Features of planting strawberries with seeds
Strawberry, as a cultivated plant, was obtained by crossing two types of strawberries and is very popular among gardeners. The full name of this fruit is strawberry, the classic way of propagation of which is sowing seeds.
Why is it better to grow strawberries from seeds?
If you want to breed fruitful, healthy strawberries in large quantities, it is worth making a choice in favor of sowing seeds.
Important! Hybrid (F1) strawberry species do not propagate by seed. This method of propagation is suitable for plants of classical varieties.
- The advantages of sowing seeds are as follows:
- healthy bushes not affected by diseases grow;
- large yield and large fruits;
- a chance to get a berry with the required taste;
- cultivation of "bezosny" species of strawberries.
Strawberry propagation must comply with all the rules, otherwise the crop may be lost. Begin by choosing seeds.
What varieties are best to choose for sowing
The choice of each gardener stands between large and sweet strawberries.
To date, many varieties are bred, from the variety of which you can choose the appropriate varietal material:
- Varieties with large berries include: Elizabeth (the weight of one berry can reach 100 g), Alba, Cardinal, Kimberly, Honey, Zeng Zengan and Gigantella.
- Varieties with a rich sweet taste include: Selva, Shelf (distinguished by large berries of a dark color), Evis Delight, Albion and Elsanta.
- Early Strawberry Varieties: Lyubava, Kent, Crown, Marmalade. Plants well tolerates cool and humid weather. Suitable for vegetation in greenhouses.
- Later varieties are presented: Beregina, Florencia, Festival. And the best grade for winter harvesting is Valerie, which has a sweet-sour flavor.
Did you know? But strawberries are not only red - in the world there are varieties with white berries. With their useful properties, they are not inferior to red-fruited specimens at all.
Most of these varieties bring a large crop and endure the disease - gray rot and powdery mildew.
Most suitable strawberry seed planting dates
The optimal time for sowing seeds falls at the end of February and the beginning of March. It is important to grow seedlings with enough light.
If you want to get a crop next year, you can engage in planting seed in the summer, and planting outlets in the autumn.
How to sow strawberry seeds for seedlings
Prepared planting material is processed before sowing. In dry form and without special manipulations, seeds are not used.
Strawberry Seed Preparation
Seeds of large varieties germinate for a long time and, to speed up this process, use stratification.
Soak them in a plastic container in the following sequence:
- put the seeds in a plastic container, placing a flap of natural fabric, filtered paper or cotton pads on the bottom. Add filtered water so that the material is saturated;
- cover the dishes with cling film, oilcloth or a lid and leave for 2-3 days. Then rearrange the container in a cool place;
- provide access to light or create artificial lighting;
- Maintain a high level of moisture before seed germination.
Further, depending on where the seeds will be sown, you should proceed with the preparation of the soil.
Soil and container selection
The earth must be loosened and moist. To eliminate the risk of viruses or pests, it is recommended to use a “light” mixture of sand and earth.
Important! To speed up the process of soil disinfection, it can be heated in the oven for 15-20 or poured with a potassium permanganate solution.
So that the earth is enriched with beneficial bacteria, it is left “alone” for 2-3 weeks. During this period, the process of stratification will end.
Next, you should choose a container, because each species has its pros and cons:
- corrugated cardboard boxes allow you to easily take out seedlings, but can become unusable at any time;
- packaging from juices or milk is suitable for growing seeds. It is easy to take out seedlings from it, but it will not work for reuse;
- plastic cups for fermented milk products, jellies or other food containers are easy to operate. The advantage is that they are easily washed and can be treated with an antiseptic. Suitable for reusable use. The downside is the need for a large amount of space to place containers. You can cut the plastic bottles to the required size and sow the seeds directly in them;
- food containers made of plastic are compact and convenient for disembarkation, but they are not suitable for reuse;
- wooden crates are considered a strong and reliable container for reusable use, but you have to spend money on a special disinfector.
Important! Whatever the packaging, drain holes must be made. Due to this, the seeds will not die due to excess moisture.
The process of planting seeds for seedlings
When the seeds have sprouted, we prepare the necessary conditions for growing seedlings.
- Fill the tank with a drainage layer of sand, fine gravel and prepared soil mixture with a height of 2-3 cm.
- Use a match or a toothpick to make small holes at a distance of 1.5-2 cm from each other and gently press the seeds to the ground.
- Wet with warm water using a sprayer or spray gun.
- Cover with a lid or cling film to create a greenhouse effect.
Growing seedlings in peat tablets
Strawberry seedlings are well germinated in peat tablets. With this planting, you can save time on soil preparation, disinfection and picking seeds.
The tablets are placed in a container and filled with water, after which they increase in size. Prepared planting material is laid out in a peat substrate with a wet toothpick.
To avoid evaporation of moisture, the container is covered with a transparent lid and placed in a warm place with good lighting. It is necessary to regularly air the crops and remove condensation from the lid to avoid mold.
Important! If mold appears on the substrate, it must be removed mechanically and the fungal solution should be watered.
Open the lid, film or other shelter immediately after the appearance of a pair of sheets.
Further seedling care and picking
It is important to provide sprouted seedlings with regular care and observe certain conditions for proper growth.
