Characteristics and rules for growing peach Moscow dwarf
Cold-resistant varieties of peaches have recently been the dream of gardeners. But thanks to the efforts of breeders, modern peaches are growing even in the northern regions. Such is the Moscow dwarf. Read about the variety in the review below.
Botanical description and characterization of the variety
Peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to Northwest China. In this area, he was first domesticated. But in Europe, a peach came from Persia, which is reflected in its Latin name. Belongs to the Pink family. The fruits are distinguished by a characteristic pubescence on the peel, yellow-orange or white pulp and a unique peach flavor.
This is a medium-ripening variety. Its fruits will ripen by mid-August. Moscow dwarf is a variety that is easy to care for and stably bearing fruit. Its harvest is well kept. Refers to self-pollinated and does not need other trees for fruiting.
Did you know? Archaeologists point to the Yangtze River Valley as the place where they probably began to harvest the first fruits of peach trees.
Description of the fruit and appearance of the tree
The tree reaches a height of 2.5 m. It is considered quite large and fast-growing. It has a pyramidal crown of medium thickening.
Characteristic varieties Moscow dwarf:
- basic: the variety is resistant to diseases and adverse climatic conditions;
- leaves: typical, lanceolate, with a finely serrated edge and a wrinkled leaf plate of light green color;
- flowers: single, pink, medium size;
- flowering occurs in late April or May, depending on the region; fruiting occurs on 2-year-old shoots;
- shoots: easily bendable, with brown bark;
- fruits: medium, round, uniform;
- fetal mass: 90–120 g;
- color: yellow-orange with a carmine blush;
- peel: with slight pubescence;
- taste: dessert, sweet-sour;
- stone: medium, ribbed, well extracted.
Advantages and disadvantages
The main advantage of the variety is the ability to grow in regions with cold winters. Since the variety has not undergone research for inclusion in the State Register, it is too early to talk about its proven advantages or disadvantages.
Pollinators and fruiting periods
Usually, peach trees live from 10 to 20 years. Fruiting - for 12 years. A large crop can be expected by 3-4 years after planting. Peak productivity is observed by 8 years, and from the 12th year it has been declining.
Important! On 1-2 years of growth, it is necessary to remove the color or the resulting fruits to enable the tree to develop the root system.
A healthy peach tree can bring up to 30 kg of crop per year. But usually peach yields are significantly lower. To obtain great returns, it is necessary that the climatic conditions and conditions for its cultivation coincide. Also, too young or too old trees will not show high results either.
Accurate evidence of the variety's immunity to disease is not available. As for frost resistance, the Moscow dwarf variety can be grown in areas where most trees will have problems due to the harsh climate. It is hardy enough to grow in the 5th winter hardiness zone (minimum winter temperature –29 ° С) and withstands short-term frosts up to –35 ° С. Ideal for growing in northern gardens.
Agriculture cultivating varieties on the site
Successful cultivation of a young peach begins with the selection of a site for planting. The soil must be fertile and balanced in microelement composition to ensure good growth. Do not plant a new tree in place of the previous one to avoid contact with pests that could remain in the soil.
Choose a site where the sun is at least 8 hours a day. The soil acidity level in the area should be from 6.0 to 7.0 pH. Visualize the growth zone. If the plants that are near the planting site grow well, then the soil is quite fertile and you can plan to plant a peach. It is advisable that the soil is loose or needs to be improved before planting. The best soil is sandy with a deep occurrence of groundwater.
On rough terrain, the southern or western slopes of the site are suitable for landing. It will be good if from the north the seedling is covered by a wall or other trees. Also consider the size of the mature trees around. They should not obscure the seedling when it is completely leafed.
Peaches are planted in spring when the air temperature is cool enough. At the time of planting, seedlings should not have open buds. Otherwise, they will not take root well. If severe frost is expected, it is recommended to postpone landing for some time. Do not expose the roots to low temperatures.
Did you know? Peaches are known to reduce nervousness. In the east they are called "fruits of tranquility."
A selection of quality seedlings
The quality of planting material has a major impact on future yields. Therefore, when choosing seedlings, pay attention to the following points:
- lack of signs of disease and damage;
- clean, even trunk;
- powerful intact root system;
- cut roots are white, fibrous;
- the bark is fresh, saturated in color, under it is a green layer;
- branches are proportionally developed;
- height: from 0.5 to 1 m.
