Features of the cultivation of apricot Monastery and its care
Given the beneficial properties of apricot fruits and the unpretentious nature of caring for a plant, apricot grows in almost every garden. A young but already popular variety is the Apricot Monastery. Details about its planting and cultivation - further in the article.
Description of apricot variety Monastyrsky
Apricot variety Monastyrsky is the result of selection work of L. A. Kramarenko. In 1996, she received this variety in the Botanical Garden. N.V. Tsitsina RAS. In 2004, the variety was entered in the state register.
Did you know? In ancient Egypt, apricot was of great importance. Culinary specialists used the fruits of this tree to cook about 600 recipes.
The following features are characteristic of this late-ripening variety:
- comes into bearing 4–5 years after planting;
- matures in mid-late August;
- harvest from one tree - up to 25 kg, and from 1 ha you can collect up to 150 centners of fruit;
- the tree is powerful, grows up to 5 m in height and has a spreading crown;
- profuse flowering - white flowers, about 3 cm in size;
- fruits are oblong, large (25–40 g), covered with dense, lemon-yellow skin with a reddish blush;
- juicy orange pulp, has a sweet and sour taste (4 points out of 5) and a pleasant aroma;
- the stone is large, well separated from the pulp;
- fruits are universal in application (compotes, preserves, jams);
- fruits are well preserved for 2 weeks (at a temperature of + 1 ... + 3 ° C);
- possesses good winter hardiness and resistance to klyasterosporioz.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Apricot Monastery is characterized by the presence of the following advantages:
- high and stable productivity;
- large fruits;
- tasty, light and well-transportable fruits;
- plant self-fertility;
- good winter hardiness;
- undemanding in cultivation.
- The cons of apricot include:
- sprawling branches and later (August) fruit ripening. Although the latter can not be considered a major drawback.
Apricot planting requirements
There are no special difficulties in planting the Apricot Monastyrsky, but some rules and requirements must be familiarized with.
Did you know? The Hunza tribe, living on the territory between India and Pakistan, is famous for its longevity. The main part of the diet of its inhabitants is apricot. Even during fasting, this fruit helps people stay healthy.
Regarding the landing dates, the recommendations are as follows:
- in the warm southern regions, planting is carried out in autumn;
- for the northern regions, spring planting of trees is preferable;
- in the middle lane, landing can be done both in autumn and in spring;
- spring work should be carried out in April, before the movement of juice and swelling of the kidneys begins;
- Autumn planting work must be completed before a cold snap (in the first half of October), so that the seedlings have time to take root.
Preparing a pit for a seedling
Despite the cold resistance, Apricot is a thermophilic and photophilous plant. For this reason, it should be planted in a well-lit area, sheltered from the wind and it is better if it is a hill. Trees prefer sandy or loamy soils.Apricot trees do not grow well on acidic soils, so if you have to plant in such areas, then liming
When preparing the pit, you need to follow a few simple rules:
- it is prepared in advance (in the autumn period), regardless of the timing of planting;
- the most suitable sizes are 75 × 75 × 75 cm;
- if the earth is clay, then the bottom is covered with drainage from gravel or gravel (5–7 cm);
- sandy soils do not need drainage. In this case, a clay layer (up to 6 cm) is placed at the bottom for better retention of water and nutrients;
- drive a peg in the center, to which the plant is subsequently attached;
- a mixture of the top layer of soil and peat (or humus) is placed on top of the drainage in a ratio of 2: 1. About 2 kg of ash and 0.5 kg of superphosphate are also added. Everything needs to be thoroughly mixed and put in a hole;
- the hole is left for shrinkage.
How to plant?
There are several ways to plant apricot that have advantages and disadvantages:
- You can grow a tree by planting bones. The advantage of this method is that the plant will not need to be transplanted (apricot does not like this process). The disadvantage is that varietal qualities can sometimes be lost.
- Cutting is also practiced. As soon as the shoot takes root and reaches 15 cm, it can be transplanted to a permanent place. Do this carefully with a lump of earth so as not to damage the young roots. But such plants are weaker than grafted specimens.
