The main rules for growing peach varieties White Swan
Juicy sweet peaches are considered southern fruits. Varieties that have been successfully grown not only in the southern regions, but also in temperate climates are now bred. This kind of peach is the White Swan.
The history of the origin of the White Swan peach
This variety was bred even during the USSR in the Nikitsky Botanical Garden and confirmed its characteristics. Despite its origin in the southern region, it has established itself well when grown throughout Ukraine and in central Russia. It has another name - White Lebedeva.
Did you know? Peaches are thought to come from China. There they are considered a symbol of longevity.
Peach White Swan ripens in mid-late (by mid-late August). It will grow as a medium-sized tree with a spreading crown in the shape of a ball. The fruits are medium in size and weigh about 150–200 g. The skin is yellowish, light with a slight blush (not always). The flesh is creamy or light yellow, loose, juicy and fibrous, with a characteristic peach fragrant aroma. She has a great taste when fully ripened - dessert, without sourness.
Drought and frost resistance
The white swan tolerates drought. Frost resistance is at a very decent level - up to -25 ° C. This peach can survive frosts down to -30 ° C, subject to protective measures. This allows you to grow it in the middle zone of the Russian Federation, but not north. Flower buds can tolerate freezing frost.
The variety is self-fertile, which means that it does not require pollinators. It can be planted on the site in a single copy.
Productivity and fruiting
This peach begins to harvest from the 4th year of life. Fruits annually. It is a high-yielding variety - up to 60 kg per tree. High productivity lasts 10 years.
Peach resistance to diseases and pests
This peach is moderately resistant to claustosporiosis and powdery mildew, but prone to bactericidal diseases. Struck by pests.
The main advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Peach variety White Swan attracts with the following characteristics:
- drought tolerance and quite decent winter hardiness;
- ability to tolerate spring frosts well;
- sweet tasty fruits;
- stable and high yields;
- resistance to fungal diseases;
- early maturity;
- It has the following disadvantages:
- poor transportability;
- requires shelter at winter temperatures below -25 ° C.
Did you know? The main industrial cultivation of peach is concentrated between 45 ° north and 30 ° south latitude. The undisputed leader in the production of peaches is China.
Features of landing at home
White Swan peach seedlings must be selected and planted correctly.
Recommended Landing Times
To plant a peach is allowed in spring and autumn. It should be noted that the spring planting is carried out before the buds open, and the autumn planting is a few weeks before the frost, so that normal rooting occurs.
Choosing the right place to land
The place for the peach should be well lit by the sun and be protected from the north winds. A place near the south wall or the slope of the south direction is well suited. Lowlands where cold air and damp accumulate, the proximity of groundwater should be avoided. The latter should be no closer than 1.5 m to the surface of the earth.
Do not plant a peach immediately after stone fruit. There should be no other mature trees near the planting site, otherwise the peach seedling will be oppressed by them. The site after melons, solanaceous plants or strawberries will not work.A peach can be planted in such a place no earlier than 3 years to avoid verticillosis.
Important! Peach prefers neutral or slightly alkaline soils, and the optimum acidity for them is 6.7–7.0 pH. Sour soils lime, but do it in advance.
Selection and preparation of planting material
You should buy a varietal peach in a nursery or from reliable sellers. Inexperienced gardeners should focus on a two-year-old seedling with a developed root system. They are usually not less than 1.2–1.5 m high and have several branches. The bark should be smooth.The purchase of a seedling with damage, cracks, growths or signs of disease should be discarded. The roots should be moist, light on the cut. The selected seedling should be carefully transported and soaked 1-2 days before planting. It should be immersed in water not only roots. In water, you can add a stimulant.
Step-by-step landing technology
Landing pit prepared in advance. For spring planting, it is best to prepare it in the fall, and for autumn planting - at least 1 month in advance. It is made with a diameter of 0.8–1 m and a depth of 50–70 cm. In a dense clay soil at the bottom, a layer of crushed stone is made for drainage, and sand is added to the soil.
It is also recommended to add organic matter (2 buckets of humus), potassium-phosphorus fertilizers and ash (a pound) to the ground. As mineral fertilizers, you can take 50 g of superphosphate and potassium chloride.
Important! Young seedlings need to be especially carefully protected for the winter. The simplest thing is to wrap it in burlap and tuck it a little. You can put a cardboard box on the tree and fill it with hay.
When landing, the following steps are performed:
- A hill of prepared soil mixture is poured into the pit so that, after planting, the root neck of the seedling is slightly above ground level.
- Pour a bucket of water and establish a support.
- The seedling is placed in the center of the pit on the knoll. His roots are straightened and covered with soil, loosely ramming. There should not be voids.
- The tree is tied to a support.
- A trunk circle is formed and the landing is watered.
- It is recommended to mulch the soil.
Peach Care Rules
To get good yields, you need to provide the peach with the required care. In it, a special place belongs to protective measures.
To get a plentiful harvest, the tree needs to organize the correct watering. For 1 peach leaves 20-50 l, depending on the age of the tree. The older the tree, the more water is needed. The soil should be moistened to a depth of 0.6 m.
Mandatory watering is carried out about 4 times per season:
- at the end of May;
- at the end of June;
- in the middle of July;
- in the autumn, to prepare for the wintering, they make abundant moisture - about 8-10 buckets per 1 m².
