How many varieties of apples are there?
The apple tree is one of the most common fruit trees grown on Earth, and its fruits are the most popular fruits among many peoples. For a long time growing this plant, a man brought forth a wide variety of varieties. You can learn more about how many of them are in the world and in Russia from this article.
How many varieties of apples are there
Of course, the exact number of varieties is difficult to calculate. Breeders from different countries have been actively working throughout the whole time of growing domestic apple trees to get high-yielding varieties suitable for cultivation in various conditions and bearing tasty, beautiful fruits.
Did you know? There are sects in India and South America whose followers worship apples and consider them a symbol of life..
In the world
According to online sources, in the world there are about 10 thousand varieties of apple treeswhose fruits ripen at different times, the first fruiting of which occurs at different ages, having different heights, crown types, frost resistance, resistance to diseases and harmful insects, taste and market characteristics of fruits.
The most expensive apple variety on our planet is Sekai-Ichi. During ripening, fruits on trees belonging to this variety are watered with water and honey. One fruit can reach a mass of 1 kg and cost $ 20.
One of the countries in which perhaps the most loved and grown apple trees is Russia. Apple orchards can be found from the northwest to the Siberian and Far Eastern regions. Most of them are in areas of the middle zone. 400 varieties are recommended for planting in Russian climatic conditions. That is how much is inscribed in the State Register of the Russian Federation.
Types of apples
Several types of apples are distinguished, depending on when the fruit reaches maturity, on what age the first crop falls, on resistance to frost, the height of trees and types of crowns, taste characteristics and size of apples.
Depending on what time the fruits appear on the apple trees and when they are consumed, they are divided into 3 types:
The fruiting of summer varieties occurs in June-August, autumn - at the end of summer - the first half of September, winter - in the second half of September - mid-October. The most useful are winter varieties - they contain the highest concentration of vitamins and minerals compared with varieties bearing fruit in autumn and summer.
In addition, they are distinguished by better transportability and long shelf life - up to 8 months. While summer apples can be eaten only for 2 months, autumn apples - up to 3 months.
Among the summer varieties are popular:
- Glory to the Winners. Trees grow to a height of 3.5 m. They have a wide crown, similar to a pyramid. The first crop falls on 2–5 years after planting in the ground. Maturity of fruits occurs in late summer - early autumn. Fruits are large, weighing 125-180 g, oblong-rounded shape. The peel is green with a reddish integumentary color and a waxy coating. The inner part is yellow, characterized by juiciness, aroma, tenderness, sweet and sour taste. The variety is highly productive, frost-resistant, early-growing.
- Papier. Plants of medium height. In young specimens, the crown in the form of a pyramid, in mature ones, is rounded. Fruits can be harvested in the second half of summer. They are medium in size, in the form of rounded cones, flattened, have ribs. They reach a weight of 80–100 g. The peel is green-yellow in color, smooth and thin. The inside is white, delicate, aromatic, coarse-grained. Among the advantages of Papiroki are early maturity, the ability to stably bear fruit for 45–50 years, and a high winter hardiness.
- Melba. Apple trees grow medium in height - up to 3.5 m.The Crohn’s crown is broadly round, medium thickened. Apples are large, 130–140 g in weight, rounded in shape, with a green skin, covered with a reddish color and well distinguishable dots. The inner part is light, characterized by tenderness, fine-grained, sweet and sour taste. Melba apple trees are characterized by stable and high fertility, good resistance to low temperatures, early bring the first crop.
The best autumn varieties include:
- Young naturalist. The trees grow medium - up to 3-4 m. The crown in them is rounded in shape, characterized by compactness. The fruits are small, reaching a mass of up to 140 g. Their shape is flat-round. The peel is dense, smooth, colored yellow-green, covered with stripes of reddish color. The inside is creamy. It is characterized by tenderness, juiciness, medium density, sweet and sour taste. Yunnat apple trees abundantly bear fruit, steadily withstand low temperatures, and are immune to scab development. Their fruits are perfectly transported over long distances without loss of quality.