- The most optimal way is planting a grafted seedling. Such plants are more developed and have a powerful trunk and roots. Experienced gardeners are advised to purchase biennial seedlings with good survival.
In the future, the process of planting apricot Monastyrsky practically does not differ from planting fruit trees and consists of several stages:
- From the wells prepared in the fall, the ground is selected and laid aside.
- A small mound of fertile soil is built in the center of the landing pit.
- The roots of the tree are placed on an earthen elevation and evenly distributed over the surface.
- Sprinkle a little roots with the soil laid aside and watered with water.
- The root system is covered with the remaining soil up to the level of the root neck (thus, the vaccination site will be located even higher than the soil level).
- The plant is tied to a stake (which is placed in the hole since autumn).
- A furrow is made around the perimeter and it is well watered with water (about 2 buckets).
- The trunk circle is mulched with any suitable material (for example, humus) up to 5 cm thick.
Video: planting instructions for apricot seedlings
Features of apricot care
After planting an apricot, competent further care for the plant is necessary. Let us consider in more detail what it consists of.
Important! Apricot has no independent rationing of the crop, and almost the entire ovary turns into fruits. In order to avoid overloading the branches, breaking them off under the weight of fruits, as well as reducing the laying of generative (fruit) buds, proper pruning is necessary.
Proper pruning ensures proper crown formation, prevents the occurrence of diseases, and also affects the quality and quantity of the crop. Different periods of tree development correspond to a certain type of pruning:
- In the early years, shaping pruning is used, the purpose of which is to create a compact crown with good lighting and a convenient care. Branches that are incorrectly placed and growing inward are mostly removed. It should not be forgotten that strong pruning can delay the onset of fruiting.
- During the fruiting period, regulatory pruning is carried out, designed to maintain a balance between growth and fruiting.
- Anti-aging pruning necessary for long-lasting fruiting plants, in which annual growths decrease. Its goal is to resume growth and optimize fruiting. In this case, it is better to cut several large thickening branches than a large number of small ones.
Trimming and forming the crown is carried out in several stages:
- an annual seedling without branching, immediately after planting, is cut to 80–90 cm above ground level.If there are side branches, then two of them are distinguished and shortened by 1/2 length, and the rest are cut into a ring. In this case, the central trunk is cut 20 cm above these branches;
- in summer, all competing shoots and outgoing at an acute angle are removed;
- in the future, it is necessary to lay 4 more main branches with branches of 2 orders, located at a distance of about 40 cm from one another;
- you need to constantly trim the upper shoots so that they do not outgrow the lower ones. By shortening the extra shoots, they can be turned into fruit branches;
- next spring, after laying the last main branch, it is necessary to cut off the central conductor;
- during summer pruning, strong shoots should be shortened by 1/2 part, and weak ones by 1/4;
- annually remove old, weak, and also shoots growing inside and down.
In order for the tree to have enough nutrients for the formation and growth of an abundant harvest, it is necessary to make fertilizing:
- The first spring top dressing is carried out for 2 years after planting and involves the introduction of organic matter in the form of a solution of 300 g of bird droppings in 20 liters of water. You can use the second option: apply mineral-organic fertilizer (4 kg of humus, 10 g of potassium sulfate and superphosphate, as well as 7 g of urea). The mixture in dry form is scattered in the area of the trunk circle;
- before flowering in the furrows placed around the perimeter of the crown, make a composition of 2 tbsp. l ammonium nitrate and 1 tbsp. potassium sulfate dissolved in a bucket of water. For each plant, up to 20 liters of prepared fertilizer is consumed;
- PThe previous mixture is also suitable for feeding after flowering. It is also advisable to introduce 1 cup of dolomite flour and 0.5 l of ash into the near-stem circle;
- mineral dressing before flowering can be replaced with chicken droppings (1:20) with the addition of 1 part humus or peat. For trees up to the age of three, 7 l of composition is used, and for plants older than 4 years - up to 10-12 l;
- during autumn digging, 15 kg / m² of humus or compost is consumed + 120 g of superphosphate + 50 g of potassium sulfate. After the beginning of fruiting, the amount of organics is increased to 30 kg.
