Features of planting and care for apricot in the middle lane
Fragrant sweet pulp of apricot to the taste of both children and adults, so many summer residents are eager to plant a culture. Today's article is devoted to the cultivation of a crop in the middle lane, the selection of varieties, the nuances of planting and care.
Description and characteristics of the culture
A fruit tree of the plum genus averages 5–8 m in height. Young red-brown branches with smooth bark as they grow, acquire a gray color with numerous longitudinal cracks in the bark. The crown is sprawling, often rounded.
Leaf plates are arranged alternately, petioles are long and thin. The shape of the sheet is a wide oval with a pointed at the end. The edge of the leaf is serrated, the surface is veined. The length of the green plates is 6–9 cm.Flowering time, depending on the growing region, April or May. Single flower baskets up to 3 cm in diameter. Five-petalled flowers of white or pink color appear before the foliage blooms.
Fruits appear from June to August. The color of rounded fruits with a longitudinal groove on the surface in yellow-red tones. The surface of the peel is fleecy, can be plain or with a spotty “tan”. The pulp is fibrous, can be crispy, juicy and sweet. The bone is stiff with a ribbed-furrowed surface and contains a flat seed inside, similar to almonds. The weight of the fruit varies from 5 g to 80 g.
The fruiting period for cultivated trees begins on the 3-5th year of life, lasts up to 40 years. Apricot, thanks to the deep root system, is resistant to drought, most varieties withstand frost from -25 ° C to -30 ° C.
Did you know? Burnt apricot kernels are a component for the production of organic mascara.
Apricot varieties for the middle strip
The climatic zone of the middle zone includes about 2 dozen regions of the central European part of Russia, the Middle Volga region and some regions bordering them. The climate is temperate with snowy, mild winters and long summers.
The best varieties recommended for cultivation in the middle lane:
- Iceberg. Early ripening and fruiting (at 3 years). Saturated orange fruits are covered with a red blush, the surface is medium pubescent, weight up to 20 g. The taste is sweet and sour, the flesh of a mealy structure. The variety is universal in application, frost-resistant, rarely attacked by aphids and defeated by claustosporiosis;
- Aquarius. Vigorous variety, fruiting from the 3rd year after planting. Fruits are yellow-orange up to 25 g, round. The flesh is sweet and sour, aromatic and juicy. Apply fresh and in processing. The variety is resistant to frost and major diseases, aphids are rarely exposed;
- Kuibyshevsky anniversary. The tree begins to bear fruit in the 4th year after planting. Fruits weighing up to 22 g are round, orange in color. The variety is suitable for the production of dried apricots: the pulp is easily separated from the bone. The taste is pleasant, sweet with sourness. It is immune to moniliosis, resistant to cold;
- Orlovchanin. Fruit bearing variety in the 3rd year of life. Apricot rounded oval, large up to 33 g, yellow, with mealy sweet flesh. The fruit is easily divided into two halves, departs from the bone. Frost resistance is high, resistant to klyasterosporioz. Orlovchanin is partially self-fertile;
- Amber of the Volga region. Fruiting occurs on the 3-4th year after planting. The tree is medium-sized, characterized by average ripening. Fruits are yellow in color, weighing up to 22 g. The pulp is dense, sour-sweet and juicy. It is medium resistant to moniliosis and moth, highly resistant to low temperatures.
Despite the grafted frost resistance of most of the cultivated varieties, young trees and annual seedlings are not as tenacious as adult trees, and they can not tolerate winter. Therefore, in the autumn, gardeners do not risk planting apricot in the middle lane.
Landing in the spring, before the sap flow begins, is more acceptable. It should be noted that the culture wakes up early, so the planting time is limited, approximately 2 weeks in late April. During this period, the snow has already melted, the earth managed to warm up to a temperature that is comfortable for the seedling.
Site selection and soil preparation
The landing site should ideally have shelter from gusts of wind and be lit as much as possible most of the day. The best place is on the site in a southerly direction, with a deep occurrence of groundwater. Lowlands where moisture and dampness, cold air accumulate are not suitable.
Important! You can not plant a crop in a place where other stone fruit trees grew: they can have only diseases and pests.
In order not to be late with a landing in April, a pit for a tree is prepared in the fall:
- Dimensions 0.8 × 0.8 m.
- A drainage layer of about 10-15 cm is laid at the bottom.
- Strengthen the peg for support, above the edge of the pit the stake should rise one meter.
- The extracted soil is mixed with peat in equal parts. He will give friability to soil.
- Acidity can be brought to neutral by adding 1.5–2 kg of wood ash to the soil; it will also serve as a source of potassium.
- For better fertility, 500 g of superphosphate is also added here.
Choosing a quality seedling
Buying planting material is better from trusted sellers, nurseries or horticultural farms. Criterias of choice:
- age - a year or two;
- the absence of thorns, only a spike at the site of vaccination;
- thick and flexible branches;
- at least 3 root branches;
- root shoots are flexible and elastic, without growths and spots;
- the presence of fibrous roots in the root system.
Apricot planting scheme
A seedling is dipped in a clay mash to moisten the roots. Clay is preferably diluted 1: 1 with rotted manure. Further sequence of actions:
- In the pit prepared since the fall, the soil had to sag, so it was necessary to supplement it, with a slide above the surface.