- Autumn joy. Apple trees without pruning become tall - up to 12 m, with a heavily thickened rounded crown. The first fruiting occurs in 4-5 years after placement in the ground. The fruit ripeness period falls at the end of summer - the beginning of autumn. Apples are small in size, weighing 110–135 g. Their shape is round-flat. The peel is yellow-green with stripes and dashes of reddish color. The inner part is white, characterized by juiciness, tenderness, medium density, sweet and sour dessert taste. The variety is characterized by abundant and stable productivity, high survival at low temperatures, immunity to scab, good adaptive qualities to harsh climates.
- Antonovka. The trees are tall. The crown of them is first oval, and then spherical. Fruits appear in the second half of September. The first crop occurs 7-8 years after planting on the site. Apples are large, rounded, ribbed, weighing 150-200 g. Their peel is yellow, the insides are light. The fruit is characterized by sweetness with a slightly pronounced acid. The variety is appreciated because of its good adaptive qualities, high fertility, strong immunity, and universal use of fruits.
Among the best winter varieties worth mentioning:
- Star. Plants can be up to 5.5 m in height, the crown reaches a diameter of 6.5 m. In young specimens, the shape of the crown is round, in mature specimens - spreading, drooping. Apples appear when the tree sprouts in a plot of 5-7 years. Fruit ripening occurs in late September - early October. They are medium in size, reaching a mass of 85–130 g. They are rounded and slightly flattened in shape. The peel is painted in the main light green and integumentary dark red color with a wax gray powder coating. The insides are white, juicy, delicate, dessert sweet and sour taste. Among the positive qualities of the Asterisk are stable productivity, immunity to scab, a long period of eating fruits.
- Starkrimson. The height of the trees is from 3 to 4.5 m. In young plants, the crown is in the form of an inverse pyramid. Upon reaching the plant 9-10 years of age, it takes the form of a wide pyramid or becomes broom. The fruits are large - from 170–200 g. Ripen at the end of the first autumn month. They are elongated-conical in shape. The peel has a green color and carmine coating. The inside is light yellow, juicy, crispy, sweet. Plants give the first crop early, each year they bring a large number of fruits with good marketability and keeping performance.
- Ligol. The apple trees are medium in height - up to 3.5 m, with a wide, slightly thickened crown in the form of a pyramid. Fruits reach maturity in late September - early October. They are large - 220–250 g in weight, in the form of rounded cones, in color - green-yellow with a reddish finish and bright dots.The inside is crispy, characterized by juiciness, aroma, fine-grained, sweet with a slight acidity. The variety is characterized by a high level of fertility, high-quality fruits with a long shelf life, early fruiting, and strong immunity.
Depending on the age at which the first fruiting occurs in trees, they distinguish:
- early infertile;
- medium fruity;
- late apple trees.
The first group includes those that begin to bear fruit in 2–4 years after planting in a permanent place. for instance: White filling, Antonovka, Bellefleur, Cinnamon striped, Renet, Stark Erliest.
Mid-apple trees, eg, Aport Alexander, Kutuzovets, Tambov, the first crop is given 5–8 years after planting. From late-fruited should expect fruits after 9-12 years. Among such - Grandma's, Strefling.
An important indicator when choosing a variety is its winter hardiness. That it will be decisive in the selection of varietal specimen for a particular region. And if most varieties can be grown in the southern regions and the middle zone, then for the northern regions it is required to select those that tolerate low temperatures.
The most winter-hardy varieties capable of withstanding temperatures below –35 ... –40 ° C are:
- Anise scarlet. The plant is tall - up to 7-8 m. It gives the first fruits in the 5th year of life, in the first autumn month. They are small, weighing 80-100 g, roundish, yellow with a scarlet coating. The inside is greenish. It is characterized by density, sweet and sour taste. The productivity of scarlet Anis is 200-300 kg per plant.
- Boxing. The variety is early summer (ripening at the end of July), late ripening (fruiting from the seventh year), small-fruited (apples 30–40 g each). Fruits are rounded in shape, green-yellow in color, coated in the form of stripes of reddish color, sweet, fragrant.
- Skryazhapel. Late winter variety produces medium-sized fruits - 100–120 g. They are painted green with a red coating and dots. The inner part is greenish, characterized by juiciness, large granularity, freshish taste.
Among varietal specimens with an average index of frost resistance (up to -35 ° С) it should be mentioned:
- Veteran. Winter variety giving fruit at the end of the first autumn month. They are roundish, medium in size, yellow, dotted with stripes and dots of orange. The inside is yellow with a delicate, juicy, sweet and sour taste.