Monastyrsky variety, like all apricots, does not like prolonged drought and requires regular watering. They need to be carried out in the morning or in the evening, with low solar activity. For each instance, 3 buckets of water are sufficient. In the absence of rain, young seedlings need weekly hydration. During the season, with sufficient rainfall, apricot older than 3 years, a few waterings are enough:
- with intensive growth of shoots (in April);
- in May after flowering;
- during fruiting (2 weeks before ripening);
- before wintering (in October).
Important! Constant overmoistening of seedlings is fraught with a further delay in fruiting. A lack of moisture impairs quality and reduces the number of fruits, and also makes trees vulnerable to diseases and pests.
After watering, the soil is loosened and mulched. Humidification is well combined with fertilizing. There are several watering methods:
- Furrow method good for group landings. Furrows are made along the rows, a hose is laid in them and water is let in (low pressure).
- With the hole method a hole is made around the trunk (the older the tree, the deeper) and water is poured into it. But it should be remembered that the apricot has a superficial location of the roots, so the holes need to be dug carefully. Such irrigation can be carried out by digging deep holes with a crowbar. Fertilizer is poured into them, and then water is supplied in portions.
- Drip irrigation saves water consumption and provides uniform hydration.You can buy ready-made hoses with holes, or you can do them yourself in plastic pipes. Water can be supplied under pressure or by gravity. But you need to avoid strong pressure during the flowering period, so that the water does not wash away the pollen and does not reduce the amount of ovary.
- Most common inlet method in which the entire garden is poured with flowing water from a hose. This method is impractical, since the top layer of soil is waterlogged and compacted, which makes air permeability more difficult and inhibits the microflora, and the bottom does not always get wet. This method also does not guarantee uniform moisture (some areas are too filled up, while others remain semi-dry).
Apricot Monastery is less susceptible to pests than other fruit trees. But sometimes he suffers from the attack of such insects:
- Aphid. It feeds on the plant’s juice, weakening it, can provoke infection with a sooty fungus, which eats the “fruits” of its vital functions. If treatment with soap or tobacco solutions does not help, use the preparations “Actellik” or “Karbofos”, according to the instructions.
- Butterfly codling moth. Having wintered in the cracks of the bark or in the upper ball of the soil, in June lays larvae on leaf petioles or ovaries. The second generation of the pest lays eggs in the second half of summer. Of the chemicals used to combat this pest, Karbofos (90 g per 10 l of water), Fitoverm (2 ml per 10 l), or Inta-virus (1 tablet per 10 l) are used. Treatments are carried out at intervals of 2 weeks. For prophylaxis, digging of the near-stem circle and whitening of the trunk and branches with lime with the addition of copper sulfate is necessary in spring and autumn.
- Caterpillars of the butterfly hawthorn. Strongly damage the kidneys and apricot leaves. They can be manually harvested all season, and in the autumn to destroy twisted leaves in which the pest eggs are placed.
- Trackworm tracks Having wintered in the crust or topsoil, they severely damage the buds and leaves. Later pupate, and in July there are butterflies that lay eggs. Pest control involves treating the bark with a solution of Chlorofos in the spring and after harvest.
For preventive purposes, the following methods should be performed:
- burning all plant debris;
- digging of the trunk circle;
- whitewashing bark of trees.
Adult apricots endure cooling to –30 ° C, therefore they do not need warming. And young trees need to be warmed by tying them with spruce branches. The top of the seedling is covered with spanbond or lutrasil. They take cover in the last days of March, when the threat of frost is over.
Harvesting and storage
Fruit ripening occurs in mid-August and is delayed until the end of the month. Fruits keep well on branches. Harvesting should be carried out with full maturity, as premature harvesting affects the quality and taste. Due to the dense skin, the fruits are well transported. Storage is carried out at a temperature of about + 1 ° C and a humidity of about 90%. Under such conditions, the shelf life lasts up to 2 weeks.Apricot Monastery variety has many qualities that have made it a favorite of most gardeners. If this plant does not yet grow in the garden, then having planted it, you will certainly enjoy delicious fruits and delight your family with winter preparations.