- On this hill, about 1.5 m in diameter and 30–40 cm high, they have a seedling.
- The roots fall asleep, gently tamping the soil so that air voids do not form.
- Fertilizers do not need to be added, enough laid in the fall.
- The seedling growth point remains above the soil surface, approximately 2 cm.
- The seedling is tied to a peg, forming a loop of soft rope in the form of an eight.
- Watering, spending 2-3 buckets of water.
Caring for a tree in the middle lane
The fruit tree is looked after throughout the season from spring to winter. Culture needs high-quality watering, top dressing, and the cleanliness of the trunk circle.Be sure to regularly prune the branches so that the crown does not thicken and is evenly lit by the sun.
Watering and fertilizer
The first 2-3 years after planting, an important role is played by irrigation, which helps to build up the root system. For high-quality irrigation, a roller is formed in the near-stem circle with the sides holding the liquid.
Important! For the winter, the sides are smoothed so that in the spring meltwater does not accumulate and does not cause hypothermia and decay of the roots.
Spring watering depends on the amount of snow in winter: if there was little rainfall, the frequency of watering increases. Watering is carried out with warm water (air temperature) in the morning or evening. If there is no rain in the summer or there are not enough for normal soil moisture, watering is carried out in May and June. If there is enough rainfall, then after spring watering the next irrigation procedure is needed in August. Depending on the age of the tree, from 3 to 5 buckets of water are consumed.
Before the kidneys wake up, they carry out preventive feeding of the soil with urea, introducing it into the soil of 40 g / m². This saturates the soil with nitrogen and destroys the existing pathogens. Starting from the flowering process, the tree is fed twice with potassium, with an interval of 2-3 weeks:
- root method up to 40 g / m² of soil;
- spraying on a sheet with water infusion of wood ash per 10 l / 200 g
Cropping and shaping the crown
In the spring, the branches are inspected annually and damaged, frozen specimens are removed. In the spring, before the movement of juices begins, the formation of the crown is carried out. To do this, leave strong skeletal branches, removing weak and growing inward crowns.
In summer, the shape of the crown can be corrected by trimming by one third of the length, shoots that have strongly broken out of the general shape, and remove the broken ones. It will not be superfluous to thin out the crown inside to facilitate subsequent harvesting. With a large load on the branch, part of the fruit ovaries is removed so that the abundance of the crop does not break it.
After harvesting the fruit, the tree is inspected once more, broken shoots, unpromising branches are cut.
In the fall, fallen leaves and other plant debris are removed, and urea 30 g / m² is introduced into the soil in the near-stem circle to kill the pest larvae. Young trees need warming. To do this, the trunk is tied with spruce branches and covering agromaterial. They also cover the trunk circle so that the roots do not freeze.
Video: how to warm a young tree for the winter
Protection against diseases and parasites
Growing in compliance with the rules of planting and quality care reduces the risk of tree damage by ailments and insects. ABOUThowever, it will not be superfluous to get acquainted with the methods of combating both misfortunes:
- Brown spotting. Necrotic dark spots form on the shoots, foliage dries and falls, fruit ovaries also fly around. For prevention in the spring, trees are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid 1%. As a treatment, spraying with the drug "Khom" 40 g / 10 l of water is used.
- Macrosporious Spotting dangerous for fruits: they soften and become stained. To combat the disease, the methods described above are suitable.
- Powdery mildew strikes white shoots and foliage, destroying young seedlings and adult trees. You can fight it by spraying apricot with a solution based on the drug "Skor" 5 ml / 10 l of water.
- Galitsa and its larvae destroy the kidneys. The Karate preparation proved to be effective against an insect. A spray solution is prepared in a proportion of 0.2 ml / 1 liter of water.
- Butterfly leaflet and its caterpillar nibbling foliage and flower ovaries. They get rid of the insect with the help of the Inta-Vir insecticide, and dilute 1 tablet in 10 liters of water.
- Fruit moth with offspring destroys the color of the plant and fruit ovaries. Arrivo is used against the pest, a solution is prepared in a proportion of 1.5 ml / 10 l of water.
Harvesting and storage
The fruits are harvested in dry weather, during the day, so that they dry out from the dew that fell at night. Wet fruits are not stored. For consumption now, completely ripe fruits are picked, for storage the fruits must be in technical ripeness. They are still solid at this stage, which will preserve their integrity during transportation and extend the shelf life.
Did you know? Armenian folk instruments are made from apricot wood: shvi, zurna, duduk.
Ripe fruits are stored no more than 2-3 days, technically ripe up to 2 weeks at a temperature of + 10 ... + 15 ° C, humidity not higher than 70%. For such storage, the fruits are laid out in a thin layer in wooden boxes, laying parchment on the bottom. It is advisable that the fruits do not touch each other.Apricot can be frozen, dried or wilted for the winter.
In the refrigerator, ripe fruits are stored for up to a month at a temperature of 0 ° C. It is advisable to wrap the fruits in parchment.
Apricot in the middle lane is not difficult to grow: zoned varieties have good immunity and adapt well to the local climate.Timely care and prevention of possible difficulties is the key to a large and tasty crop.