Features of the cultivation and care of strawberries varieties Sashenka
Fragrant strawberries ripened in the sun, collected on their own site, will bring real pleasure. These delicious and fragrant berries are a traditional summer treat. The article introduces the strawberry variety Sashenka F1 and its cultivation methods.
Characterization and description of the variety
The variety of early-ripening remontant strawberries Sashenka F1 is a first-generation hybrid, as evidenced by the designation F1 in the name. Thanks to the development of modern breeders, the hybrid received high-yielding properties and excellent taste. The variety is one of the largest and early ripening for open ground.
Brings a crop in the first year, ripens in 40-50 days. The fruiting is long - from June to frosts, which immerse the plant in a dormant state.
The plant gives a lot of mustache shoots with rosettes during the season, which are easily rooted when in contact with the soil. The first 2-3 outlets are the largest. The roots on them are well formed, which makes it possible to immediately plant in the ground.
Seeds are small and tight. The reason for poor germination may be improper storage conditions - seeds require low storage temperatures. The average price of a package with seeds (15 pcs.) Is 60–80 rubles. Strawberry Sasha F1 has good taste and is universal in use.
Did you know? W. Shakespeare in his work "Othello" used strawberries as a symbolic decoration on Desdemona's scarf.
Bushes and fruits
The bush is compact, semi-spreading, up to 25-30 cm in height with light green triple leaves, densely pubescent from below. Petioles of leaves up to 10 cm long. Peduncles 20-30 cm long and located above the leaves. Usually, 4–8 peduncles with 4–10 flowers are formed on the bush.
The flowers are white, bloom sequentially. Flowering time is constant throughout the season. On the bush there are both flowers and ripe fruits.
Berries are large (up to 35 g), are formed in large numbers, ripen unevenly. Berries in young areas and ripened first are the largest and can be up to 50 g. Color - glossy, rich red both inside and outside. Even non-reddened berries have a sweet taste with a good sour-sweet balance. On the surface are yellow blotches of seeds.
The pulp is medium density, fragrant and sweet, so it is better to eat fresh berries. But culinary processing is also possible. The aroma and taste of berries depends on the intensity of sunlight, the amount of moisture and nutrients that the plant receives during growth.
Productivity and ripening dates
Fruits Sashenka F1 from June to autumn frosts. Flowering and fruiting periods depend on weather conditions - possible frosts can ruin the first flowers and buds.
With good agricultural technology, the yield is up to 2 kg of berries from each adult bush. The total yield for the season depends on the growing region - some berries (up to 20%) go unripe in winter in regions with early frosts. You can increase productivity by removing all mustaches from the bush, if they are not suitable for propagation.
The problem of frost resistance is solved by selection - the variety tolerates frosty winters well to –25 ... –30 ° C and does not freeze even without shelter with sufficient snow cover (up to 10 cm). The variety is drought tolerant and even leaves the leaves green during the hot months.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Hybrid can be evaluated by positive and negative characteristics.
- unpretentiousness in leaving in compliance with traditional procedures;
- resistance to adverse climatic conditions;
- prolonged and regular bearing;
- good consumer qualities and quick yield of berries;
- rarely affected by pests and diseases;
- profuse mustache formation;
- The culture is compatible with many garden plants.
- increased need for nutrients;
- hybridity does not allow you to independently receive seeds;
- no resistance to gray rot;
- frequent (every 3-4 years) change of cultivation sites.
Did you know? In Bavaria, an annual ritual is held of tying small baskets of strawberries to the horns of livestock as an offering to the elves. It is believed that elves will receive refreshments and help cows produce more milk and healthy calves in return.
Any variety eventually degenerates or is affected by diseases and pests. To breed new varieties and get healthy bushes with given varietal characteristics, it is necessary to grow plants from seeds. Strawberries grown in this way retain 95% grade and health. After planting the obtained seedling bushes into the ground, the plant quickly develops and gives many rosettes, which in the future can be used to create new plantations.
Gardeners who already cultivate Sashenka F1 in their areas note good seed germination, and further seedling cultivation does not cause problems.Strawberry seeds are small and tight.
When sowing them, the following conditions must be observed:
- only high quality seeds are sown, excluding expired and damaged ones;
- sowing depth - 3 mm;
- the soil must be compacted so that the seeds lie on the same level and do not fall below the required depth when watering under clods of soil.
You can sow seeds "in the snow", which eliminates deepening during sowing. The soil in seedlings is covered with a 1 cm layer of snow and seeds are sown from above. When the snow melts, the seeds go into the soil, which provides uniform seedlings and the desired depth of planting.
Further, to obtain strong seedlings, seeds are quenched using low temperatures and humidity - stratification. Seedling containers are placed in a cold place (refrigerator) for a month, then in a warm place, and wait for germination.