Direct landing technology
Before planting, be sure to soak the roots in water for 1-2 hours. From the nursery trees are delivered with "empty" roots. To make it easier for them to get water from the ground, they are saturated with moisture. Also, when preparing a seedling for planting, remove all parts of the plant damaged in the way: dry or broken branches and roots.
Important! Avoid soaking the roots of fruit trees for more than 6 hours, so as not to provoke putrefactive processes.
- If we consider the soil structure at the cut, then the top layer is the most fertile. It has a lot of organics and nutrients useful for peach. Therefore, when preparing the pit, it is laid aside, so that it can then be laid under the roots of the seedling.
- Dig a landing hole. The depth of the pit is about 40-50 cm. When choosing the depth, keep in mind that the connection point of the scion and stock should not be lower than 5-10 cm above the ground after planting. The width of the pit is slightly wider than the size of the root system. It can be both 60 cm and 80 cm.
- If the soil is dense - it needs to be loosened. To do this, rotted manure is mixed with garden compost or peat moss (up to 1/3 of the composition).
- Place the peach in the center of the planting hole with its roots down and straighten them.
- Holding the trunk in an upright position, start to fill up the hole. Fertile soil is poured first.
- When filling the pit, compact the soil tightly. This will eliminate air pockets that can reduce the stability of the tree in the pit.
- If a slope is chosen for planting, then a side is made around the landing pit that will help keep water during irrigation.
Carefully water the recently planted peach tree. Enough 10 liters of water for each seedling. Fertilizers are applied only during spring planting.
Tree Care Rules
Peach care will consist of periodic watering, feeding, seasonal pruning and pest control. The list of care measures will be the same for all stone fruits.
Watering and fertilizer
In the first year of vegetation, 2-3 waterings per month are sufficient. Peach belongs to unpretentious plants, therefore, does not need abundant irrigation.
General watering rules:
- Watering begins at the beginning of the growing season and ends in September after the harvest.
- Focus on the condition of the soil.If it is too dry, you can water the plant.
- The best irrigation technique is slow drip irrigation.
- Apply mulch to preserve soil moisture on sandy soils. Layer thickness - 2-3 cm, if sawdust and other organic materials are used.
Before fertilizing, inspect the tree. The growth of peach branches should be about 20-30 cm per year. If so, then feeding is not needed. In other cases, focus on 2 feeding per year:
- in the spring, fertilizers with a high nitrogen content are applied to enhance crown growth and the formation of ovaries in the budding phase;
- in the summer, phosphorus-potash fertilizers are added to ripen the crop.
Important! Fertilizer cease by July 1. At this time, the tree had already formed fruits and provided them with food. They will not be affected by their further development.
Some gardeners recommend 3 feedings. 2 of them are root, and the third is spraying the crown of the tree during fruiting.
Crown trimming and shaping
Pruning is a very important part of proper peach tree care. This stimulates growth and makes it easier for the gardener to care for it. Pruning is carried out in winter when the peach is at rest.
The natural form that a tree takes is not always the best for maximum fruit production. The peach crown is formed in the form of an “open center” or an inverted pyramid. This design keeps the crown as open as possible for the sun, and also prevents the occurrence of brown rot.
The technique of crown formation and trimming:
- Shorten the central trunk one year after planting. This will direct the juices to 3-4 strong side shoots. Choose those that are evenly spaced around the trunk. The length of the selected branches can be reduced by 1/3.
- The next year, fast-growing new shoots are cut, but leave branches that will bear fruit. Leave extra side branches if necessary.
- In the fourth year of growth, cut off any broken or intersecting branches, but do not touch the crown until the peach reaches its peak yield.
- A mature peach is annually removed part of the old branches for rejuvenation.
- Also remove all branches that form V-shaped corners. They will necessarily split under the weight of the fruit and damage the trunk. The normal slope of the peach branches is 10 or 2 hours.
Preparing a tree before winter
Peach trees are the least hardy of all garden crops. Most varieties can lose fruit buds if the thermometer drops below –31 ° C. Therefore, they must be protected from frost.
Begin by placing a seedling in a sunny area protected from the north winds. Water should not stagnate near the roots during rains or thaws. This is especially important in late autumn, as water turning into ice can damage the roots and branches of a tree. The second period according to the degree of danger is spring and its thaws.
