Features of growing and characterization of apricot variety Honey
Delicious sweet apricots in the south can grow without much effort on the part of the gardener. Some varieties are excellent fruiting in cool climates. One of them is the Honey variety, which well perceives even the climatic conditions of the Urals. About the features of Honey read further in the article.
Description apricot varieties Honey
The variety was bred at the GNU South Ural Research Institute of Horticulture and Potato. It was received relatively recently - in 1996, by a group of breeders led by K. Mullayanov. The parent variety is Kichiginsky apricot, pollinated with pollen from other varieties.
Did you know? The issue of the origin of the apricot is controversial. The most common version says that the tree comes from Armenia. Since there are sources with the earliest references to it.
Honey is characterized by medium growth power. The height of the tree is up to 4 m. The crown is quite sprawling. The radius is about 4 m. “Composed” of medium-length shoots, straight, reddish-brown. Leaves are rounded, smooth with a matte surface, finely serrated, light green.
Apricots - medium, round, weighing about 15 g. The peel is golden in color, with a slight pubescence. There is no blush, but there are small reddish subcutaneous dots. Pulp - dense, medium juiciness. It tastes sweet, without sourness or bitterness. The bone is easily detachable. Tasting evaluation of fruits - 4.3 points out of 5.
The tree tolerates various climatic conditions. It is considered resistant to excessive moisture. It is characterized by mid-season and good productivity. The fruits of Honey are universal. They are tasty both fresh and canned.
Disease and pest resistance
At the moment, the variety is not declared in the State Register. Therefore, there is no confirmed data on its resistance to diseases and pests. It is recommended to focus on the main pests in your region and take preventive measures to protect the tree. Apricot is usually treated with a 3% solution of Bordeaux fluid until the buds open.
Drought and frost resistance
As for winter hardiness, the tree grows well in 7–5 zones of winter hardiness with minimum winter temperatures from -17 ...- 29 ° С. The latter value corresponds to the latitude of St. Petersburg. Suitable for growing in the Urals and in Central Russia.
Honey resistance to drought is typical for apricots. An adult tree tolerates it well thanks to its branched root system. If there is no watering, then the tree can also grow. But the lack of moisture affects fruiting. The crop is getting smaller, and the fruits are getting smaller.
Timing of flowering and ripening
Honey - a variety of medium ripening, universal purpose. Its fruits ripen in late July or early August. Sapling starts fruiting quite early - 4 years after planting.
Important! If the weather is cool, the ripening process is delayed. Therefore, indicating the dates, for the variety they write two months, for example, July-August.
Productivity and Transportability
The average yield from a tree is 15–20 kg. It grows gradually, as the tree grows and reaches a maximum of 8-10 years. Fruits apricot for 20 years. But this parameter depends on the conditions of its growth, diseases and soil quality.The seedling must be protected from the north wind - it affects the number of years of fruitfulness.
The fruits of the Honey variety are golden-orange in color, roundish, not too soft and not too hard. They are perfect for fresh consumption, drying and winter preparations.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The variety is self-fertile. This is not a drawback, but its feature. For pollination, you will need either the parental variety Kichiginsky or apricot with the same flowering period - at the end of April. Also, a tall tree needs to form a crown in order to facilitate harvesting.
- Grade advantages:
- early bearing - 4 years after planting;
- high frost resistance;
- good regeneration;
- stable yield;
- fruit resistance to damage during transportation.
Did you know? In 100 grams of fruits, only 48 calories. Therefore, apricot is considered a low-calorie product and is used in diets for weight loss.
Agrotechnics of cultivation and care
The survival of the seedling depends on the characteristics of the climate, soil and the quality of the planting material itself. It is advisable to plant an annual seedling for planting.
When choosing, pay attention to the following features:
- the root system must be developed and intact;
- the trunk is even, saturated brown;
- branches are evenly distributed around the trunk;
- the kidneys are closed.
It is advisable to purchase seedlings in nurseries. There you are guaranteed to get exactly the variety that you planned to plant. Apricot can also be grown from seed, but then you will have to spend a little more time on its growth and development - about 5 years before fruiting. The root system of the seedling must be soaked in the growth stimulator for 24 hours before planting. You can use drugs "Kornevin", "Heteroauxin" or any other.
Plan to land in the spring as soon as the threat of frost has passed. In the southern regions, landing in autumn is possible. The air temperature on the day of planting should not be lower than + 5 ° C in spring and + 12 ° C in autumn. The distance between the planting pits is about 3 m. If a garden is laid, then between the rows should be about 5 m. This, in the future, will facilitate collection harvest and tree care.
Site selection and well preparation
Place Honey on a site with bright lighting for 6-8 hours a day, loamy, well-drained soil. From the north, the site should be protected from the wind by other trees or buildings. The depth of the groundwater should not be higher than 2 m. If the site is hilly - landing is carried out on the southern or western part of the slope. Loamy soils, chernozems and even rocky areas are suitable for the Honey variety.
Pits can be prepared both in autumn and spring before planting. The size of the pit is about 80 cm³. Drainage must be laid at the bottom. It can be pebbles or gravel. The layer thickness is about 20 cm. The soil from the pit is mixed with organic fertilizers: peat, humus. Organic mass - 1/3 to the volume of the material. If the soil on the site is acidified, lime is added for deoxidation in the fall, so that it can react with the soil by spring. It is not recommended to make the soil mixture too nutritious, since apricot is undemanding to the composition of the soil. And besides, when the root system grows, it will have to adapt to ordinary soil.
