Features of growing strawberries in greenhouses all year round
Strawberries can be called everyone's favorite berry, because there is hardly a person who is indifferent to this delicacy. Modern chefs suggest using it not only for desserts, but also as components of various salads and decoration of main dishes. The popularity of the product has led to the fact that strawberries can be found on store shelves at any time of the year. This article will focus on year-round cultivation of berries in greenhouse conditions.
Can strawberries be grown all year round?
Growing strawberries throughout the year is possible in greenhouse conditions. There are certain requirements for planting material, soil and vegetation conditions, by fulfilling which you can get a high-quality high-yield crop. For example, the soil must be very fertile, since more than one crop of berries will be grown in it. In addition, not all strawberry varieties are suitable for year-round vegetation.
To get a good strawberry crop, regardless of the season, you have to create good conditions for its development
Experts offer a number of technologies that allow you to take a crop of berries in a greenhouse almost continuously. An important point is the need for fertilizers and special fertilizing, stimulating the growth and productivity of bushes.
Important! It is better to grow strawberries separately from other crops, having allocated a “personal” greenhouse for it, since this berry does not get along well with other neighbors.
Advantages and disadvantages of growing all year round
It is possible to grow strawberries continuously not only for your own needs, but also for sale.
- This is a great business that attracts entrepreneurs with the following points:
- high profitability, the level of which is in the range of 70-100%;
- berries are grown in conditions protected from bad weather, they are not afraid of rainfall;
- in polycarbonate greenhouses, the bushes receive a sufficient amount of light and heat, which allows them to actively grow and bear fruit;
- in stationary greenhouses there is the possibility of creating a unique microclimate regardless of the season, thanks to good thermal insulation;
- plants are protected from insects and pests.
- The disadvantages of greenhouse cultivation include:
- the need for an initial investment of funds in the construction of the greenhouse and its arrangement for year-round operation;
- the taste qualities of greenhouse berries in the “season” are inferior to those grown in the open ground, therefore, the realization of the crop during the period of mass ripening of the crop in summer cottages may be difficult;
- artificial pollination technology is an expensive procedure.
What strawberry fruit all year round
Before you start growing strawberries, you should choose a suitable variety for this, which should be:
- remontant - means that the berry culture can bring a crop several times a season, ripening occurs in waves;
- neutral, not long daylight hours;
- self-pollinated modern varieties.
Varieties of neutral daylight hours:
- resistant to fungal infections;
- do not depend on temperature fluctuations;
- maintain a presentation for a long time;
- can be transported successfully.
These varieties include:
- Everest - a hybrid with large berries, sweet and sour, juicy;
- Queen Elizabeth II. Bushes have a small number of mustaches and rosettes, sweet and fragrant berries. The variety requires a lot of moisture and has good immunity to fungal diseases;
- Albion. The fruits are elongated, bright red. The variety is resistant to root rot, bears fruit until frost;
- Aromas. The berries are medium in size, very airy, without voids;
- Selva - It is recommended to grow in weeping form. Fruits are large with dense pulp. The variety is resistant to diseases of the root system and leaves;
- Lyubava - variety recommended for vertical cultivation, drought tolerant. The berries ripen “in a friendly manner” and have a pleasant aroma.
|The following varieties are popular for growing in a greenhouse:||For the cultivation of strawberries by distillation, it is recommended to use varieties:|
Variety of technologies
Modern gardeners have a large selection of strawberry varieties that can bear fruit throughout the year. Also, to obtain a permanent crop, many technologies are used.
The most popular is Dutch. For its implementation, special facilities must be created in the greenhouse conditions that are necessarily maintained throughout the growing period:
- temperature condition.
Important! You can continuously get strawberries by planting early ripe, mid-ripening and late ripening varieties in your greenhouse.
It is thanks to the creation of a special microclimate in the greenhouse that berries are grown regardless of the season.
This article will focus on such methods as:
- a method based on the repair properties of berries;
- groundless strawberry growing technology.
To increase productivity, strawberries are placed in several tiers
Following this method, the growing process consists of the following stages:
- The purchase of seedlings.
- Planting it in a pre-prepared greenhouse.
- Growing to fruiting.
- Cleaning of vegetation and used soil.
- Substrate update.
- Planting a new batch of strawberry seedlings.
The essence and profitability of distillation is to collect the first wave of the crop, after which there is a complete replacement of plant material. The soil on the greenhouse beds is completely renewed, since it has exhausted its nutritional resource, and the introduction of nutrients by fertilizing is not economically viable.
For growing using this method, small containers are used, most often:
- plastic bags.