Video: Peach Shelter for the Winter
- To prevent the barrel from being damaged by frost, it is whitewashed with lime in the fall.
- Avoid fertilizing trees at the end of the season, this increases the risk of frost damage in winter.
- Mulch the root zone in October. This will help protect the roots from frost. Remove the mulch layer in April before the buds open.
- In regions with frosty winters, it is recommended to install special awnings to protect against frost. A frame is being erected above the tree, which is tightened with film, burlap or plywood. During the day, the coating is removed to provide access to sunlight, and set at night.
Did you know? In China, peach symbolizes immortality and unity. Chinese women use peach flowers to decorate their hair during a wedding ceremony.
Diseases and pests of the variety
The main group of diseases that can affect peach are fungal in nature. For their prevention, spraying with copper-based fungicides is used.It can be spring spraying with 3% Bordeaux liquid on a “bare tree” or 0.5% solution of copper sulfate.
The main diseases:
- Leaf curl - the main fungal disease. It affects the leaves and trunk of a tree. The leaves curl, thicken, acquire an orange or reddish color, dry. The buds are dropping. Gum oozes from cracks in the trunk. If measures are not taken, the tree will weaken and perish. To combat the disease, it is recommended to remove the affected shoots and treat the tree with a copper-containing fungicide. Processing is carried out 4 times, with an interval between sprayings of 2 weeks. Be sure to clean and burn all the foliage in the fall, and the tree is treated with a 3% solution of copper sulfate.
- Moniliosis manifested in the withering of a part of the leaves on separate branches. They look as if they were burned with fire. To combat the fungus, the tree is sprayed with Kuproskatom, and the affected leaves are burned. If the fungus infects the fruit with rot, then they also need to be removed from the tree.
- Kleasterosporiosis manifested in the form of brown-crimson spots on the leaves. They gradually increase in size, as a result, the leaves dry out and crumble. On the fruit, the disease manifests itself in the form of gum disease. To combat fungus, they are treated with copper-containing fungicides.
- Powdery mildew It appears on the leaves with a characteristic grayish plaque. As a result of infection, the winter hardiness of peach decreases. The tree is treated with a solution of 0.8% colloidal sulfur. The first time during the swelling of green buds, and the second time 2 weeks after the first treatment.
Like any plant, peach can be attacked by pests. To protect against them, you can carry out preventive spraying with insecticides, but more often this is done after detection of insects.
Did you know? In France, in the gardens of the Rhone River grow "peches de vigne" — wine peach with red pulp. It is considered the best of all types.
The main pests:
- Aphids - small insects up to 2 mm long green or dark in color. They form colonies, settling on leaf cuttings, on the underside of the leaf plate. Aphids feed on plant sap, damaging leaves. The secondary danger from them is that they secrete a sticky sweet coating, which becomes the basis for the development of sooty fungi. To combat aphids, spraying with insecticidal soap is used.
- Weevils or flower beetles are dangerous for the ovaries. To prevent the beetles from climbing into the crown of the tree, a hunting belt is mounted on the trunk. In the autumn, they dig the soil deep so that part of the wintering pests die from frost. In early spring, they are sprayed with “DNOC” before buds open.
Harvesting and storage
Peach trees begin to bear fruit 2 years after planting, but at this time it is recommended to remove the ovaries to provide opportunities for root growth. Therefore, you will get the first crop 3-4 years after planting.
Harvest season is August. Peaches do not ripen after harvest, like apples. Therefore, they are harvested exactly when they are ripe.
Important! Handle peaches carefully to avoid dents and bumps that could result in fruit damage.
Signs of maturity:
- If you squeeze the fruit, then it should be slightly soft. Hard are unripe fruits.
- There is a sweet aroma.
If you are not sure about the ripeness, just try one of them. It should be slightly crispy, sweet with a characteristic peach flavor. The collection of fruits is carried out, grasping the peach from below and removing it from the branch with a rotational movement. If he does not come off in this way, then he must still ripen. It is best to store fresh peaches in the refrigerator. They can be stored up to 1 week.
You can also freeze them, use them fresh or process them in another way: juice, jam or other preparations
Growing peaches is almost no different from growing other fruits.Frost resistance, the ability to grow in regions with cold winters and high taste qualities are weighty arguments in order to try to grow these wonderful fruits on your site.