Features of planting and care of the Amur apricot variety
Apricot is considered a heat-loving fruit tree, but even in the last century frost-resistant varieties were bred. They are already time-tested and have earned recognition. This kind of apricot tree is Cupid.
The history of selection of apricot Amur
The variety was bred by domestic breeders of the Far Eastern Research Institute of Agriculture in 1949 by pollination of varieties with high frost resistance Best Michurinsky pollen of southern varieties (Krasnoshcheky, Alexander early, Overinsky precocious). The authorship belongs to Kazmin G.T.
Cupid successfully passed state tests and in 1979 was listed in the State Register (Far Eastern Region). It can be called differently - the Far Eastern, Ussuri or Amur early.
Did you know? The origin of apricot is still not exactly established by scientists, but many of them are inclined to believe that this tree comes from Armenia. The ancient Roman writers Pliny and Columella called it the "Armenian apple."
Description and characteristics of the culture
Apricot Amur has an average growth force and grows no higher than 3 m. The tree forms a thick, well-leafy crown with a round and somewhat elongated shape with a diameter of 3.5 m. The branches grow from the trunk almost at an angle of 90 °. The variety is prone to form a half-stem. The leaves are large, oval with finely serrated edges and pointed ends. They remain on the tree almost until frost.
Fruits ripen in the medium term, have a rounded-elongated shape with a beak at the end. They are tightly attached to the branches on a short stalk. Apricots are painted a bright yellow color with a red blush from sunlight, having brownish dots.
They have average one-dimensional sizes and an average weight of 26.2 g. The abdominal suture is small and colored. The skin is uneven, inseparable. But it is well separable smooth rounded oblate bone of medium size. Pulp - dense, medium with a pleasant sweet and sour taste.
Drought tolerance, winter hardiness
The variety can tolerate frosts down to -38 ° C. In winter, the apricot Amur sometimes freezes the ends of annual growths, but this does not affect its productivity and condition. In severe frosts, growths froze up to a third of the length, but the trunks and branches, mainly, carried them. During the warm period, the plant is restored and lays fruit buds.
The Amur variety has high drought tolerance. Leaves and branches in the absence of natural precipitation do not die. With a lack of moisture, the ovaries are preserved, a one-year increase is given. But waterlogging against a background of lower temperatures, the fruit tree does not like. Therefore, it is undesirable to plant it in the lowlands where there is stagnation of water.
Apricot Cupid is partially self-fertile. He needs a number of other pollinators. Cross-pollination will significantly increase its productivity. It is best to plant at least 2 varieties that bloom at the same time and have good winter hardiness, for example, Kigichensky, Khabarovsky or Academician.
Flowering period and ripening period
A tree blooms in mid-May (in the Khabarovsk and Primorsky territories) with large pink flowers. Rounded petals are weakly closed. The cup has a goblet shape. The ripening period is average - from August 10–15.
This tree begins to bear fruit from 3-4 years after planting. Commodity fruiting begins from the 5th year and continues without interruption annually. Productivity is high - 35–40 kg per tree (with rational care).
Fields of application
Tasters evaluate the taste of Amur apricots at 3.5 points. They can be consumed fresh and suitable for processing, transportable. They make jam, juice, jam, compotes and dried.Fruits contain 12.3% sugars, 2.2% malic acid and 15.45 solids.
Disease and pest resistance
The variety is resistant to fungal diseases. It is not affected by kleasterosporiosis, is medium resistant to moniliosis, but can be affected by it in rainy weather.
Did you know? Apricot came to the territory of Russia only in the 17th century from European states, but this fruit tree came to Ukraine and the Caucasus from eastern countries.
Advantages and disadvantages
- This variety may be of interest in the following characteristics:
- high winter hardiness and resistance to drought;
- disease resistance;
- stable high yields;
- presentation of fruits;
- pleasant taste;
- universality of use;
- resistance to cracking;
- ability to transport over long distances.
- The disadvantages include the following:
- unexpressed sugar content of the fruit;
- medium-sized apricots;
- in rainy weather, the variety is affected by moniliosis.
Amur planting apricot should be treated responsibly.
Recommended pick-up dates
Residents of the southern regions can sow apricot seedlings in spring and autumn. In other areas, it is recommended that trees be planted only in the spring so that they are properly rooted in the winter.
Choosing the most suitable place
The plot for further apricot growth should be located in the sun, be protected from drafts and sudden gusts of wind. It is best to choose a hill where rainfall does not stagnate and the groundwater level is no closer than 2.5 m.
In regions with a cold climate, one should give preference to the slopes of the southern directions. The soil should pass water well and be neutral or slightly alkaline. You should worry about the presence of a pollinator nearby, and if the neighbors do not grow apricot, then you will have to plant another tree nearby, but of a different variety.
It should be borne in mind that the root system of this tree, over time, grows very wide. Apricot can not be planted in a place where other stone fruits (cherry, plum, cherry, peach) grew before that.
Important! The optimum soil acidity for apricots is a range of 6–7.5 pH. Acidic soils should be preliminarily calcified.