On average, it will take 2–4 weeks for stratification, another 2–4 weeks for germination, and 2–4 weeks before the appearance of three true leaves. From here, you can calculate the initial sowing dates for planting in open ground in March-April. Strawberry grown from seeds is always physiologically younger than propagated by rosettes, it is not infected with diseases and will bear fruit longer and more abundantly.
The time for planting seedlings in open areas depends on the region of cultivation. Usually this is April-May, when the threat of frost that can destroy the young shoots passes.
For vegetative propagation, choose the first 2-3 outlets on the July shoots, since only from them can the largest yield be obtained. For example, for the Moscow region, the mustache landing period is considered optimal - mid-July. Do not plant outlets in the fall. During this period, the mustache is sprinkled with earth, not separating from the mother plant, and left until spring.
Location and layout
The variety does not show special requirements for soil, it grows on any, not even the most fertile, but the best are loamy soils with a slightly acidic or neutral reaction (pH 5.5–7). If necessary, make changes to the soil before planting.
The soil should be crumbly, not too dense, not have large lumps and plant debris, and be slightly moistened. Before planting strawberries, the soil is mixed with peat, decomposed humus and compost (4-6 kg / m²).Then the site is dug up, carefully leveled and all weeds are raked.
Important! Planting strawberries in acidic soil increases the risk of fungal diseases, since fungal microorganisms multiply more intensively in such an environment.
Strawberry is a photophilous crop, but can withstand slight shading. It can be grown in the aisles of young gardens. Strong shading contributes to a good growth of green mass to the detriment of fruiting. The length of daylight is not important for the Sashenka F1 maintenance cultivar.
The planting site should be well-drained, so raised beds are a particularly good option for strawberries.Compliance with the correct crop rotation and the selection of predecessors for strawberries will avoid many dangerous lesions. You can not use places where solanaceous, pepper, raspberries grew. The predecessors may be leafy vegetables (parsley, spinach, dill), legumes (peas, beans), carrots, corn, black steam and even flowers. The place of growing strawberries is changed every 3 years, only during this period young and strong bushes give the maximum yield. The old bushes are dug up, and the place is planted with new outlets.
For the correct formation of the plantation, select 4 sites for strawberries, where you will transplant new bushes annually - this is how plantations of the first year are formed, then the second, etc.
With age, the strawberry bush rises above the ground, and the roots are exposed, so from the third year the bushes spud. It is better to take the soil not from the beds, but separately fertilized with organic matter or compost.
In the spring, plan and start planting as soon as the soil is slightly dry and it can be cultivated.It is desirable to select and plant new outlets annually in order to maintain the quality of berries at a high level every season. The first two outlets will give higher yields. Try to keep the distance between them about 25 cm, directing along the rows of planted plants and not separating from the mother plant to rooting. The remaining mustache should be removed.
Important! In the first year, it is desirable to remove the flowers to prevent fruiting. In this case, the plant will spend strength and nutrients on the development of healthy roots, and the yield will be much higher in the second year.
- Provide plenty of room for the strawberries for better care and easy access.
- The roots of the outlet should not be longer than 20 cm. Cut them if necessary.
- On the bed, make the planting holes deep and wide enough to fit the entire root system without bending it.
- Spread the roots in the hole and make sure that the roots are covered with earth and the root neck is at the level of the soil. If you plant strawberries too deep, it can rot, and if you leave the root neck high above the soil, the plant will dry out and die.
- Plant bushes according to the scheme: 25–30 × 70–80 cm.
- Compact the ground around the bushes and water well.
After planting in a permanent place, the first berries can be obtained in 1-2 months.
Further crop care
Caring for the crop consists in developing a regime of watering and fertilizing, protecting against pests and diseases, and properly preparing plants for winter.
Watering and fertilizer
Since 70% of strawberry roots are in the upper (8–10 cm) soil layer, they are especially prone to drying out. Moisture is incredibly important to such roots, and plants need a lot of water in the spring during the period of shoot growth and flowering, and then in the fall, when the plants become adults and go into a state of deep dormancy. Excess moisture will also not bring benefits - the root system can rot, and the berries will become watery and tasteless.In a dry spring, plantings with a water flow rate of 10 l / m² are watered, avoiding stagnation. Especially in need of irrigation are young seedlings that are watered with warm water (0.5 l per bush) for the first 2 weeks every 2 days. During fruiting, the soil should be moistened by 70%, and after harvesting, reduced to 60%. If the summer is rainy, then watering is completely stopped, and the plantings are covered with a thin transparent film.
Since Sashenka F1 blooms all season, drip irrigation is considered the most optimal, since it allows you to avoid getting water on leaves and flowers.