Did you know? Apricot is good for health. It can treat stomach upsets, constipation, earaches, fever, skin diseases, and anemia. It is necessary for heart health, due to the ability to lower blood cholesterol.
- prepare the pit;
- lay a layer of drainage;
- set a stake for tying a tree in the middle of the pit;
- pour part of the prepared soil;
- set a seedling;
- fill up the hole to half;
- make sure that the connection point of the scion and stock is above the ground at a height of at least 5 cm;
- pour 1-2 buckets of water;
- add soil, compacting it;
- check the root coverage and the distance between the scion junction and the ground.
Video: planting instructions for apricot seedlings
Watering a seedling is carried out 2-3 times a week during the first year after planting. Then it is reduced to 1 time per week. An adult tree is enough to water 1-2 times a month.Apricot is drought tolerant, therefore it tolerates the absence of irrigation. The tree is watered only in spring and summer. In the fall, water is stopped to allow the tree to prepare for winter.
If fertilizers are applied during planting, then during growth and before fruiting the seedling can not be fertilized. For 4 years of development, in the spring contribute 40 g of urea, diluted in a bucket of water. Then in the summer, 3-4 kg of humus is introduced in the form of an aqueous solution into the trunk circle. At the end of August, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are introduced into the soil. A feature of phosphorus is that these fertilizers are not fully absorbed. The degree of assimilation of phosphorus compounds by a tree does not exceed 15%. Therefore, it should decompose and gradually saturate the soil.
Important! Pay attention to the strength of growth before fertilizing. If the growth is less than 20 cm, then the apricot needs to be fed. With normal growth, do not feed or add only half of the recommended dose.
Pest and Disease Control
The variety shows good resistance to disease. However, like all fruit trees, he is not completely immune from them.
The main diseases:
- Monilial burn It looks like leaves are scorched by fire. On fruits, the action of the pathogen fungus manifests itself in the form of putrefactive brown spots with white concentric plaque. For the prevention of all fungal diseases, spring treatment with copper-containing preparations is important: Bordeaux liquid 3% or a solution of copper sulfate 1%. For treatment use "Chorus", "Skor", "Strobe". They can also be sprayed with “bare tree” in winter and in spring after flowering.
- Kleasterosporiosis (holey spotting) is also a disease of fungal nature. Its characteristic feature is round holes on the leaves and brown spots. The treatment is the same as for diseases of this group.
- Brown spotting hits the leaves. They form yellow spots that darken. Leaves are deformed and fall off. Treatment - spraying with copper preparations.
- Cytosporosis affects the bark. Thickenings (whitish tubercles) appear on it. It is recommended to clean such a bark, treat the surface with 0.5% copper sulfate, and then cover it with garden varnish.
- Bacterial cancer appears for various reasons. It is characterized by breaks in the cortex, and it itself becomes black. Affected branches are cut and burned. The place of cut is treated with copper sulfate and covered with garden var.
- Gummosis, also a common disease. It appears in the form of drips of gum on the trunk and fruits. It must be carefully cut, and the slices treated with copper sulfate and garden var.
Did you know? In the 17th century, apricot oil was used to treat tumors and ulcers. Nowadays, this information is scientifically confirmed.
Preparing landings for winter
Autumn completes the growing season. At this time, the leaves are raked and destroyed in the garden, weeds are removed and a deep digging of the soil is carried out. All these measures help reduce the number of wintering pests and pathogens.
- Inspect the tree, remove dried branches and rotten or mummified fruits.
- Spray the crown and the trunk with a 3% solution of Bordeaux fluid.
- Lower branches and trunk lime.This measure will help prevent cracking of the crust in the winter when the temperature changes during the day and night.
- If the tree had a near-trunk circle in the form of a hole, then it is leveled to prevent stagnation of water near the trunk in the fall.
- The soil in this zone is covered with mulch. It will serve as an insulating layer between the roots in the ground and the frosty air. The layer thickness is about 5 cm.
- Some gardeners recommend trunks of young trees to insulate in order to exclude freezing. To do this, use a special covering fabric.
- If there is a risk of damage to the trees by rodents, then a grid is installed around the young apricot. She will protect from hares and mice.
Harvesting and storage
In the stage of technical maturity, all apricots are green. As they mature, they acquire a golden color and become softer. The fruits have a bright, sweet aroma. If you are not sure about the ripeness, then you can always taste them before the collection.The peculiarity of the fruits is that they can ripen after removal from the tree. Therefore, it is widely practiced picking fruit in a half-ripe state. It is convenient for transportation and their further sale. Plan your harvest when 30% of the crop is ripe. Hold the event in dry weather, in the afternoon, when the heat subsides.
You can store apricots in the refrigerator for up to 2 months. They are well stored in the basement for a month, provided that it is dry and cool enough. You can freeze part of the crop for later winter use or use them in dried form. When choosing a cultivar for cultivation, consider planting Honey on your site. It is unpretentious, hardy and has a number of other positive qualities. Applying simple rules for the care of the variety, you will get a stable harvest of delicious fruits. In winter, apricots will strengthen immunity and increase the vitamin value of your diet.