Since seedlings are replaced after each harvest, it is necessary to ensure the supply of the next batch of seedlings for further planting. For this purpose, use "Frigo" seedlings, the cultivation of which are engaged in many agricultural companies. It is stored under special conditions and can be planted at any time for 7–9 months, and harvest 1.5–2 months after planting.
Frigo seedlings are used to distill strawberries.
We use repair
This property of plants repeatedly fructifies and blooms during one growing season. Repairing strawberry varieties do not depend on the continuity of daylight hours, but require at least 16 hours of lighting per day. Seedlings of such varieties can be grown independently, and not only purchased in special nurseries. Such seedlings are grown in open ground until autumn, and then bushes with buds and an earthen lump are transplanted into greenhouse beds where strawberries will bear fruit all winter. Then the plant blooms and bears fruit continuously, bringing up to 5 crops per year.
Did you know? The composition of strawberry berries is of some interest, because, having a sweet taste, they have practically no sugar, so it is often used in diet food. The benefits of strawberries also lie in the content of all B vitamins. Eating a 150 g portion will relieve emotional stress and stress.
Using this method of cultivating repair strawberries, you need to know that constantly-bearing crops greatly deplete the soil in which they are grown and must be replaced. It is recommended to do this at the end of the summer season, before planting a new seedling.
Following this technique, the soil can be replaced with materials such as:
- mineral wool;
- coconut fiber;
- vermiculite and another substrate.
These are special fillers that are irrigated with nutrient solutions, which are prepared daily, following technological plans and passing a special type of control in mini-laboratories. The method of soilless cultivation is based on the principle of hydroponics.
To grow berries throughout the year, it is necessary to observe such important points as:
- landing technology;
- proper soil selection for strawberry cultivation;
- preparation and cultivation of seedlings;
- creation of a unique microclimate in a greenhouse, observing lighting, watering standards;
- ensuring proper care, feeding.
Video: Growing strawberries in a greenhouse
Planting seedlings takes place according to the scheme of 20x20 cm for classic planting and staggered for vertical planting.
Growing berries in a polycarbonate greenhouse has many advantages compared to more classic, glass and polyethylene buildings, for example:
- it is easier to create and maintain a microclimate in the greenhouse;
- there are no difficulties with installing a heating system;
- polycarbonate protects vegetation from harmful ultraviolet radiation.
First of all, it should be said that the soil recommended for growing greenhouse berries should be nutritious.
Important! Before planting seedlings, it is necessary to prepare the soil, having previously sanitized it. To do this, you can either treat the soil with a solution of potassium permanganate, or sterilize.
Sterilization can occur according to the following scheme:
- The substrate is poured into a volumetric metal tray and covered with a lid.
- They send a container with earth either to the oven or to a fire.
- The warming temperature should be 60 ° C and maintained to be maintained for 12 hours.
After such a procedure, the disinfected soil is combined with components such as:
- turf land;
- dry humus;
- mineral mixture, immediately before planting.
To prepare a special substrate, the components are combined in the following proportion: peat, earth and humus in equal parts. And then the remaining components are added. To add looseness make sawdust. Humus, ash and added superphosphate increase the fertility of the substrate.
Harvesting and growing seedlings
Seedlings are grown from mustaches - processes on berry bushes that are cultivated in open ground. Mustaches are collected from the most powerful and prolific bushes of the previous season. Uterine sockets are labeled in the month of June, installing a peg or tying a ribbon.Each outlet leaves a certain number of mustaches, but no more than five, and the rest is removed. Later, these processes root in July - August. This agrotechnical method can be performed both in open ground and in individual containers. With the onset of October - November, rosettes are dug up and partially moved to the greenhouse to grow the first crop.
Those outlets that are planned to be transplanted into the greenhouse later must be properly stored. To do this, recommend:
- Remove shoots and leaves from seedlings, leaving only the smallest around the growth point. The root system is cleaned of soil, after which the seedlings are packed in 50-100 units in bags and sent to a refrigerated storage room. For these purposes, polyethylene bags should be about 0.04-0.05 mm thick. This method is called Frigo.
- Seedling material is transferred to separate glasses or seedlings according to the 15x15 cm scheme. Then, thorough care is provided, which, first of all, consists in regular watering. Seedlings can be left on the street until the onset of frost, after which it is brought into the room, fertilized and leaves removed.
Important! The soil from the beds, where tomatoes, potatoes, raspberries and strawberries used to grow, is not recommended for subsequent cultivation of strawberries.
When dealing with the issue of lighting in a greenhouse, you should pay attention to:
- its intensity;
- daylight hours.