- Zorenka. This autumn variety has small oval-conical fruits with ribs. The peel is yellow with a pink coating, thin, medium-dense, smooth. The inner part is light, different juiciness, sweet and sour taste.
- Velvet. Low plants form a thin crown. The fruits are small, in the form of rounded cones, yellow with a red coating and a bluish coating. Ripen in late summer - early fall. On the palate have a harmony of sour and sweet notes.
Poorly tolerate temperatures above –27 ° C and are suitable for planting only in warm places:
- Linda. Forms tasty sweet and sour fruits weighing 125-130 g. Their color is yellow-green with a red coating. The inside is white. Apples are rich in juiciness, density and tenderness.
- Spartan. Mid-sized hybrid. Brings sweet yellow-green fruits with a reddish finish.
- Quinti. Fruits reach maturity early. They are large, 160-180 g each, green-yellow with a reddish coating in the form of dashes. They have a fragrant inner part of white color and a sweet and sour taste.
On the use of fruits
Depending on the purpose for which the fruits are used, apple trees are divided into:
Apples of the first type are grown for eating. Decorative items, in addition to the formation of fruits, give the site a beauty. As a rule, they are not tall, have beautiful crown shapes, interesting foliage and small fruits.
Among the decorative trees are popular:
- Weeping. It has long flexible branches that are inclined to the ground. Especially decorative during a period of abundant pink bloom. The leaves of the tree are red. During fruiting, the plant is covered with a large number of small spherical apples, which are suitable for fresh consumption and for making jam.
- Royalty. It is attractive with foliage of the original color - purple, which turns into red in autumn, as well as long, plentiful flowering. The fruits are small, oblong in shape, with a dark red peel. They are inedible because bitterness is present in them.
Important! Eating the fruits of the Royalty is prohibited. They can cause acute food poisoning.
- Robin (Suislepskoe). In the flowering phase, the tree is strewn with red fragrant flowers. The fruits are medium and small, different in shape, green in color with pink stripes. The inside is white, juicy, aromatic, sweet and sour.
Apple trees in the growth process can reach different heights and be:
- very high;
The following apple trees grow tall:
- Gift to the Count. The height of the plant reaches 7 m. The crown is spreading, in the form of an inverse cone, not too thickened and leafy. The fruits are very large, reaching a mass of 250-300 g. They are round-conical in shape, with medium-thick skin of light yellow color, dark red coating.
- Arcadik. It grows above 4 m. It brings large and medium fruits of 120–210 g oblong shape, green with a striped red coating. The insides are white. They are characterized by oiliness, increased juiciness, sweet and sour taste.
- Cinnamon striped. There are plants of 6 m in height. The fruits are small, 70–90 g each. Their main color is green, the coating is reddish, striped. Fruits are characterized by juiciness, sweetness, aroma.
The average growth of trees varieties:
- Renet Simirenko. Plants with a maximum height of 3.5 m. Apples are different in shape, green in color, with a rough skin. The insides are white, very dense, sweet and sour.
- Melrose. Plants grow to 3.5 m in height. They bring round flattened fruits of large size and weight - 300-500 g, green-yellow in color with a reddish finish.
To dwarf varieties belong:
- Miraculous. It reaches growth of up to 1.5 m. At the same time it gives large fruits - 200 g each, round in shape, yellow-green, sweet with sourness. They have juiciness, fine grain.
- Grounded. It grows upward by 1.5–2 m. It forms small round fruits with a peel of yellow-green hue, a scarlet side, a grainy inner part of a sweet taste with subtle acid.
- Sokolovskoe. The plant has a growth of up to 2 m. Its apples are medium-sized, green-yellow with a dark red coating, tasty.
By type of crown
According to the type of crown, there are:
- standard (spreading) apple trees.
The first species includes Weeping, Royal Beauty. Colon-shaped crown in apple trees Dzhin, Barguzin, Arbat. Most varieties with a spreading crown are bred. Among them - the Chosen One, Juicy Zelenka, Amber.
The main reason why apple trees are grown is, of course, getting tasty fruits.
Breeders brought many varieties of apples for every taste:
- sweet and sour;
Most varietal specimens with sweet and sour taste.