Mulching allows you to retain moisture in the soil, reduce weed growth and the spread of diseases. The modern black spunbond material will protect plantings from the airborne spread of fungal spores. You can use dry grass, bark, wood chips, sawdust with a layer of up to 10 cm. Covering the beds will prevent spraying of the earth during rains and during irrigation, as well as spoiling and pollution of the fruit.
Weeding is carefully done manually, especially in the first months after planting, as the sockets are still poorly rooted, and there is a risk of damage to small roots. Loosening is carried out to a depth of 7-8 cm.
Prolonged fruiting requires a lot of nutrients, and the variety needs frequent top dressing (1-2 times per month) with organic and mineral compounds. Since the berries are consumed fresh, do not feed during the harvest period.
Top dressing is done with fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and for each 1 m² add:
- in spring, at the first loosening, superphosphate (10–20 g), ammonium nitrate or ammonium sulfate (10–15 g), potassium chloride (5–10 g);
- in the phase of berry formation, superphosphate (25–30 g), ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride (10 g each).
Important! Excess nitrogen in the soil, with the uncontrolled introduction of organic matter or urea, can lead to gray rot disease in plants.
- phase of flowering and phase of formation of berries - top dressing with zinc sulfate (20%);
- in August-September, when laying flower buds (peduncles) - treatment with urea solution (0.3%).
Preparing for the winter
When the growing season ends, mow or cut the bushes to 2-3 cm in height, mulch the beds with a 10 cm layer of straw, needles, fallen leaves or other organic material. This must be done during the first frost, when the air temperature reaches –6 ° C. In early spring, the mulch is removed after the danger of freezing has passed.
Before winter, you should take care of laying a new site. If you do not delay the mustache planting and lay the plot in July, then the bushes will have time to create several horns (growth points) by winter, grow stronger and grow. This means that they will give in spring not one, but several peduncles, and the berry harvest will be plentiful.
Protection against diseases and pests
Covering the beds with covering material is a good option for protecting flowers and berries from birds. You can pull the wire along the beds and hang rustling films, shiny objects or bells on it. Mesh materials cannot always protect crops - birds peck berries through them.
Experienced gardeners share tips on protecting berries from birds - pull white twine over the bed. Birds are afraid of white. - fly up to the beds, but peck the berries are not solved. Another remedy is onion. It is enough to cut it and throw it on the beds. Some have puffed balloons with painted faces among the beds. From ants, it is advised to spray the places where insects accumulate with a solution of oil and vinegar, a solution of ammonia (8 g per 10 liters of water) or sprinkle aisle between the rows.Strawberries can be affected by diseases and pests.
Possible defeats and control measures:
- gray rot - biological products “Fitosporin”, “Fito-plus”, a solution of Bordeaux fluid (1%), timely eating berries, avoiding over-ripening on the bushes, good ventilation of the bushes, raising the beds above the ground;
- powdery mildew - “Topaz”, “Fundazol”, copper sulfate, Bordeaux mixtures.
- white and brown leaf spot - spraying with preparations "Zircon", "Fitosporin", a solution of Bordeaux fluid (1%);
- bugs and slugs - the use of sand mulch and pine needles can scare away pests;
- spider mites - chemicals Apollo, Neoron, Fosbetsid, colloidal sulfur (according to instructions); drugs are poisonous and use is possible only after fruiting;
- penny slobber - Pour bushes with hot (+ 65 ... + 70 ° С) bright pink potassium permanganate solution, the same method helps in the fight against ticks;
- nematodes - parasites that cause damage to all parts of the plant, in case of infection, you need to remove the bush and burn;
- weevils - spraying with a solution of the biological product "Fitoverm" or "Spark-bio", you can eat berries after 2 days.
- keep the beds clean and free of weeds, plant debris;
- remove and burn plants with signs of damage;
- not to thicken plantings and improve the structure of the soil for aeration;
- timely feeding with nutrients;
- Use only healthy planting material to bookmark new sites.
Harvesting and storage
Berries are ready for harvesting 4-6 weeks after flowering. Collect only completely red (ripe) berries, preventing overriding. Collection is carried out every 2-3 days. Berries should be plucked or cut with scissors, do not pullotherwise, the roots of the plant may be damaged.
You can store the collected, but not washed berries in the refrigerator for several days (3-4), but the shelf life is short-lived, and it is better to immediately eat or process them. Strawberries can be frozen whole and stored for about 2 months.
With transportation of the crop there are no problems - dense berries do not crumple and do not flow.
Did you know? The full moon in June is called the Strawberry Moon, because the appearance of this Moon meant that it was time to pick ripe berries.
If you want to extend the strawberry season, the Sasha F1 variety will provide you with berries until the autumn frosts, and the taste and size of the berries will surprise and delight.