During the laying of generative fruit buds, the daylight hours should be short, and when the bushes begin to bloom, they need lighting for at least 15-18 hours. So, in regions with insufficiently long natural daylight hours, from January to March, it is necessary from 8-10 hours of artificial illumination daily. If only natural light arrives in a smaller volume, for 8 hours, the harvest occurs on 48 days.
Additional lighting will allow you to quickly harvest, since getting light for 16 hours every day, flowering occurs on day 10, and the berries on the bushes ripen on the 35th
For additional lighting, sodium lamps with a power of 400 W are used, which allows you to maximally approximate the quality of light to natural lighting. Lighting devices should be at a distance of 1 m, which will cover an area of 1 m². To increase dispersion, special reflectors are recommended.
As a rule, lamps turn on, adhering to the mode:
- in the morning hours - from 8–11;
- in the evening - from 17–20 hours.
Watering and feeding system
The process of growing berries in a greenhouse occurs in a more intensive mode than in open ground, therefore, plants require more strength for growth and fruiting. They can receive them from:
- organic (peat, compost, humus);
- combined fertilizers.
The greenhouse berry is fed twice a month, as the soil for growing strawberries must be very nutritious. Systematically make top dressing in the form of:
- potassium salt –10 g;
- ammonium nitrate - 80 g;
- superphosphate –80 g;
- water - 10 l.
Important! An excess of fertilizers can adversely affect the taste of berries.
Watering of greenhouse beds should be moderate, without over-moistening the soil, in order to prevent the death of the plant. You can water the bushes abundantly at elevated temperatures, on hot summer days, when the greenhouse is very hot. Watering is recommended in the morning.
The optimal solution for irrigation of strawberries in a greenhouse is drip irrigation system, since moisture will fall under the root of the plant, and not on the leaves and fruits. The amount of watering should be made from the consumption per 1 m² of the greenhouse bed 3 l of water per day, that is, the length of containers with strawberry bushes must be multiplied by 3 and get the total water flow for irrigation per day. This system can be home-made from a hose running along the bottom of the container, or made from plastic bottles, or it can be purchased at a specialized store.
As for the creation of special conditions in the greenhouse, here it is separately necessary to say about:
- temperature condition;
- humidity of air.
The air in the greenhouse should gradually and gently warm to higher temperatures during the growing season, because the coolness in the greenhouse will delay the development of seedlings, and flowering of the bushes will begin later. So, when planting seedlings, the temperature in the greenhouse is at + 12˚C, in the process of growing the air should be warmed up to + 21 ... + 22˚C, and when flowering occurs - + 23 ... + 25˚C.
Humidity in the park plays a significant role. This indicator should not be constant, for example:
- when planting seedlings in a greenhouse, the humidity level should be high - 80–85%;
- then it decreases to 75%, before the appearance of flowers on the bushes;
- during flowering, humidity should not exceed 70%. To adjust this parameter, ventilation windows should be created in the greenhouse for ventilation if the greenhouse is operated exclusively in the warm season. When using greenhouses in winter, it is necessary to create a simple ventilation system.
Capacity for seedlings
As containers for growing strawberries in a greenhouse, you can use:
- containers of plywood, fiberboard;
- plastic containers;
- cellular polycarbonate;
- plastic bags.
It is recommended to use a single container for seedlings, however, it is necessary to consider the required parameters:
- height - 20–25 cm;
- width of the lower part - 15 cm;
- the width of the upper part is 25 cm.
Did you know? Strawberries have a high zinc content, which increases sexual desire in both men and women. And according to scientists, the likelihood of conception after using this product increases by 25%, so that in France there is a tradition of preparing strawberry soup with cream for newlyweds.
Strawberries in the greenhouse require a lot of attention, so the main care for the crop is as follows:
- regular fertilizing for fertility of the soil and providing berry bushes with nutrients;
- organization of a drip irrigation system, which eliminates moisture on the leaves;
- adjustment of humidity and temperature in the room depending on the stage of plant development;
- providing ventilation in the greenhouse, airing in warm seasons, which helps to reduce humidity and prevents the occurrence of diseases;
- to save moisture in the soil, the topsoil is mulched with sawdust or straw;
- some varieties of strawberries require pollination, which is done manually with a brush, however, most modern repair varieties are self-pollinated, so this criterion must be paid attention to when choosing a variety for planting.
Cultivating strawberries in greenhouses is a troublesome process, however year-round harvesting of berries is a fairly profitable business. In addition, the berries are very healthy and in demand throughout the year.