If you need to pick a sweet variety, then you should take a closer look at the following:
- Jonathan. Fruits appear late. Basically they are small - 100-120 g, rounded or in the form of rounded cones, green-yellow with a blurry or striped coating of a reddish hue. The inside is described as dense, aromatic, juicy. The rating for taste is 4.4–4.5 points.
- Fuji. Ripe fruits are large - they weigh 200–250 g. Their peel is smooth, non-shiny, yellow-green with a pinkish blush. The inner part is characterized by tenderness, aroma, high sugar level. When biting, it crunches. Assessment of tasters - 4.5-4.8 points.
- Gala. Harvest yields on average late dates. It brings one-dimensional fruits of 115–145 g, round, ribbed, yellow, with an orange striped coating. The structure of the insides is grainy, dense, juicy, crisp. The taste score is 4.6 points.
Sweet and sour varieties are:
- Red hill. Summer variety with small round apples (50-60 g), having a thin and delicate peel. Their color is yellow with a reddish finish. The interior is light, streaked with pink veins, fragrant. Taste rated by tasters at 4.5 points.
- Silver hoof. Forms small apples of 80–90 g of regular round shape. Their peel is smooth, creamy with an orange coating. The inner part is characterized by density, fine grain, juiciness. Tasters rated at 4.5 points.
- Miltosh. The fruits of this hybrid can be estimated at the end of the first autumn month. They are small, round, green with a reddish coating and a touch. The inner part can be described as dense, fine-grained, filled with juice. The taste score is 4.5 points.
Sour apples bring:
- Granny Smith. It is appreciated for very tasty fruits and their ability to be well and long stored. The apples are large, up to 200 g, completely green with a peel characterized by density and resistance to injury. The insides are distinguished by a delicate structure, fullness with juice, density. The taste is rated at 4.6 points.
- Boyken. Winter varietal specimen with beautiful-looking fruits that form in early autumn. Their peel is yellow. The viscera have an average density and excellent taste, estimated at 4.4–4.6 points.
- Pink lady. Variety with large fruits of 180-200 g in weight and 6-10 cm in diameter. The peel is characterized by density. She has a sparkle on it. It is green-yellow in color with a bright pink coating. The insides are dense and juicy. The taste rating is 4.9 points.
In addition to taste, the fruits of apple trees differ in size, weight, shape.
Among trees that bear very large and large fruits, it is worth paying attention to:
- Fuji (200-250 g);
- Black Sea summer (250-300 g);
- Ranet (up to 350 g).
- Rambour (from 800 g);
- Jombo Pomm (from 1 kg);
- Aport (from 700 g).
- Melrose (from 300 g).
Idared, Summer striped, Gala, Lobo, Florina are considered popular apple trees with average fruits weighing up to 150 g. Small fruits give Chinese, Ranetka, Korobovka.
The benefits and harms of apples
Apples contain a large number of vitamins and minerals and are able to beneficially affect the human body.
- In particular, they have such beneficial effects:
- cleanse the body of harmful and toxic substances;
- relax the intestines;
- strengthen the immune system;
- contribute to better excretion of urine and bile;
- eliminate edema;
- establish water, acid, electrolyte balance;
- improve blood circulation;
- establish the work of the cardiovascular system;
- improve the condition of blood vessels;
- normalize the digestive process;
- are a preventive measure against the development of vitamin deficiency, anemia, Alzheimer's disease, heart attacks, osteoporosis, gout, the appearance of oxalates in the kidneys;
- slow down aging;
- lower blood cholesterol;
- stimulate brain activity;
- increase appetite;
- strengthens hair, nails, teeth;
- improve the condition of the skin.
Apples can only be harmed by excessive use. If a person eats these fruits too often and too much, then he may have an indigestion, a deterioration in the condition of tooth enamel, and inflammation of the gallbladder.
It is contraindicated to eat apples to people with the diagnoses of “gastric ulcer and 12 duodenal ulcer”, “gastritis with high acidity”. Those who have colitis, gastritis, obesity should eat fruits in small quantities and with caution, pre-peel them, and heat them.
Important! Nutritionists recommend eating no more than 3-4 fruits of an apple tree weighing 120-150 g per day.It is in this amount that fruits can benefit and not harm the body.