Yield from one tree
Due to the growing demand for apple products, growing an intensive orchard is a profitable business. Thanks to the selection work, a number of early varieties were bred, seedlings of which can be purchased at an acceptable cost and from the hectare of plantings to obtain the highest yield indicators. About how many kilograms can be collected from one tree, as well as a description of the most fertile varieties, read below.
Productivity of apples from 1 ha
For cultivation on small areas, it is most cost-effective to use columnar varieties of apple trees that are small in size and early, which will allow you to get the maximum profit for a period of 3-4 years. Using the standard planting scheme, which will be discussed below, you can collect up to 140 tons of fruits per hectare of plantings.
Important! Rejuvenation of trees will save money on the purchase and planting of new trees.
In order to achieve good yield, you need to plant 2-year-old seedlings that begin to bear fruit already 2 years after planting. The fruiting period of colonized varieties lasts up to 20 years. When a tree reaches 13 years of age, there is a significant decrease in fertility to 60–80 tons per hectare, which is easily eliminated by rejuvenating the garden by grafting.
How many apple trees can be planted per 1 ha?
Due to the fact that the columnar varieties do not grow in breadth, 200 seedlings are included per 1 acre. A hectare of land will require 20 thousand trees. Plants are planted according to the scheme: 60 cm between rows and 90 cm between trees.
If it is necessary to optimize the intensive cultivation of fruit stands, the agrotechnics trellis is used, which will reduce the distance between plants to 40 cm and up to 60 cm between rows. The trellis cultivation method will increase the number of plantings, then 300 seedlings will be added per 1 acre, and 30 thousand per hectare .Trees growing on trellis
What determines the yield of apples?
The yield of an apple tree depends on:
- selection of land for landing;
- compliance with the rules of caring for trees when growing;
- selection of varieties suitable for the regional characteristics of the area.
The lighting on the site should be plentiful, because the fruits ripening under the sun's rays are sweeter and larger. The groundwater should not be less than 1.5 m deep, otherwise the root system may rot, which will subsequently affect the quantity and quality fruits.The place where apple trees grow should be free of drafts, so that the trees do not break under strong gusts of wind, are not exposed to fungal infections and invasions of pests that spoil the apples. Fruiting directly depends on the quality and quantity of top dressing, as well as the timeliness of watering and pruning.
Important! Variety selection for cultivation is carried out taking into account the climatic characteristics of the region. For the south of the country it is better to choose drought tolerant varieties. In the central and northern regions, varieties resistant to frost and fungal infections are grown.
The most fruitful varieties of apples
There are many varieties of apple trees that can be grown on huge planting areas. Below is a description of the most productive and most common species of apple trees.
Apple tree President early ripening, the ripening period of its fruits is the end of August or the beginning of September. The tree is semi-dwarf, reaches a height of up to 2 m. The top reaches a diameter of up to 30 cm. The leaf plates are large, oval in shape with a sharp point at the end, their color is dark green.The fruits are large, green-yellow in color with a pink blush. The taste is sweet and sour, flesh of a loose structure, juicy. The peel is thin, dense. The mass of the fetus is up to 250 g.During the season, one apple tree can collect up to 16 kg of fruit.
The columnar apple tree Arbat is a stunted tree, which reaches a maximum of 2.5 m growth. The top of the plant is up to 50 cm in diameter. Annual shoots are densely covered with dark green elongated leaves. The fruits reach a weight of up to 100 g, they have a spherical shape. The color of apples is yellow-green, with a pink blush that can fill the entire surface of the fruit. The taste is sweet, with light notes of sour.The plant is resistant to pests and high winter hardiness up to -20 ° C. Due to early maturity, the first fruits appear already for 2 years of development of the culture. Every year, the yield increases and by the 5th year of growth, the gardener can collect up to 20 kg of fruit from a tree.
Variety Currency is late-ripening; therefore, the harvest from the tree is harvested in early October. The tree is stunted - up to 2 m high. Rounded apples, slightly elongated to the top. The peel is thin, red. The pulp is grainy, juicy. The mass of one fruit is 200–250 g. The yield from one tree reaches up to 12 kg.
Did you know? The wood of the apple tree is not subjected to mechanical stress and does not crack, so it is used in carpentry.
The variety is resistant to scab and coccomycosis. Winter hardiness of the plant is high up to -30 ° C - this allows you to grow a crop in regions with severe climatic conditions.
The plant reaches up to 2.5 m of growth. The top is leafy, up to 40 cm in diameter. The columnar variety Medoc is resistant to fungal infections and has good winter hardiness up to -20 ° C, which allows the plant to be cultivated in regions with a temperate climate. The fruits have a spherical shape. The peel is thin, yellow-green. The pulp is friable, granular structure. Fruiting occurs in mid-September, up to 15 kg can be collected from one tree.
Basic rules for planting and growing apple trees
To achieve maximum yield from the apple orchard, you need to plant seedlings correctly. To plant colon-like varieties, it is necessary to dig large holes so that the root system can freely fit inside. Dimensions of the landing pit: 70 cm deep and 50 wide.
In order to get a good crop, you need to take care of fertilizing at the planting stage, so the topsoil dug from the pit must be mixed with 5 kg of compost, 60 g of superphosphate, 60 g of potassium and 100 g of wood ash. The resulting mixture of soil with fertilizer is poured to the middle of the hole, forming a mound in the form of a hill and watered 10 l of water. Next, the pit is covered with polyethylene, and after 2 weeks a seedling is planted.
Planted plants need regular maintenance, which consists in loosening and mulching around the trunk circle. The plant should receive the required amount of water. For a seedling, it is necessary to observe the irrigation regime 2-3 times a month, 15 liters per plant. An adult plant is watered 2 times a month with 25-30 liters of water. The soil begins to be fertilized for 2 years of tree growth.
There is a need for organic and mineral top dressing:
- First fertilizer - mineral, it is introduced at the beginning of spring, from March 10 to April 15. Fertilize the soil near the trunk by digging. The earth is loosened with urea in an amount of 600 g per adult tree.
- Second feeding - organic, carried out after flowering, it is introduced in the form of a solution. Liquid fertilizer is prepared from: 2 kg of chicken droppings and 10 liters of water. Fertilizer is applied in the amount of 30 liters per tree.
- Third feeding has a mineral composition, it is made from: 60 g of superphosphate, 30 g of potassium and 10 l of water. One adult plant will need 30 liters of solution.
An important factor influencing not only the growth and development of the tree, but also its fruitfulness is pruning. Colon-shaped apple trees undergo sanitary removal of improperly growing shoots damaged by frost and pests.Pruning promotes better nutrient circulation, which has beneficial effects on fruit growth.
Did you know? Wild apple trees can grow up to 200 years of age and have a trunk diameter of up to 40 cm.