Description and characteristics of apricot Manchurian
Among the varieties of apricots stands out for its longevity, high immunity and decorativeness Manchurian. Read more about this variety, as well as the rules for its cultivation, read below.
Manchurian apricot refers to ancient wild plants. Distributed in northeastern China, in the north of Korea, and throughout the Black Sea coast from Lake Hankey to Vladivostok. In the north, the area of its growth coincided with the Daursky (Siberian) apricot. The variety has been in culture since 1900. It is very rare today, so it is listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation.
Based on the Manchurian apricot, the majority of Siberian varieties with high winter hardiness were bred.
Description and characteristics of the culture
Apricot Manchurian is an ornamental trees and shrubs. In height, plants can reach 10–15 m. Crohn’s openwork, sprawling, dense. The trunk of young specimens is light brown. With age, it becomes darker, and is covered with deep furrows. The root system is powerful, branched, goes deep underground. It develops throughout the entire life cycle. Previously, culture was often used to strengthen the slopes, the coastline.
Did you know? Apricot was actively used as a culinary ingredient and for cosmetic purposes to improve skin condition and rejuvenation, even in Ancient Egypt.
Decorative plants provide large foliage, which changes color seasonally and remains on the tree until mid-November. Leaf buds bloom after flowering. The leaf plates are oval in shape, their edges are serrated. They are painted bright green on the outside, and dark green on the inside. As autumn approaches, they turn yellow-red. Foliage begins to fall after the advent of frost.
Drought tolerance, winter hardiness
Manchurian apricot is a heat-resistant plant. Able to grow on rocky soil, rocky cliffs in arid conditions. The plant also tolerates a decrease in temperature. Feels normal at -30 ° C.
Culture is self-fertile. It copes with pollen itself and other varieties.
Flowering period and ripening period
Depending on climatic conditions, flowering begins in April - May. This phase of vegetation lasts 12 days. The fruits ripen in late July - early August.
The culture begins to bear fruit at 4-5 years. Productivity increases over the years and can be up to 60 kg per plant. The life cycle of the apricot variety in question lasts over 100 years. Unlike many other varieties, growth and fruiting are maintained throughout the entire life cycle.
The fruits are small, weighing 15–20 g. The peel is yellow-orange, pubescent, dense in structure. The pulp is bright yellow, dry, fleshy, exudes a strong honey aroma. The bone is easily separated from the pulp. The taste is sweet and sour, rather unusual, but not everyone likes it. Most often, apricots of this variety are used in various processing. Due to the peculiarities of the structure of the peel and low juiciness, the fruits perfectly tolerate transportation.
Disease and pest resistance
The variety is highly immune to diseases. The main enemies of the culture are insect pests. Damage by verticillosis or spotting during cultivation in a climatic zone with a high level of annual precipitation is also possible.
Advantages and disadvantages of the apricot variety
To establish your work on the site and grow a beautiful healthy tree, you need to consider all the pros and cons of the variety.This information also makes it possible to correct care errors on time.
- The main advantages of Manchurian apricot varieties:
- high productivity;
- decorative plants;
- excellent tolerance of drought and frost;
- the possibility of using culture to strengthen rocky areas;
- long life cycle with the ability to bear fruit;
- high transportability of fruits.
- Of the minuses, it can be noted:
- not too outstanding flavoring characteristics of the crop;
- susceptibility to damage by fungal diseases during cultivation in regions with high humidity.
One of the most important events during the cultivation of Manchurian apricot is the organization of planting. This stage involves the implementation of a number of works.
Did you know? Apricot has a pronounced neurotropic effect on the brain centers, which significantly increases efficiency and reduces fatigue.
Planting is best done before the kidney swells, around mid-April. In the northern regions, landing can be carried out at the beginning - end of May. Autumn planting is not practiced for this variety. Six months before the landing, they begin to prepare the site.
Choosing the most suitable place
The landing area should be open, sunny. In terms of soil quality, the crop is not demanding, but will develop better on loose loam. More attention should be paid to the location of groundwater. The further they are, the less the plant will hurt. The minimum permissible distance to groundwater is 2 m. For the same reason, it is not necessary to have planting in the lowlands.
Video: Apricot Planting Instructions
Preparation of the site for spring planting should begin in the fall. To begin with, the area should be cleared of stones and vegetation. After this, deep cultivation (40 cm) is carried out and the soil is shed with a solution of copper sulfate of 3% concentration. After 1-2 weeks, under digging to a depth of 20 cm, 10 kg of rotted manure and humus + 600 g of wood ash are applied to each m². In the spring, after the snow melts, they dig again to a depth of 30 cm, with a preliminary application of 20 kg of compost and 10 kg of sand for each m².
What crops can and cannot be planted next to apricot
Manchurian apricot tolerates the neighborhood with any other varieties. Next to it should not be planted:
- apple trees;
- red rowan.
Important! Manchurian apricot is an individualist plant. It does not accept the close proximity to other tree or shrub forms next to it, so the distance from it to another crop should be at least 7-10 m.
Selection and preparation of planting material
Manchurian apricot seedlings can only be found in special nurseries. Planting material is selected according to the following criteria:
- Age - 1-2 years.
- The quality of the rhizome - should be well-branched, dense structure, without signs of rot and dryness, at least 25 cm long. The color of the root is uniform gray.
- The appearance of the ground part is an upright trunk, with evenly colored bark and several branches evenly spaced around it. Height from 1 to 1.5 m.
- Root neck - nurseries offer only grafted seedlings. The root neck is located at a distance of 5 cm from the central root; it looks like a slight bend with a healed wound from a rootstock cut.
