
- Bark of tree must not have pronounced defects, signs of disease or scratches.
- Seedlings are better to choose abundantly branched, because with a large number of branches it is easier to form a regular crown in the tree. In this case, there should be a strong direct conductor, if it is weak, then strong branches will drown it during the growth period. You should not choose trees with two conductors, since during the fruiting period there may be a risk of a break between them, as a result of which the tree will die.
- The root system must be strong. You also need to inspect the roots, they must be fresh, without defects, with 3-4 strong processes 20–25 cm long. If there are leaves on the tree, they must be picked, because they will dehydrate the plant.
Preparatory work and choosing the right place
Before embarking on tree planting, you need to select and prepare a site. When choosing a place, it is necessary to provide for its lighting, soil, which is suitable for the declared variety.
Important! In order to preserve and not damage the root system of the tree during transportation, it must be wrapped in a damp cloth and rewound with oilcloth or polyethylene from above.
Cherries - a heat-loving plant, so the place on which it will grow should be well-lit and warm, without drafts. To prevent their appearance, you can plant near fences, buildings. In this case, it is necessary to observe the distance from the walls so that the roots are spacious and enough light gets on the tree.
The soil for planting this variety must be loose and nutritious. When choosing a site, it is necessary to provide for the location of groundwater, since stagnation of water will lead to root decay.
Did you know? Researchers proved that cherries came from cherries, and not vice versa, since this berry was known to mankind more than 10,000 years ago.
Planting cherries Tyutchevka is carried out in mid-autumn. When planting several trees, the distance between them should be 4–5 m. For 14 days before planting, you need to dig holes, during this time the soil will settle, and also place seedlings for 7 hours in a clay mixture or soak in a large container with water, this is necessary for leaching of an earthen coma and spreading of roots.
Then proceed according to this scheme:
- Prepare a pit with a diameter of 60 × 80 × 80 cm.
- When preparing the wells, the soil is divided into two parts: the upper layer is laid in one direction, and the lower layer in the other.
- Then it is necessary to make a support, for this a stake in the center of the hole is hammered.
- The top layer is combined with manure, 200 g of superphosphate, 60 g of sulfuric potassium and 500 g of ash.
- With this mixture, a hole is filled, while leaving 40 cm to the edges, a tree is planted at this level.
- Water abundantly.
- Make a mound of earth around the support.
- A sapling is placed on the mound and sprinkled with the remaining soil, while the plant should be gently shaken so that the soil fills the voids.
- Pour 10 liters of water and again sprinkle with soil, condense and water again.
Features of care for seedlings
Further care of the seedlings is the correct and regular application of fertilizer, watering, loosening the soil, pruning damaged branches and shelter for the winter.
Watering the seedlings is necessary 3 times per season: during the appearance of the ovaries, in the middle of summer and autumn. One tree will need 10-15 liters of water, and it is necessary to water directly on the root zone, that is, by the drip method.In the summer after watering or after precipitation after 24 hours, you need to loosen the soil, the depth of cultivation should be 8-10 cm.
This procedure is necessary for enriching the soil with oxygen, removing weeds and allows you to absorb more quickly, it is carried out 3-5 times a season.
In the first 3 years The tree does not need to be fed, because the soil that was added during planting has all the necessary minerals that the tree needs. In the 4th year after planting, you need to make a solution of chicken droppings and water (1:10) or mullein (1: 8).
Important! Humus and chicken droppings are used every 2 years, since excess fertilizer is harmful to the plant.
Pruning is done to form a crown and remove damaged branches. It must be carried out in early spring and late summer.
This procedure is carried out for several years:
- First year - it is necessary to form a crown; for this, 10 skeletal branches are cut at the same distance at a slope of 45 ° from the trunk.
- Second year - you need to remove growths to a size of 25 cm.
- Third year - it is necessary to cut the shoots on the branches so that their length is 30 cm.
- Fourth year - carry out sanitary pruning.
Despite the frost resistance of the claimed variety, young trees can hardly tolerate frosts, so they need to be prepared for this period. Young seedlings need to create a shelter. As a material, you can use:
Mature trees do not need special protection; they can be covered with sawdust and manure. To protect the plant from parasites and rodents, you can whitewash the trunk with slaked lime.
Pest and Disease Control
Despite the resistance to diseases, this variety can undergo a number of diseases and the appearance of parasites.
Cherry Tyutchevka may encounter such diseases:
- Kleasterosporiosis - a disease in which foliage is covered with brown spots, the fruits dry out, the bark cracks, gum flows out of it. To get rid of this disease, it is necessary to treat the plant and the soil around it with copper sulfate or “Nitrafen”. Then, after 14 days, you need to treat with 0.1% solution of boric acid, the drug "Topaz" or "Chorus".
- Moniliosis - a disease in which the plant withers, the branches begin to dry, and the fruits rot. With a severe lesion of moniliosis, the leaves begin to turn yellow early, as a result of which they fall. To protect the tree, they are treated with such preparations as Tsineb, Kuprozan, and a solution of boric acid. This procedure is carried out in early spring.
- Scab destroys berries and leaves, spots appear on them. To get rid of the disease, you should irrigate the cherry with “Nitrafen” until the buds open, after flowering, as well as harvesting.
- cherry aphids;
Harvesting, transportability and storage
Harvesting begins in early July. The average shelf life of the fruit, with heavy rains, the berries crack. Good transportability: the skin of the fruit, although thin, but perfectly protects them from damage.Sweet cherries are suitable for preparing various delicious desserts, and it can also be frozen.
Having familiarized yourself with the main characteristics, the rules for choosing a seedling, the characteristics of the plot, planting technology and further care for this variety, you can keep the tree healthy and delight yourself with delicious fruits. And keeping cherries in the freezer will allow you to enjoy delicious compotes, pastries and other sweets all year round.