Humidification is carried out in the morning or in the evening. Humidification mode is weather dependent. To obtain larger fruits, you need to irrigate 21–28 days before picking peaches. Then, hydration is stopped before the fruits are picked so that they are not too watery.
Top dressing (fertilizer)
To obtain a high yield, it is necessary to feed every year. For this purpose, organics and mineral fertilizers are used. If the soil is sufficiently nutritious, then fertilizing is carried out 1 time in 2-3 years.
For peach, it is recommended to carry out the following dressings:
- Spring. Before sap flow, foliar top dressing is carried out using a 7% urea solution. This procedure will not only give the tree the nitrogen it needs, but it will also be an excellent prevention of pests and various infections. After sap flow, if time for foliar top dressing is missed, nutrients are added when digging the soil around the trunk at the rate of 50 g of urea and 70 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 m². As peach grows, the fertilizer application rate is increased by 16–20 g for each component.
- Summer. It is good to do foliar top dressing. For this purpose, you can prepare a solution based on 10 g of water 40 g of urea, 100 g of superphosphate, 50 g of potassium chloride, 70 g of ammonium sulfate, 10 g of borax and 15 g of manganese.This composition is used until the fruit ripens. During the pouring of peaches, to add sugar content, for foliar top dressing, potassium sulfate is used at the rate of 30 g per 10 l of water.
- Fall. During the digging of the soil around the trees, 50 g of calcium chloride and 45 g of superphosphate are added per 1 m².
Diseases and pests of this variety
In violation of agricultural technology or adverse conditions, a peach can be affected by various diseases.
The main ones are:
- Kleasterosporiosis. This fungal disease is detected by brownish spots with a red border on the leaves, which gradually dry and fall off. In place of such spots, voids form over time. To eliminate this disease in the early spring, copper chloride is treated, and before flowering, they are looked for with Topsin M or Horus preparations.
- Leaf curl. This disease provokes heavy rainfall in the spring. In this case, the leaves are deformed and swellings of a light gray color appear on them. Over time, such swellings increase, and the leaves become brown. Shoots turn yellow and become crooked, the tree slows down growth and development. To combat curliness, trees are treated with "Meteor" or copper chloride.
- Powdery mildew. The disease manifests itself in the form of a whitish powdery coating on the foliage. Against powdery mildew, chemical preparations “Skor”, “Topaz”, and “Topsin M” are used. Processing is carried out at the last stage of flowering.
- Moniliosis. In this case, the stems and branches begin to dry and die, and dark spots appear on the fruits, which grow over time. The fruits begin to rot and dry. In this case, to eliminate the problem, chemical preparations “Chorus”, “Topaz”, “Topsin” are used.
Peach can be invaded by the following pests:
- Moth. These small sized butterflies do egg laying. Emerging caterpillars begin to eat foliage and young shoots. To eliminate the pest, spraying is carried out at least 3 times with an interval of 2 weeks with insecticidal preparations such as “Chlorofos” and “Karbofos”.
- Aphid. This small pest eats the sap of the plant, which greatly weakens the tree. Aphids provoke the appearance of some fungal and viral diseases. To eliminate the pest, they are treated with Actellic and Karbofos.
- Shield. You can detect the pest by red blotches on the tree. Pests parasitize on shoots, branches, bark. As a result of their destructive activity, cracking of the bark occurs, the shoots dry out, and the fruits become small and deformed. To control pests, chemicals like "Aktara", "Inta-vir", "Aktellik", "Bankol" are used. With a mild defeat, you can use alternative methods of struggle - spraying with tincture of pepper, onion or garlic.
- Striped moth. The larvae of this pest (caterpillar) feed on young shoots, leaves, and buds. Against such an insect, in the early spring, before budding, the chemical preparations “Chlorofos” or “Karbofos” are treated.
Of course, it is best to prevent the appearance of diseases and pests.
Important! 20 days before picking peaches, all chemical treatments should be discontinued or alternative methods should be used.
To do this, apply the following preventive measures:
- dig the soil under the tree for the winter;
- to clean and burn fallen leaves, fruits and other plant debris;
- carry out loosening and weeding with weed removal;
- carry out the removal of exfoliated bark, treat the damaged area;
- to whitewash a tree for winter and spring;
- place the cuts with garden varnish;
- do preventive spraying with Bordeaux mixture at the beginning of the season and before wintering;
- inspect peach regularly to identify problems.
Features of harvesting and storage rules
Harvest of White Swan peaches can be harvested in the first half of August. Since the fruits are very juicy and have a soft flesh, they do not tolerate transportation. These sweet-tasting fruits are pleasant to consume fresh.Peaches are also suitable for processing. They make excellent jam, jam and compote, pastille. Peaches should be stored in the refrigerator or other cool place. They can be frozen. Optimum storage conditions are 0ºC and high humidity.
Did you know? The ancient Greeks knew peach in the 4th century BC. He came to them from Persia, therefore he was called the "Persian apple."
Peach White Swan has good frost resistance and, subject to shelter for the winter, can be grown in the middle zone of the Russian Federation. It is self-fertile and high-yielding, resistant to drought, spring return frosts, and yields delicious sweet fruits. When leaving, protective and preventive measures should not be neglected.