Immediately before planting, the rhizome of the seedling is washed with clean water. Then update all the tips by trimming to a white cloth. After that, for a day or hours for 12 soaked in a solution of "Kornevin." To 1 liter of water add 1 tsp. powder.
Landing is carried out as follows:
- Dig a hole 50 cm deep.
- The topsoil (approximately 20 cm) is mixed with 20 kg of compost and 20 g of superphosphate.
- The pit is filled with a nutrient substrate by a third, then in its central part a cone is formed on which the roots are located.
- Alignment is carried out on the root neck so that it rises 5 cm above the soil level after filling the hole.
- Sprinkle the roots with soil, compact it around the trunk, and pour 20 liters of water.
Further crop care
Culture is completely undemanding in care. The main attention she needs to be paid in the first years after planting. Throughout the warm season after planting, watering should be carried out once a week, bringing from 5 to 10 liters of water under the plant. From the second year of life, humidification is carried out only in the arid time, when the soil under the tree begins to dry out. Water is poured into the trunk circle until it continues to be absorbed.
After each watering, it is necessary to loosen the trunk circle, and then mulch it with compost. Fertilizers begin to be applied from 2 years of life of the plant on the site:
- in the spring, 5 l of liquid mullein is added to 20 liters of water in the spring and poured under the root, or rotted manure is added to a depth of 5 cm in the trunk circle;
- in the autumn, superphosphates are added at a digging rate of 30 g to a depth of 10 cm, and every 4 years, this top dressing is replaced with 400 g of dolomite flour or 600 g of wood ash (this amount is enough to fertilize 1 m²).
Sanitary pruning is the most important event in the life of a plant. Every year, in the spring and autumn, all branches growing below 50 cm from the soil level, those that are directed inside the crown, and dried out (in adult specimens) are removed from the tree. The main conductor stop at a convenient height. To do this, it is simply cut into a ring at the junction with the nearest side branch. With this approach, tree growth will stop at the height required by the user. Forming pruning is not required for this apricot variety.
Important! After each pruning, it is imperative to dust the sections with activated charcoal and cover with garden varieties.
Types of propagation of decorative apricot
Despite the fact that the culture is listed in the Red Book, it is quite easily and quickly propagated using seeds or cuttings. Moreover, the most interesting thing is that even when planting seeds, all parental qualities are completely preserved.
If possible, the seeds can be collected independently or ordered in the nursery. Usually they are packaged in 10-20 pieces. in a bag. They retain the ability to germinate for 2 years from the time of collection. Before planting, they are soaked in water for about a day. Then the pop-ups are rejected, and those who have settled to the bottom are placed in a sand pot. Seed is kept at a temperature of 0 ° C in a dark room for 3 months.
Video: How to plant Manchurian apricot from seed
After that, planted in a greenhouse or in separate pots. If pots are used, it is best to take self-decomposing peat immediately. Sow seeds to a depth of 1 cm. The soil for seeds is prepared loose, nutritious. To do this, peat, compost, sludge are mixed in equal proportions and 20% of the total mass of wood ash is added. Landing at a permanent place is carried out when the plants reach 2-3 years of age.
Cuttings harvested in the spring. Well-developed, with matured wood, and at least 3 kidneys are selected. After trimming for 24 hours, the cuttings are kept in the Kornevina solution (1 tsp / 1 l of water). Then they are transferred to clean water and waiting for the germination of the roots. Change the water in the vessel every 3 days, adding 0.5–1 tablets of activated carbon and 1 drop of hydrogen peroxide. When the stalk gives roots, plant in a peat pot. Already in the spring, the seedling can be planted in open ground.
Also, cuttings can be grafted onto other varieties of apricots. It is best to choose varieties zoned in a particular region for this. So, immediately after the soaking procedure in Kornevin, the cuttings are not left for germination of roots in water, but are grafted onto another plant.
For this, the end of the stock is made sharp.On a scion at a height of 5–7 cm from the soil level, an incision is made in such a shape that the cut end of the handle fits freely into it. Then the rootstock is inserted into the scion, everything is sealed with a garden var, and then tightly wrapped with electrical tape. After a month, it will be possible to carefully remove the electrical tape and check the result of work.
Diseases and Pests
Of the diseases, the culture in question is most often affected. spotting and verticillosis. To combat the first, you can use a solution of wood ash with the addition of "Fundazole". In 10 liters of water you need to dilute 1 kg of ash, boil for 20 minutes. Then cool and add 30 g of “Fundazole”. After this, add 10 liters of water, spray on the sheet and soil. This solution can be used for prevention and treatment. To combat verticillosis use the drug "Hom". Bred according to the instructions.
Of the pests for apricot Manchurian dangerous:
- cherry elephant - a solution of manganese will help to etch it (1 g of substance is added to 100 ml of water);
- aphid - prevent the spread of this pest by spraying on a sheet and soil with a solution of copper sulfate 1% concentration;
- spider mite - the drug “Regent” will help get rid of it (dilute according to the instructions).
As a prophylaxis throughout the season after each rain, dusting with wood ash can be carried out on the leaf and soil. Otherwise, the most effective measures to prevent the development of diseases and the spread of pests is to comply with the care rules described above.
Did you know? Fresh apricot pulp has a pronounced wound healing effect - doctors from many countries have used this property in the treatment of suppurating ulcers since ancient times.
Manchu apricot is an ancient culture listed in the Red Book. It combines the qualities of an ornamental plant and fruit culture. It adapts perfectly to any climate conditions, and can grow even on rocky ground.