What crops can and cannot be planted next to apricot
Apricot does not like the neighborhood of other trees, especially apple trees, nuts and other stone fruits. Neighborhood with fruit bushes, which are carriers of diseases, is also not desirable for him. The exception is dogwood. It is good to plant 2-3 apricot trees of different varieties together for better pollination.
Near the apricot you can plant early flowers - daffodils, crocuses, tulips, muscari. They bloom at a time when the tree has not yet shaded them.
Selection and preparation of planting material
Seedlings should be bought at specialized nurseries and agricultural stores or from sellers with a good reputation. It is best to buy a one or two year old plant. The seedling must have well-developed roots. It should be ensured that they are wet, “alive”. Before planting, for better survival, the seedling can be soaked in water for 1-2 days.
Industrial apricot orchards are laid, observing a distance of 3 × 5 m or 5 × 5 m. In the conditions of a summer cottage, you can plant 2-3 trees in a row at a distance of 3-4 m from each other. Over time, their crowns will close, but some scientists believe that such a thickened planting helps these trees better tolerate winter.
Pits measuring 80 × 80 cm or 70 × 70 cm and the same depth should be prepared in the fall. In clay soil, it is necessary to make a drainage layer of gravel, and add sand to the soil. Together with the topsoil, mineral fertilizers (superphosphate with potassium salt) and humus are introduced into the pit.
Important! After planting a seedling, the apricot root neck should be slightly above ground level.
It is good to add ash, as it contains potassium, and apricot is very responsive to potash fertilizers.After planting, it is necessary to form a near-stem circle, water and mulch it.
Amur apricot trees need proper watering. They can tolerate drought normally, but in order to get a good crop, it is important to ensure moisture during the appearance of color, active vegetation (last spring month), and also 14–15 days before harvest. Closer to winter, carry out abundant watering to abundantly moisturize the rhizome, which will save the plant from freezing in the cold period.
The following top dressing is carried out throughout the year:
- In the spring, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are introduced. This is done in early spring before flowering, and then after it. For this purpose, urea, rotted manure or chicken droppings, as well as saltpeter, are used.
- In summer, foliar top dressing is performed. In the first half of the season, nitrogen-containing solutions are used for this. In the second half, potash and phosphorus fertilizers are used.
- After harvesting, at the end of August, fertilizing with phosphorus-potash fertilizers is carried out. For this purpose, it is good to use wood ash. During this period, a little chalk can be added to the soil, especially if the soil has an elevated pH level.
Important! In the second half of summer, you can’t use nitrogen for top dressing, as it will cause the activation of shoots and the growth of green mass, which will negatively affect the trees during the onset of the cold period
In early spring, before the onset of sap flow, formative and sanitary pruning is performed. The most suitable for apricot is a tiered-free crown shape with 6–7 skeletal branches. This variety is quite resistant to disease.
Diagram of the formation of apricot beanless crown:a - after planting; b - in the spring of the second year; in - in the spring of the third or fourth year; g - a vein of the sixth-seventh year.
In violation of agricultural cultivation techniques or adverse conditions, trees can be affected by moniliosis or kleasterosporiosis. For treatment and prevention, treatment is carried out with copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid.
A tree may be susceptible to invasion by pests: aphids, moths, hawthorn butterflies, leafworms. To combat them, chemical preparations such as "Actellic", "Karbofos", "Karate" are used. To prevent the appearance of harmful insects, they dig the soil around the tree, whitewash the trunks and skeletal branches, remove and burn the foliage.
Important! Despite the fact that the Amur apricot is quite frost-resistant, young trees should be protected from the effects of low temperatures and rodents in the winter with the help of spruce or burlap, and the trunk section around must be mulled.
Harvesting and storage
This mid-season variety is harvested in the second half of August in the morning or evening hours. Fruits should not be cold or warm from direct sunlight. Because of this, they may lose their quality characteristics. Harvest can be removed in a slightly unripe form. They ripen quite normally in room conditions. Apricots tolerate transportation well.
For transportation and longer storage fresh, apricots are removed from the tree about three days before they fully ripen. Fruits for consumption in food and for drying are harvested at the stage of full ripeness. Of these, you can make preparations for the winter - juice, jam, jam, compote and pastille.
Indoor apricots of this variety are stored for up to 12 days. In the refrigerator, they can lie for up to 28 days. Fruits can be frozen. To do this, they are washed, the bones are removed. Then placed in bags made of polyethylene and placed in a freezer. In this case, you can store apricots for up to 8 months. Such a frozen product is great for baking and making desserts.
Did you know? Apricots are low in calories - 100 g of their pulp contains only 44 kcal.One cup of these fruits will provide 60% with vitamin A and 26% with ascorbic acid.
Apricot Amur gives stable crops and is characterized by high drought and winter hardiness. This tree should be planted separately from other crops and take care of pollinating varieties. In care, it is unpretentious and requires the usual care procedures - watering, molding, top dressing, protective measures.