The temperature in the room must be maintained in the region of 18-20 ° C. After a week, the temperature regime is set at 15-18 ° to prevent the sprouts from stretching.
The closer the landing time, the more often you can lower the temperature level. For convenience, you can take seedlings to the loggia or balcony.
The appearance of the first leaves of strawberries is a signal to the beginning of proper and plentiful watering. Begin irrigation, preferably with a small pipette or medical syringe, so as not to flood the plant.
Watering is done under the root of each seedling, once a week. For humidification, purified or settled water (at least 24 hours) at room temperature is suitable. It is important to ensure that the liquid does not get on the leaves of the sprouts, otherwise spots may appear on them.The more leaves will be formed on seedlings, the more often you can water it. It is better to do this early in the morning, in the evening - after sunset.
Important! You can not overmoisten the seedlings.Due to the excess of vagi, mold may appear on the walls of the landing packaging or, even worse, a black leg will appear - a deadly, for young plants, fungal disease.
When growing strawberries at home, seedlings often lack natural light. Therefore, it is better to take care of an additional source of indoor lighting.
It can be a phytolamp, LED or gas-discharge lighting device, or a fluorescent lamp. Install the light source at a distance of 20 cm from the plants and leave it in working condition for 13-14 hours daily.
To obtain high-quality seedlings, picking strawberries is performed. This can be done at the stage of development of 3-5 toothed leaves, having previously moistened and loosened the earth.
Many gardeners use a method of transshipment, that is, to extract plants along with a clod of earth for cotyledon leaves. In no case should you bare the root and get the seedlings, holding it by the stem. Next, the central root is pinched, and the plant moves into a new container. Capacity should be 200-300 ml.
In some cases, gardeners even carry out two picks. The first is carried out at the stage of development of 2-3 sheet plates, and the second - at the stage of development of 4-5.This is done due to the too rapid development of seedlings, if the weather does not allow to plant strawberries in time on time. Thanks to the double pick, you can save seedlings and not allow it to grow, restraining growth.
Did you know? Scientists deciphered the strawberry genome back in 2010. Surprisingly, it turned out that the genes in the fetus are 10 thousand more than in humans.
Further, it is important to focus on watering seedlings, loosening the soil and fertilizing.
When and how to plant strawberry seedlings in open ground
Strawberries can be planted in the ground after 45-60 days after sowing seeds. Two weeks before this, it is necessary to harden and allow the plants to get used to sunlight, heat and growing conditions in the garden or vegetable garden.
To do this, it is enough to take the container into an unheated room, a balcony or a veranda.
Planting sprouts in the open ground is carried out after the soil temperature warms above 12 ° C. Usually this period falls on the end of May-beginning of June.
Before planting, the soil on the bed is carefully moistened, dug up, and the wireworm and larvae of the May beetle are disposed of. Strawberries are quite unpretentious to the soil, but it is still worth fertilizing with, for example, wood ash.
For planting, choose evening time or a cloudy day. Tall and wide beds are best formed at a distance of 30-50 cm from each other.In each hole, a slide is made from a mixture of soil with fertilizer, one seedling is placed and water is simultaneously poured so that there are no voids near the roots.
Important! No need to use a piece of land on which strawberries used to grow. It’s better to follow crop rotation rules. It is permissible to plant a berry culture on ridges where peas, carrots or celery were previously grown.
Next, plants need to be provided with regular watering every 2-3 days. After wetting, the soil is loosened, cleaned of weeds and sprayed with disinsection drugs (if necessary).
Fertilizers are added only after the first harvest, and in the autumn period the whole strawberry bed is covered with a layer of humus, foliage. In order to avoid damage due to strong winds or rains, the bushes are covered with a dense film with openings for air access.
Harvesting and storage rules
The period for picking berries depends on the variety of strawberries, weather conditions and care. Fruits of early varieties can be removed already in the first month of summer, and later varieties can yield crops until late autumn.
It is important to collect only ripe berries, no matter how many they are. If you pick them earlier, then the fruits do not have time to acquire a rich taste and smell, although they turn red. But if they overripe, they will quickly rot.
It is better to pick berries with a hat, without grabbing a short leg - so they will retain taste and aroma for a long time. Gather strawberries in a well-ventilated container and stack no more than 3 layers.If you increase the number of layers, then the strawberries will be remembered and will quickly rot. As containers, cardboard or plastic boxes are well suited.
Important! You can not wash strawberries immediately after harvest. It should be stored in its original form so that the juice does not leak and the berries do not lose their rich taste.
The optimal shelf life for strawberries is 2-3 days. Further, it should be frozen or processed, otherwise it will begin to lose its taste and aroma. When freezing berries, it is important to rinse, dry, put in one layer on a dish and place in the freezer.
Arrange the frozen berries in batches in packages and place them back in the freezer. Indeed, if this is not done, the strawberries will freeze in their own juice and turn into porridge before they can freeze.
That part of the crop that will be used for making jam must be cleaned, washed and covered with sugar.
Observing the above simple rules for sowing, care and storage of garden strawberries, each summer resident will receive a healthy harvest for a long time and a large amount of delicious winter harvesting.